Russian Military Encyclopedia
The use of pomegranate has a long history. First progenitors pomegranate were known before the invention of gunpowder. They were made from the bark of trees, papyrus, clay, glass, used in the main for the defense of fortresses and were filled with quicklime. These grenades were used in Fustat — the town, which in ancient times, before the founding of Cairo, the capital of Egypt.
In old documents revealed that "miasma quicklime flowing out of the pots when they break, crush and suffocate an enemy combatant and his lead in the disorder." The choice of material used to make grenades, determined in the main by the statement that the vessels had a fall break into small pieces and dispersing their contents as far as possible.
In Europe, the first mention of exploding shells that are thrown by the hand of the enemy and in the accumulation of debris hit him with fire, refer to the XIII-XV centuries. Count Solms, in his "Review of military affairs", relating to 1559, writes: "Round ball of burnt clay of considerable thickness, filled with gunpowder, a very broken and gives a heavy blow. If you make it out of the narrow material, it simply breaks down and gives a weak kick. Such a ball is bound to have a longish narrow neck. It needs to be filled with gunpowder zatravchatym (pulp), firmly stuffed into the neck to slow burning and tinder, which slowly sorrow comes to zatravcha-of gunpowder. In addition, the balloon at the neck must have two tabs. Through their need to thread the piece of rope with a knot at the end. Such a comfortable throwing the ball away from you in a lot of the enemy. When the fire gets to the seed, the ball explodes and hits far around him. "
Rifle master XVI century Sebastian Gel from Salzburg in one of his own work for the first time calls balls with grenades or explosives granadinami, apparently by analogy with the fruits of pomegranate, which, falling on the ground, far scatter their seeds.
He offered to make grenades out of copper, iron, wood, glass, clay, and even provoschennogo web. Wood and fabric balls needed to cover a layer of wax, pressed into his bullets and then again covered with wax. On the subsequent gear grenades says: "The mound ball half gunpowder and shake it, then put a few ounces of mercury and over a mound of powder and ball to completely fill in the end paste the seed with a flint igniter in the hole."
Another recipe advises not including mercury and add another bullet. The value of mercury here is unclear. But another creator — William Dill in work «Kriegsschule», relating to 1689, shows a similar method to produce grenades. Clay body grenades filled with black powder (1 pound), mercury (1 lot) and steel bullets. Wick served as tinder placed in the bare hole.
In the work of Kazimir Simenovicha «Vollkommene Geschutz-Feuerverk und Buchsenmeisterey Kunst», published in 1676 in the German language, given the subsequent determination of grenades: "It is absolutely round steel balls, called granatae ma-nuales, because they throw themselves into the hand of the enemy for the most part. On their own, they are largest cores 4-6 and even 8 pounds, but weigh less than 2 times. Grenades are filled with a huge amount of gunpowder. Lighted, they fly to a huge number of pieces unsafe for the enemy, which are scattered like seeds of the fruit is ripe and cause serious injuries located close to all. "
Casimir Simenovich also offer to do a grenade glass, potters clay and other materials.
Create Grenadier units in different armies in France 1st Grenadiers appeared during the Thirty Years' War. In the Guards regiment of King Louis XIV in 1645, the grenadiers were 4 people in each company.
In 1670, France was formed by the first detachment of grenadiers, consisting of a soldier trained to use grenades. The detachment was made up of volunteers who had combat experience in the assault and defense of cities. In addition, for service of this order were made grenades only the 1st kind. By 1672 these troops were already in the 30 shelves, and even a couple of years, all the shelves of the French army. In 1674, France has a detachment of mounted grenadiers.
