October 27, 2011 13:02
Moon base, populated by robots, flying cars, stores human bodies and lenses with Internet access — all of this will become a reality in the next two decades, scientists predict, — says Alexey Bondarev at number 41 on the magazine reporter October 21, 2011.
Japanese-born American physicist Mitsio Kaku has long been best known as one of the authors of string theory, fundamental to the current understanding of the universe.
In 2009, Kaku appeared in a new way, to publish a book Physics of the Impossible. In this book the author presents futurist, talking about what technologies are available to humanity in the coming years and decades.
Kaku made a regular portion of forecasts, predicting the prospects of mankind for the next decade and then prompting several major debate in the scientific community.
The book became an instant bestseller, and Kaku, still a professor of physics at New York University, has become an authoritative expert, to which scientific journals began to address the forecasts.
This spring Kaku made a regular portion of forecasts, predicting the prospects of mankind for the next decade and then prompting several major debate in the scientific community. Several authoritative publications entered into polemics with Kaku, putting forward his assumptions about the development of science and technology in the foreseeable future.
Corresponding offers its readers find the most impressive of the many predictions expressed during this hot debate.
Earthquake and tsunami, it would seem, should make Japan a long time to forget about the projects the scale of civilization. However, most experts believe that it will not.
Japan at the time quickly recovered from the ravages of the Second World War and the nuclear bombings, and was soon able to become a technological leader in the world. Something similar will happen in this decade. Japan and planned lunar station will be the greatest achievement of mankind in the coming years.
Japan planned lunar station will be the greatest achievement of mankind in the coming years.
"Despite a long period of reconstruction after the devastating earthquake and tsunami, the project has already been programmed, and there is no other country in the world to be able to complete such a difficult job," — says Mike Libhold of the California Institute for the Future, which specializes in the upcoming changes.
Station construction plan and budget of this epic project was approved in the mid-2000s. The project was developed by the Scientific Council for the Exploration of the Moon, set up under the Cabinet of Ministers of Japan.
According to the project in 2020 on the south pole of the moon will be built unmanned stations operating in automatic mode and supplying electricity gathered her equipment and robots.
After the construction of the station in 2020, it will serve as the base for the robot, producing and sending to earth minerals
The station also will build robots. In 2015, the moon has to go first automatic lunar rover. Its seismographic equipment will help to make a detailed map of the internal structure of the Moon. This will identify the areas in which you can extract minerals.
After the construction of the station in 2020, it will serve as the base for the robot, producing and sending to earth minerals. The beginning of such supplies can seriously affect the economy of the planet. For example, the production of the isotope helium-3 is able to change the alignment of the nuclear power industry. Total costs for the program will be $ 2.2 billion
Japan initially intended to implement a program of lunar exploration with the U.S., but after coming to power of Barack Obama's emphasis in American science more displaced. NASA is now more focused on long-term research program on Mars.
Contact lenses online
Kaku believes that the work of Professor Babak Parviz, University of Washington, certainly deserves to be featured in the list of the most notable achievements of future mankind.
Parviz is working on a contact lens with Internet access.
Lenses can recognize faces, displaying in view important information, the automatic translation of inscriptions from foreign languages using online dictionaries and translators
These fantastic, at first glance, the devices may be feasible in 10-20 years, says Parviz. But Kaku in turn convinced they can change the way of life of modern man.
According to Parviz, the image will be formed before the eyes of a man with a translucent LED does not impede with normal vision.
Lenses can recognize faces, displaying in view important information, the automatic translation of inscriptions from foreign languages using online dictionaries and translators, such as a modern Google Translate.
London — Beijing
Experts authoritative magazine Popular Science predicted that one of the most significant technological achievements of humankind will be the construction of high-speed rail line between London and Beijing.
The road connecting Europe and Asia, crossing 17 countries, expected to appear as early as 2020, though, as the newspaper notes, the way the project can get the problems of political and economic nature.
The initiator of the project is the Chinese government. China authorities are trying to impress Europeans simple idea: Beijing and Shanghai are gradually becoming the economic centers of the world, and they just need a reliable transport links to other capitals.
The road connecting Europe and Asia, crossing 17 countries, expected to appear as early as 2020
The press immediately dubbed the project "a new Orient Express", by analogy with the once famous route Paris — Istanbul, launched in 1883, marked the unification of Western Europe with Asia Minor. In just 67 hours you can get from the heart of Europe to its outskirts.
Train London — Beijing is just as important to the civilization of the XXI century, experts say. Given modern technology and the speed of the trains, which is purpose-built roads easily reaches 400 km / h, it can be assumed that the 8,100 km between the capitals of Britain and China, the train will cover less than two days.
