Many explain this loss of cooling Roosevelt, who was more friendly to USSR, and the coming to power of aggressive Truman. This is fundamentally wrong, Roosevelt "make friends" with the Soviet Union in order to really take the lead in the UK, putting it in a subordinate position, well, it's not yet time for an open confrontation with the Russian Union — it was necessary to finish off Germany to crush the Empire of Japan. Truman's team was all the same, with no serious configurations. "The world behind the scenes," as long as big money that had been (and set) in the place of the U.S. presidents of their own people who are not going to change their plans — was to install a system of a "unipolar world" led by the United States, where the United Kingdom was in a "junior partner" . Impaired USSR had to fall or isolated to fall through a skylight time.
To control the planet was created mechanism, improved the League of Nations — the United Nations, which was to make the system of "collective security." And for this purpose it was necessary to suspend the claims of Russian — after Stalin led the de facto real Russian great-power politics, he was advancing, sought, prozhimal interests of the Union. Thus, even at the Potsdam Conference (July-August 1945), he decided the question of the borders of Poland (Polish Stalin forced to announce a significant expansion thanks for their country at the expense of Germany), the joint management by Germany, the Soviet Union won the right to receive reparations from Germany "in kind" — factory equipment, vehicles, etc. Moreover, the Soviet Union took all that he wants from its own zone of occupation, and a quarter of the equipment from the Western zones of occupation — the French, the British, American. Stalin claimed almost give what Russian empire earned the blood of their own fighter in the fields of the First World War: Kars and Ardahan province of Turkey (Turkey gave them in 1921, Trotsky and Lenin), to provide the USSR free passage through the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, to provide the Union area the creation of a naval base in Thrace.
Why not bring a claim to fight in the second World War, Turkey's totally understandable — though Ankara has maintained neutrality, she was aggressive Soviet Union. Thus, in the most difficult for our country in 1941 year Turks kept on the border with the USSR in the 26 divisions of alert, because the Soviet Union had to keep in the Transcaucasus four army — in front of the Dark Sea to the Caspian Sea, which would be needed in the Ukraine or near Smolensk, Moscow and Leningrad. And then the three armies had to enter, along with the British forces in Persia, this holding back the Turks from taking action. Yes, in 1942, when there were bloody battles in the southern strategic direction, the Germans rushed to the Caucasus, attacked Stalingrad had to keep one army in the Caucasus, and Iran's Cavalry Corps, Infantry Division and a tank brigade. Ankara supported Germany and its natural resources, namely, chrome ore, which had strategic importance. As acknowledged by the Reich Minister Speer's arms, complete delivery of the ore — and six months later the industry began to "starve", and through the year would have died. Deliveries only ended in August 1944, when Russian troops came to the Balkans.
Our troops in Iran.
There were geopolitical, historical judgment, Stalin remembered the great "insults" of — Turkey perfectly to profit at the expense of Russian Empire, it was time to pay the bills, return the land. The question of the straits had for RF secular meaning — open to the Mediterranean Sea. In other words, reasons to go to war with Turkey was enough, as with Japan.
But Moscow's claims torn West. When, in October 1945, the UN opened the meeting, it became clear that this body want to reincarnate in some global court with the right of intervention in any conflict between countries, solving them in their favor. USSR could not resist using only the right to "veto" in the Security Council, because he did not have a lot of satellites allies. But it would have lost that right, if a conflict touched the Soviet Union itself, such a promise was able to bargain at the Yalta Conference Roosevelt. Because starting a war with Turkey was not, the Soviet Union would have turned into an international pariah.
In March 1946, sounded eminent Churchill's Fulton speech, where Russia openly dubbed enemy of the West, and called for the consolidation of efforts to combat it. Kind of like Churchill was no longer an official, the British Government for it bore no responsibility, but the effect was tremendous. Was Truman and Churchill organized a tour of the U.S., Bernard Baruch, Roosevelt's closest adviser, nazhivshy huge funds for the war, the "gray cardinal" under Truman.
At this time came the clash of interests in Iran-Persia. Northern Iran with Russian empire was our sphere of influence, we owned oil concessions, Russian troops were located. After the collapse of the Russian Empire British tidied up the whole of Iran in their hands. In 1920, Reddish Army entered the northern provinces of Iran, Gilan was formed Russian republic, but it was not long — Trotsky almost gave our oil concessions to U.S. companies "Standard Oil of New York." Stalin decided to return to our position here, the project was created by the Soviet-Iranian Oil Company. But the Iranian government, which stood for the British opposed. Moscow then, using the experience of the Anglo-Saxons, supported the opposition — the Tudeh Party, national minorities, in December 1945, in the north of Azerbaijan was proclaimed an autonomous Kurdistan and the People's Republic. London replied in the southern part of Iran for additional military forces smell of fried. The U.S. did not intervene, but unofficially supported London.
Stalin was against the war because compromised, and for which advocated from the very beginning — we withdraw the troops, created a joint company, a contract with Iran on joint oil production. But Moscow simply "thrown" — after the withdrawal of Iran canceled the contract, the movement of the Kurds and Azeris ruthlessly suppressed.
