Man bitten by a poisonous snake, it is best to hand specialists, not to harm self, says a leading herpetologist Moscow Zoo, Doctor of Veterinary Science Dmitry Vasilyev.
In the Moscow region is found only two species of snakes — grass snake and adder, of which only a viper is dangerous to humans. According to the expert, the bite of a poisonous snake can be easily distinguished from all other bites — with them instantly, edema, there is severe pain and burning sensation that spreads along the bitten limb.
The bite causes three main groups of symptoms that doctors have to fight.
First — local consequences bite: pain, swelling rapidly growing, bleeding from the bite, tissue necrosis and lymphangitis, inflammation nearby lymph nodes. Improper treatment of these symptoms can cause severe complications and increase the symptoms. For example, in any case can not impose a "turnstile" bandage (tourniquet overtighten the limb above the site of injury — Ed.), Cut the wound, put into her traumatic chemical agents such as potassium permanganate, the expert said. According to him, these symptoms are "always arise if there was a snakebite, and pass on their own, usually three days."
The second — the symptoms of general intoxication, which is actually "much more dangerous." These include severe headache, vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding from the mucous membranes, turbidity and loss of consciousness, sweating, feeling light flashing in his eyes, the rubber taste in the mouth, neurotoxic symptoms. The expert noted that, if the symptoms appeared within hours after the bite — these patients need to be treated in hospital.
The third — and most dangerous — very fast, "Hurricane" responses associated with allergies and anaphylaxis, these include angioedema and anaphylactic shock. When these reactions occur, symptoms such as a sharp drop in pressure, loss of consciousness, and swelling of the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose and throat, which develops in a few minutes.
Antihistamines for allergies
"If poisoning allergic component, we have a lot of time to get to the hospital and recover, if have these symptoms — often to ensure that help is just a few minutes. Generally, death from the bite of a viper is associated with anaphylaxis or angioedema, because its venom is not strong enough to cause the death of an adult "- Vasilyev said during an online conference hosted by RIA Novosti.
In case of allergic reaction is an urgent need to give a person an antihistamine, which include "Aerius", "Claritin", "tavegila" and others, and can be used as tablets and capsules (in the case of "Tavegilom"), the contents of which must be poured victim under the tongue for rapid resorption or intramuscularly.
There are "mechanical" measures that can be applied to the first two groups of symptoms, the expert said. Bites occur most often in the leg or arm, and the poison reaches the nearest lymph node and there is delayed. Therefore, the most important thing to keep limbs in a fixed position. It is best to "hang his hand as at the turn, at the level of the heart, but in any case it does not pinch the" tourniquet "bandage". If the bite occurred in the leg — should be easy to reach the point of treatment. Another method that will help — sucking the poison that is safe, even for a man who has sores on the lips or caries. According to Vasilyev, this is probably the best that can be done to the victim, as "poison in the blood remains unchanged up to ten days, and if it sucked — very rapidly inactivated by saliva and digestive enzymes."
In addition, as Vasilyev said, should be "excessive drinking, it is a diuretic effect like linden tea."
According to the expert, as a rule, the hospital usually is not needed for healing, but the patient is better to hand over to the experts, since it is the application of many illiterate "people's" methods, or even standard treatments such as administration of serum, can bring when used in the home great harm patient until death.
"For example, if you have stored in the refrigerator protivozmeinaya serum, and in the case of a bite one of your relatives introduced this serum, and the man died from anaphylactic shock — that the person who did this can be brought to justice. A hospital will allergy test and cause the intensive care team in case of anaphylactic effects. This is one reason why the serum is not available in pharmacies for the population ", — said Vasily.
How to save a dog
Dogs are about as sensitive to the venom viper, like people. At the same time they get a bite, usually in the nose when sniff the snake.
Most often in dogs edema and dysphagia, in which the dog can not swallow food or water. In large dogs often develop severe poisoning when the animals are, hoarse breathing and moaning at the same time they can develop heart disease, noise, and pulmonary edema.
Vasilyev said that treating dogs must necessarily take place in the hospital, thus, as a rule, the owner has five or six hours in order to deliver animal without risk of serious consequences for the pet. At the same time hunting dogs, whose bodies are genetically stronger poisoning symptoms disappear spontaneously after about 6 hours, but that does not mean that then there will be complications, such as kidney.