According to Van Mensch, curator of rail projects under the government of China, the construction of such a road will only take ten years. True, the details of the project, in particular, the exact route and a list of the countries through which pass the Orient Express XXI century, not yet known.
Organs for sale
No later than 2030 on the open market will be different parts of the human body, is convinced Kaku. No, this is not about the rampant crime and mass kidnappings for removal of organs for sale, as is the practice in some modern countries in the Third World. Kaku is referring to progress in medicine.
According to Dr. Anthony Atala of Wake Forest University, in North Carolina, today's technology allows to populate the cells taken from the patient, sponge-like plastic base. The researchers then added catalysts of growth, after which the cells are beginning to proliferate, and the plastic base is gradually resorbed. As a result, doctors are ready body which is not rejected by the patient's body, as grown on the basis of its own cells.
Today scientific achievements allow you to create cartilage, bone, skin, ears, noses, blood vessels, heart valves, bladders and trachea
Atala knows what he says. In 2006, he became a pioneer in the industry of artificial organs, growing and successful grafting human bladder. Later, Atala and his followers began to experiment with more complex bodies — the trachea, kidney and various muscles.
Today scientific achievements allow you to create cartilage, bone, skin, ears, noses, blood vessels, heart valves, bladders and trachea.
According to Kaku, in the next two decades, technology will step further, and the production of artificial organs will be put on stream.
By 2030, mankind will master telepathy, convinced Kaku. Perhaps, though not quite in the sense that it is put in the word science fiction. Rather, it is to merge capability of the human body, and computers.
In 2005, a paralyzed American Matt Nagle learned to control the mouse cursor on the computer screen with the help of mental commands. The connection between his mind and the computer was monitored through electrodes inserted in the brain Nagle.
Avatars depicted in the eponymous film by James Cameron, is almost a reality
In subsequent years, the technology on which their hopes millions of paralyzed people around the globe, has leaped forward. Electrodes implanted in the brain, was able to reduce to the size of just the chip. And patients taking part in the experiments, can now safely play games, write emails and surf the Internet.
Furthest in this direction went to the scientists working on the Japanese corporation Honda, — they managed to create a robot, which is controlled by the same principle. Thus, avatars depicted in the eponymous film by James Cameron, is almost a reality.
Clever winged transport
The main vehicle of modern man, the car is much wiser in the next decade. Popular Science Experts predict by 2020 the successful implementation of at least two projects that could completely change the way cars.
The first of them — the machine with an autopilot. Management will be carried out without the participation of the person responsible for traffic safety will be on-board computers. Due to the interaction of cars on the road will be able to reduce to zero the risk of accidents and collisions.
Developments in this field are many car companies, the timing of the mass use of these machines more rests on the standardization issue, experts say. From a technical point of view there is no problem — almost all of the necessary technology already available.
Machines with the autopilot. Management will be carried out without the participation of the person responsible for traffic safety will be on-board computers
Even more revolutionary is an introduction to the operation of machinery, traffic safety is connected not only with the horizontal plane.
First flying car settled on the drawing boards of engineers of various companies in the world since the dawn of aviation. By the mid-1980s, the technology has reached the stage where the articles about her began to appear regularly in popular science magazines.
In the late 1990's up in the air a few prototypes. And in the early 2000s, American inventor Paul Moller has even begun taking pre-orders for its SkyCar. However, the mass-market cruise cars so until now and have not got.
The car will take off and land vertically, the radius of the flight refueling is approximately 400 km.
However, experts urge Popular Science dreaming to get from home to work in the air do not despair. Recently, the development of the concept of a flying car and the whole "road" in the air by a special department of the Ministry of Defense.
The first prototype four-personal means of air travel will be ready by 2015, promised the military. The cost of the project, the implementation of which will attend a private engineering firm Terrafugia, is estimated at $ 65 million
The car will take off and land vertically, the radius of the flight refueling is approximately 400 km.
American science fiction writer Neal Stephenson, one of the founders of the cyberpunk genre, may eventually get more and my father's next generation Internet.
In 1993, while the father of the World Wide Web is just starting to teach mankind to the letter may not be paper, but electronically and delivered to the other side of the world in seconds, Stevenson moved on. In his novel, he described in detail the avalanche of virtual reality.
As planned by Stevenson, a real Internet — a network by connecting to that with the appropriate equipment, a person can not just sit in front of the monitor, but also to receive the full range of sensations. Members of virtual reality will live there lives no less real than offline.