Westerners began to break the agreement and Germany — the USSR passed a quarter of the equipment from the Western zones of occupation, to inquiries Russian side refuses. Began political games with "democracy", so on the English Conference of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the victorious powers in the Western "allies" said they did not sign a peace treaty with Romania and Bulgaria, since the elections there were not "democratic."
In the Capital Conference Molotov made concessions, Moscow agreed to new elections, but the West made a noise here, that, say, the Soviet Union this step confirmed tampering previous elections. Because of the similarities of differences was defeated at the Paris Peace Conference in July 1946.
CCCC attacked because of the help of Albania and Yugoslavia Greek ELAS guerrillas, although they did it without a Russian role. Moscow honestly fulfilled the conditions of Section Balkans and in the case of the Greeks did not intervene. Uproar because of Turkey: Turkey USSR proposed joint protection of the straits, the Turks refused. Moscow then pushed through Bulgaria, she made territorial claims of the United States, they were supported by the UK and France, was sent to the Aegean Sea, its fleet.
In February 1947, the U.S. Congress placed the Truman Doctrine to help "free peoples who are resisting the attempts of subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures." The first to have received such aid Greece and Turkey. In the United States have been formulated two main objectives in relation to the USSR: the doctrine of "containment of communism" — not an assumption of expanding the scope of the impact of the USSR, the doctrine of "rolling back communism" — to reduce the impact zone to the borders prior to the second world war, to weaken and eliminate socialism in Russia.
Quite issued beginning the "cold war" Baruch Plan for Marshall Plan. In the summer of 1946, Bernard Baruch presented to the UN plan for the creation of a special body for the control of atomic energy. He had to be a "supra-national", but was actually under the control of the United States. It did not extend to the right to "veto" the UN Security Council. All countries are forbidden not only to build nuclear weapon, and conduct research in this area. Only this institution to give permission for at least some kind of activity associated with nuclear power. Had the right to freely monitor in any country. Received almost U.S. monopoly on nuclear weapons, the ability to prevent such development, get involved in the internal affairs of other states to control their research and development. Moscow, of course, refused, it is also charged with "hostile intent." Buried Westerners and back design of the USSR — the convention on the complete and unquestioning prohibiting nuclear weapons, with the liquidation of existing products.
J. Marshall, in January 1947, put forward plan significant allocation of money for the economic recovery of Europe. In June, in Paris gathered on this international conference. It soon became clear that this thought is hidden under plan financial and economic enslavement of the United States of Europe. Since July 2, Molotov talks broke off, saying that "put under the control of European countries have lost their heads for the sake of pleasing the needs and desires of some majestic powers its economic and national independence." USSR supported the Eastern European countries, including Finland, they refused such "assistance".
Only after all this the Soviet Union headed for the establishment of the socialist camp. In Eastern Europe, the coalition government to change the communist regimes. The cries of "democracy" Stalin found a counterargument. It was stated on the development of the "people's democracies" Western "democracy" in this scenario out anti-popular, because there real power belongs to the financial and industrial oligarchy.
A battle in the "Third World" — Soviet victory over Germany made a probable collapse of the colonial empires. Went to a real wave: in 1945, Indonesia became independent, North Vietnam, in 1946, unrest broke out in Syria and Lebanon gained independence in 1947, India and Pakistan in 1948 — Burma and Ceylon, defeated the communists in China and North Korea, etc. etc. At one time, they were supported by the United States and, as believed that after the collapse of the colonial empires, these countries will inevitably find themselves in financial, economic, and political means dependence on the U.S.. But after the war formed not a unipolar world, bipolar, countries have the choice.
Important struggle was for Germany, Moscow was not satisfied with plans for Anglo-Saxons, they led to the fact that Germany would again become the enemy of the USSR, we do not take this for Berlin. And the Russian proposal for demilitarized, neutral status of the country blocked the West. In the end, the Westerners have begun to create their own government in the one-sided manner — in 1947, joined the three zones into one, in 1948, introduced the newest currency, began to hold elections to a constitutional assembly. In response Marshal Sokolovsky out of the Inter-Allied Control Council in Berlin, June 24 roads were blocked, which led to West Berlin. West was asked to complete the creation of the new German government, but they are not braked, has been set to "air bridge".
In 1948, the West is practically imposed economic sanctions against the Soviet Union and the states of the "people's democracy" — was drawn up a long list of strategic products, prohibit the import into their country sotsbloka. Stalin did not flinch, he was sure enough of its own resources. In 1949 he was made the CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance), the world market has split into two separate parts.
In the course of the acts of the Marshall Plan countries in the West have become "clients" of the U.S., having lost almost everything, and political independence. In April 1949, NATO did, in the same year announced the creation of the FRG (Federal Republic of Germany), in response USSR did the GDR (German Democratic Republic). Along the borders of the Soviet Union began to create a network of military bases, plans are attacking nuclear weapons on Russian towns, the next ground invasion, with all this emphasis on the very probable extermination of the population.
But Stalin's USSR broke, made a real feat — just one five-year period could not only bring back torn down in the war, and even exceed the prewar level of production by 73%! Power is not only not fallen ill or depressed fell under the weight of problems, she made a huge leap in development. In 1949, the United States had been deprived of a monopoly in nuclear weapons, because instead of a direct conflict had to start the so-called "Cold war."
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Kara-Murza SG Russian civilization: from Victory majestically up to now. Moscow, 2001.