September 30, 2012 11:59
October 5th marks the 40th anniversary of the death of the author's most famous science fiction novel "Andromeda", "Hour of the Bull," "Razor's Edge." His name is still shrouded in mystery and myth.
In the biography of the science fiction writer and professor of paleontology Ivan Yefremov has not revealed another secret. He died on October 5, 1972, and a month later, on November 4, in his apartment KGB spent many hours of careful search. What would you like to find? It is still unknown. But there are versions, according to which the writer appears as a British spy, then an agent … other civilization.
— According to the writer's wife Taisii Ephraim, a search began in the morning and ended at midnight, spent his eleven employees of the Moscow Department of the KGB — says the historian, Ph.D., Vice Chairman of the Scientific Information and Education Centre "Memorial" Nikita Petrov. — According to the protocol, searched for "ideologically harmful literature." However, taken out of the apartment is quite another.
The list of seized old photos of Ephraim and his friends, his letters to his wife and readers, receipt, "orange tube with foreign words" mineral samples, folding cane, "Mace metal from nonferrous metal", a book about Africa, "a variety of chemicals in vials and jars, "which proved homeopathic medicines. Total — 41 item.
— The strange thing is that when looking for something KGB probed all the walls, ceilings, floors, metal detector — continues Nikita V.. — At the same direct question Thais, was accused of the writer, said, "Nothing, he was dead."
However, the search was unfortunate consequences. Suspended the five-volume edition of the collected works of a writer — not published Ephraim to mid-1970s. Even quoted it in special works on paleontology, although Ivan Antonovich was the founder of a scientific field.
During the 8 years that have passed since his death, experts second service (Intelligence) of the Moscow KGB concocted 40 volumes (!) Case against the rapid development of science fiction. On the traces of what crime investigators went?
Version 1: British intelligence
— It is true that there were rumors that it would Efremov — a spy?
— Gebisty thought Ivan Antonovich, at least, is not the man for whom she claims — says Dr. Petrov. — Supposedly he is an Englishman, whom replaced the original Ephraim during the expedition to Mongolia. Or even earlier — in his youth.
Spy version, of course, flawed. Imagine: a front, thoroughly conspiratorial resident — who is also expensive. Must operate at a very high level. A Efremov "embedded" in the private, not the private Institute of Paleontology. Although before the war, he worked in geology — the industry that could be of interest to foreign intelligence. In the late 1940s, when the Soviet Union occupied the atomic bomb, and geologists are looking for uranium ore — our "British Resident" explores fossil vertebrates in the Gobi Desert. No, something is not right.
The appearance spy version can only be explained by one thing: at the end of 1960, raising the prestige of the KGB, his new chairman Yuri Andropov spawned shpionofobiyu everywhere looking for foreign agents, illegal immigrants. That Ephraim "found."
VERSION 2: VICTIM OF POISONING
— She heard one day that Ephraim was killed …
— There was such a suspicion. The fact is that during the life of Ivan Antonovich led surveillance operatives. And one of them reported to the authorities: the death of the writer came at a time when the "object" opened the letter he had received allegedly from some foreign embassies. Based on this information it was concluded, British intelligence, finding that chekist ring around its resident closed, remove it, sending a letter of Ephraim, crafted a potent poison.
But, according to the wife of Ephraim, he died in bed at night from another heart attack. And in 1989, in an official written response, the Investigation Division of the Moscow KGB confirmed that "suspicions about the possibility of violent death have not been confirmed."
Version 3: An ardent anti-Soviet
— In the novel "The Hour of the bull," the writer denigrates the communist way of life — our bright future. Maybe it was a secret anti-Soviet?
— In 1970, Ephraim, indeed, suspected of trying to metaphorically criticize Soviet reality. Even the chairman of the KGB, Yuri Andropov, September 28, 1970, in a letter to the Central Committee clearly wrote that Efremov's novel "Hour of the bull," "under the guise of criticism of the social system in a fantastic world" Thorman "slandering the Soviet reality." Secretary of the Demichev Peter, who was responsible then for the ideology and culture, and invited the writer to talk. Asked to make some changes in the text. And Ephraim agreed. The novel, in the end, from a distance. A recall of the libraries have already begun after a mysterious search.