William K. writes in his book "History of firearms. From ancient times to the XX century ":" … In 1678 John Evelyn visited the army, encamped on the heath Hanslou, and there beheld innovation: "… a new kind of fighter who was called grenadiers who are skilled in throwing hand grenades, which each have a bag full. Hats off their fur with a copper top, exactly like the Janissaries, why have a very kind of evil, while others still longish caps hanging from behind. "
In Prussia, at the end of the XVII century, any Guards company in its composition was 10-12 grenadier, who stood up in battle formation on the right flank of the battalion. In 1698, in addition was made Grenadier pyatirotnogo battalion of 100 men each company.
Beginning of the XVIII century — the golden age of grenadiers. In all armies of the world arise Grenadier Division. But by the beginning of the next century, with the development of firearms, Grenadier units are converted to branch, which is a selective on his own composition, but no different from the rest of the infantry armament.
In Austria, every company Infantry Regiment was registered on 8 grenadier. Later in each infantry regiment was created by two companies of grenadiers. These companies operated until 1804. Grenadiers had weapons and equipment, are no different from other weapons fighter, but in addition were three grenades in a bag. These companies are gaining a lot on the physical level, strong people, with all this advantage was given to the people "terrible" look.
Russian Grenadiers beginning of the XVIII century
Grenadier Division in Russia
In Russia, hand grenades began to be used at the end of the XVII century. Around the same time, there were also the first unit of grenadiers. In 1679 with a hike in the train to Kiev regiment of Colonel Kravkov transported materials for the production of hand grenades.
Before the Crimean campaign of General Gordon offered to have in each infantry regiment, one company of grenadiers, having trained more agile, strong and clever fighter appeal with grenades. A written mention of the fact that the shelves Gordon and Lefort marched in Kozhukhovo, with its composition, one grenadier company. At this time, grenadier team appeared in the Transfiguration and the Semenov regiment. After the first march to the Azov (1695), these teams have been consolidated into separate companies. In musketeer regiments grenadiers appeared during the second Azov campaign (1696 year). After 1699 Grenadier companies were established solely for 9 infantry regiments formed by Prince Repnin.
In 1704, on the proposal of Field Marshal Ogilvie in all regiments of infan
try and cavalry were organized grenadier company. By order of Peter I Company were made up of "chosen people."
By 1709 all infantry regiments already had at such a company of its composition. In every company around the state were three officers, seven non-commissioned officers and 132 fighters. Four years later the Grenadier Company of the regiments were expelled and collected in 5 Grenadier regiments. In each regiment had two battalions. Then have been made and the first horse-Grenadier Regiments. Interestingly, these companies do not lose touch with "native" parts and are carried to faraway trip, getting all the allowances from their own regiments. After the death of Peter I, the value of grenadiers began to fall evenly.
Grenadier regiments were renamed the musketeer, and they were left at a grenadier company. In 1731, these companies were disbanded, and by giving grenadier musketeer in the company to 16 people in each. In 1753 the company re-emerged Grenadier — there were now one per battalion. Three years later they were again brought to the shelves. In 1811, these regiments were consolidated into a division, and in 1814, the division brought into the case.
Development and application of hand grenades during the second half of the XIX century
By the middle of the XIX century, hand grenades reincarnated as a greater extent in the fortress guns, apply
the reflection of storming the enemy. In Russia, for the supply of fortresses grenades were guided by a subsequent norm: for every 30 yards of the defense was supposed 50 grenades. For every 100 grenade fuses to let go 120 and 6 bracelets. Throwing grenades into the calculations performed by three people. First room throwing grenades, 2nd charged them, brought a third ammunition. Such a calculation expended up to 10 grenades per minute. In addition, with shafts grenades could roll down chutes prepared in advance.
In Sevastopol, hand grenades are not used much because of the insignificance of their supplies. During the war in Sevastopol found arsenals of only 1,200 glass grenades designed to boarding combat. According to a report from Admiral Kornilov March 15, 1854 the grenades were transferred to the coastal fortifications. According to the memoirs of contemporaries many Frenchmen were killed in the assault on the bastions specifically those grenades.