In 1999, the directors the Wachowski brothers produced a sensational film The Matrix, which was based on the same idea. A few years later came the internet virtual world of Second Life from Linden Labs. It was possible to create a character, give it the appearance, habits, buy real estate, make money.
Joon Lee of the University of Kansas has connected to the neurons of the brain fiber optic cable thickness in nanometers. And the technology is likely to become available in the coming years.
However, it was only a kind of virtual reality, designed by Stephenson. There has been a breakthrough in 2008, when a group of U.S. scientists published in the prestigious journal Scientific American article, at first, devoted to issues that have little to do with common sense. In particular, the article discussed the possibility of the transmission of impulses from the computer in the hippocampus.
"What if this part of the brain responsible for memory formation, connect Google or Wikipedia?" — Says the author. The laws of biology do not prevent transmission of data to the brain, but the brain signals perceived from the outside, you need to understand the language in which to talk to him.
Professor Jung Lee of the University of Kansas offers connected to the neurons of the brain fiber optic cable thickness in nanometers. And the technology is likely to become available in the coming years.
The protagonist of The Matrix has learned kung fu for a few seconds. Similarly, you can load itself into memory before the French phrasebook trip, suggests Lee.
Victory over cancer
Cancer, carrying away more lives than any other disease that will eventually be defeated. Kaku believes that this will happen in the near future, but, in contrast to most other futurists, connects potential victory over cancer with revolutionary methods of diagnosis, and not with the actual treatments.
In particular, Kaku predicts that in the future there will be a sensor that can instantly analyze the DNA and detect cancer in its earliest stages. Futurist predicts that chips can be embedded in the toilet and so the DNA will be transparent to the person on a permanent basis.
In the future there will be a sensor that can instantly analyze the DNA and detect cancer in its earliest stages
Other futurists have great hope in the fight against cancer on nanotechnology. In recent years, U.S. researchers tested technology nanobomb healing. A research team from the University of Houston tested nanoparticles of silicon, gold-plated. Once in the bloodstream, they can be attracted to the blood vessels, grouped around the cancer. Once the nanoparticles surrounding the tumor, doctors are subjected to this part of the patient-infrared radiation. Nanoparticles are burned, destroying cancer cells by heat. No negative effect on the body, this operation does not have.
In the future, these technologies will be able to cure cancer just a matter of hours, believe futurists.
Resurrect the idea, but rather, to clone extinct millions of years before the dinosaurs, by the American science fiction to Michael Crichton. And after the popularization of the idea — the famous director Steven Spielberg, who has successfully filmed Crichton novel Jurassic Park.
Crichton suggested that DNA can be found in the stomachs of extinct animals insect bite them in turn preserved in resin of certain trees. Then, using the animals of the relative affinity of the dinosaurs, such as crocodiles, you can clone a dinosaur.
In 2006, scientists from Jordan Abbas Haddadin found perfectly preserved in amber body predatory insect, whose age is estimated to be 135 million years old. It may well have in life to bite the dinosaur. "We can make a copy of a dinosaur from the cells, which are found in the belly of the insect" — predicted Haddadin.
You can find the DNA of extinct animals in the stomachs of insects bite them in turn preserved in resin of certain trees. Then, using the animals of the relative affinity of the dinosaurs, such as crocodiles, you can clone a dinosaur.
He, like many other scholars, believes that the scenario devised by Crichton, not so fantastic. On the same technology, except that without digging in tree resin, scientists cloned extinct species Iberian goat. Another question that the genetic material of this kind is much better preserved than the dinosaur DNA, which may be able to detect.
From this perspective, it is more likely some not cloning dinosaurs and mammoths, whose bodies are well preserved in Siberia under permafrost. In addition, unlike the dinosaurs, mammoths have a close relative of animals, which is still walks the earth, — the Indian elephant.
Kaku believes that to solve the problem of cloning extinct animals succeed in the coming decades.
The emergence of programmable matter — the long-term outlook and fantastic Kaku. Explain the concept does not even require a simple man in the street, far from the physics. James Cameron's blockbuster Terminator 2 has become a classic, and grim of the liquid metal robot, able to easily change shape and pass through the bullets, overshadowed in the film of the Arnold Schwarzenegger.
The concept of programmable matter, which occurred shortly after the picture in 1991. A decade later, scientists are able to boast a technology of liquid crystals that change shape under the influence of an electric current.
In the first decade of the XXI century appeared the cut — microchips the size of a match head that can group together and rebuild when the electric charge. Today of the cut, you can create quite complex compositions and objects, such as cups and plates, however, very small in size.
Kaku believes that this technology will change the life of mankind. To believe this, just imagine how the desert can erect an entire city, just by pressing a single button.