So it was not in the "Hour of bull." And the writer of the dissident movement is not involved.
— Obviously, all three versions look dubious. Then what is the cause of the strange search? Were you able to find any evidence that would have clarified the mystery?
— Yes, I studied the documents in the case of Ephraim, in the Department of routine surveillance due to the State Security Prosecutor's Office of the USSR. But they also, surprisingly, does not clarify the mystery. January 22, 1973 — almost four months after the author died, the investigation department of the Moscow KGB opened a criminal investigation into the death of Ephraim "in connection with the cause of death and the uncertainty to verify his identity." Consequence of prolonged several times, and finally ended 7 March 1974 "for lack of a criminal act."
If the writer seriously suspected of collaborating with foreign intelligence services, in fact there would be a direct reference to this subject. There were also claimed other motives, including "identity check". Though Efremov and in fact was "not the one who claimed to be."
Among the thousands of cases of supervisory USSR Procuracy case of Ephraim — the only thing of which is unclear, for which it is instituted.
Chairman of the prose section of the Writers' Union of St. Petersburg, writer Andrew Izmailov:
"The authorities consider: ALL fiction writers — someone's agent"
— This version I heard from the late Arkady Strugatsky. According to him, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, two U.S. organizations — secret service and army institutions have been established that are seriously engaged in "flying saucers" and the ability to penetrate to the Earth aliens.
That is, that at the time told me about this Arkady Natanovich: "Our could appear similar idea — thought. — And then in Fiction idea fixe: that the leading science-fiction writers are agents of extraterrestrial civilizations. My brother and I received not one letter about alien spies. One can imagine that the newly established department of the competent authorities led an extremely romantic mood officer who believed in the absurd "science fiction are the agents." And because of Ephraim were watching. When afraid to touch life: God knows what to expect from an alien. But after learning of the death, came in hoping to find something.
I put myself in the position of a hypothetical romantic officer, and think straight: If Efremov — agent extraterrestrial civilization, then there must be some means of communication. But how to communication with civilization, years ahead of us three or four hundred, and even a good disguise it means? So take the first thing that came. Then, satisfied that the taking is not required, all back. "
And it really — it all fits: the posthumous search, metal detector, the removal of chemicals. They even tried to open the urn containing the ashes of the writer, which at that time was kept at home. And on all questioned my questioning of his wife, why not conducted an autopsy? Why cremation, contrary to custom, followed on the second day after death? And generally how long she knows her husband? As if looking for alien artifacts and anatomical differences masked stranger.
By the way, if you stick with an extraterrestrial version, and some common facts, in general, a biography of the writer can be interpreted accordingly. For example, it is currently looking podozhritelnymi its geological survey and excavation of the remains of vertebrates. Or desire for "dinosaur skulls." There was this story of Ephraim, as paleontologists have found in a burial ground lizards skull alien.
Among Fiction authority Ephraim was great for him firmly entrenched glory man who had anticipated some of the scientific discoveries. Recalled in this regard, such as holography. All this together mystified employees of which, even for a fairly innocent events have seen some "secret springs", "outside influence." In this approach, the writer could be suspicious or convenient for testing theories figure.
Developers version of "Efremov-alien" even its direct leadership could not say directly about the "extraterrestrial suspicions." And dared not trust paper. From this, perhaps, there is no direct evidence linking the writer with the aliens. And they can not be.
OPINION SON EFREMOVA
PROBABLY WAS DENUNCIATION
At the international symposium "Ivan Yefremov — scientist, thinker and writer. Looking into the third millennium. Foresight and forecasts ", held in Biocenter Sciences, the writer's son, geologist Allan Efremov, the question" and whether the accusation before the search? "Said
— Undoubtedly. But who exactly wrote, we do not know. Yes, we have some suspicion, but they are not confirmed, say, think, do not have the right.