It is natural that these small stores are not enough patrons Sevastopol forever. Here is an excerpt from the memoirs of participants in those events, a retired colonel Guard ZHoru Chaplinsky concerning defense Malakhov: "… Despite the heavy canister fire, they were met, the French had already managed to climb on to the parapet, but rangers Podolski Regiment and militia squad Kursk could throw them into the ditch. Affected rifle fire and stones, survived the French ran back into the next trench and funnel descended from all camouflet memorable … ".
Pay attention — the opponent across the bottom, in the ditch, and hit him nothing. He was shot from guns and throw stones at him! Such situations more than once described in the memoirs of veterans. In the presence of the required number of hand grenades the enemy here could cause even more damage.
The type and arrangement of 3 lb manual Grenades
And here are some examples from the memoirs of Sevastopol, "… small enemy hand grenades, mortars pyatipudovye invested in a cylindrical tin box, in order that they all flew together in the fall and on-site work done great harm to the working …".
Similarly, the same way done and the enemy: "… half of the siege of the enemy began to throw us out of mortars, to a greater extent in the trenches baskets filled with hand grenades, a number from fifteen to 20. At night fall these grenades were particularly beautiful: climbing to a certain height, they fell apart in all directions fiery bunch … ". Or here's another: "… and we will impose a powder keg enemy with hand grenades, from time to time pick up the pieces and wallowing enemy cores; keg with this goodies thrown in mortar and empty, in retaliation, to the enemy: they say choke on his French is good …" . "… Hand grenades are often hands at the moment is thrown back into the enemy trench. It was also difficult, because in some places the enemy aproshi at the end of the siege came very close to sixty steps, no more … ". Given the lack of their own grenades in Sevastopol, it probably is a captured French and unexploded hand grenades reference 1847.
After the war, it is time to sum up unhappy. It was necessary to re-equip the army with the requirements of the time. Among other changes have touched and grenades.
In 1856, by order of all the artillery fuses, lights the wick from being replaced by grating. In the same year, the head of the Caucasian artillery Meyer received the puzzle to do in Tiflis experienced laboratory standards grenades and try them out. Meyer was presented the report in 1858. In this report, the unit all the armament fuses was unsatisfactory. Together, it was accompanied by the description grenade fuse and made a lieutenant Kazarinov. With the improvement and growth of the igniter charge grenades, in 1863 it was put into service.
Put into service had sunk body-tube made of solid wood. Channel tube was packed tightly with gunpowder at the rate of about 3 seconds of burning. Scratch mechanism consisted of a 2-brass tweezers with serrated included in some others. Their mating surfaces were coated with a composition of the consistency of potassium chlorate and sulfur. The density of the tube was coated with a special varnish and wrapped around a linen tape, impregnated water-repellent composition. Housing grenade was made of cast iron, has a spherical shape. Placed inside the body of black powder charge spools weighing 15-16 (60-65 g). Leather bracelet had carbine engagement rings for float. This grenade was adopted by a 3-pound hand grenade.
Stored in warehouses and in the arsenals of grenades out of action due to an act of water. Fuses become unsafe due to frequent lumbago zamedlitelnogo composition. In addition, to identify design flaws. Some grenades were sunk float of a very hard metal, blunt teeth. This led to the fact that after throwing grenade remained hanging on a bracelet with the already burning fuse.
To evaluate the advantages of hand grenades, the armament, the Artillery Committee in October 1895 suggested fortress artillery "… to practice with a 3-pound hand grenades with a charge of 15 spools …". First to respond to the chief of artillery Vyborg fortress — perhaps because of the proximity. He asked not to conduct such studies because it is a danger to methane. After considering the request, the committee decided to classes in Vyborg fortress and not to wait for information from other fortresses.
In 1896, the Artillery Committee gave the order to withdraw from the consumption of hand grenades "… in view of a better means of defeat the enemy, strengthen the defense of fortresses in the ditches and insecurity hand grenades for defending themselves …".