However, a senior investigator for especially important cases of the investigation department of the KGB in the USSR in Moscow and the Moscow Region Colonel Rishat Khabibullin, to search, assured in an interview with reporters that the denunciation was not.
Physicist, researcher Paul Poluyan okolonauchnom mythology:
"Astral" Espionage was productive real "
— Ivan Yefremov was not just a writer, and a geologist and paleontologist, Professor, winner of the Stalin Prize. In addition to the excavation of dinosaurs in the Gobi Desert, he participated in the search for ore, including uranium — he knew a lot. Once published a story describing the diamond mine in Yakutia — that is revealed state secrets. Ephraim had to prove "the authorities" that the description given by inspiration — even before the first diamond found there. No leaks, and scientific prediction come true. And it is not a single insight.
Could this be the reason? Perhaps the secret services of the Soviet Union did not seem concerned about spying and the apparent mystery: the writer gets the prophetic information? For example, in "The Hellenic secret" said the strange dreams. The hero sees himself in ancient Greece and learns prescription substances, soften ivory, allowing you to create an amazing product refinement. Explanation: genetic memory — ancestral knowledge passed to descendants recorded in DNA.
Later turned into the genetic memory of Ephraim in the "noosphere." So geochemist Vernadsky called the activity of the mind. But science fiction "noosphere" identified with the fact that in Indian mythology called "Heavenly Akashic Records." It is not the genes, and some geophysical structure that records and stores information about what is happening on Earth. Perhaps with such a "data bank" and joined a writer in contact — received from the "noosphere" pictures pharaonic Egypt, Alexander the Great and Thais.
But where do is taken about the future of alien worlds and advanced sverhnauke? On this question the writer responsible in the novel "Andromeda." It says about the "Great Circle": space is full of visual information, which is sent to the distant stars are our brothers in mind. In the novel, these signals are captured satellites. But hinted to other contacts: the hero of the book during the experiment had visions extraterrestrial, she proclaims: "Offa Allie cor!" Like Efremov tells of his own experience extrasensory perception.
Mysterious words "Ally offs core" still sound like a spell, and lovers of books Ephraim priznosyat them as a secret password. But what do these words — so no one knew. Maybe find out when it's really a meeting of two space civilizations happen?
But many blamed for excessive Ephraim mysticism. To such attacks Ivan Antonovich even had to answer in an article in "Komsomolskaya Pravda" January 28, 1968: "In the second half of this century can no longer be a sign of equality between mysticism and psychic phenomena." In 1962, the corresponding member of Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Leonid Vasilev published the book "Experimental studies of mental suggestion," and in Czechoslovakia just as famous Stanislav Grof, who created the transpersonal psychology with an out of body travel.
It is clear that the security services could not be interested in such a "extrasensory": what "astral" espionage will be productive real? Perhaps this explains the intense interest of the Soviet intelligence services to the personality of the writer Ephraim …
Mystery fiction writer began with ash that buried under the strange stone polyhedron on Komarovskoe cemetery.
FROM THE FILES "KP"
What are the "predictions" of Ephraim came true?
In 1944, in "The Diamond pipe," the writer told the opening of the diamond deposits in Yakutia. In 1954, only 300 km south of the places described in the story, was first opened Yakut diamond mine — a tube of "The World."
The discovery of large deposits of mercury ore in the Southern Altai — in "The Lake of Mountain Spirits" (1943).
Holography — in "The Shadow of the past" (1945).
Feature of the behavior of liquid crystals — in the story "Fakaofo Atoll" (1944).
In the novel "Andromeda" (1955): three-dimensional television with parabolic concave screen, a geostationary satellite, which is always over one point of the earth's surface, and ekzokostyum ("bouncing skeleton"), which allows people to overcome the increased gravitational attraction.
We are sending a request to the FSB in Moscow and the Moscow region, in order to understand the true causes of the search and the criminal case initiated after the death of Ivan Yefremov.