What is the Lend-Lease (lend-lease)? It is a form of inter-state relations, meaningful communication system vzaem or lease of military equipment, weapons, ammunition, strategic raw materials, food, and various products and services of allied countries.
With all this specifies the conditions for the settlement of accounts for this assistance. The materials that were destroyed, lost, used during the fighting, not repayable. Assets remaining after the war and applicable for civilian purposes, to be paid in the manner of repayment of credit extended or vorachivaetsya supplier.
Specifically on criteria such deliveries were made Russian Union of U.S., UK and Canada. Lofty Russian war ended 65 years ago, but until now did not subside debate about what role in achieving victory in 1945, it has played an allied Soviet aid.
July 12 signed an agreement on joint actions of the governments of the USSR and Great Britain in the war against Germany, in which the two governments pledged to help each other and support of all kinds.
In late August, arrived in Arkhangelsk first convoy of ships under the title "Dervish" (RO-O). It was part of an aircraft carrier "Argus", which in the Soviet Union delivered fighter planes "Hurricane." They formed the basis of the 78th Regiment of the Northern Fleet Air Force, whose commander was the famous pilot BF Safonov, the first ace in the USSR, twice awarded the title of Hero of the Russian Union.
After a certain number of days of Stalin, Churchill wrote: "The War Cabinet decided to send another 200 Russian fighter" Tomahawk ". 140 of them will be sent to Arkhangelsk from here, and 60 — of the number ordered in the United States. "
Some of these fighters managed to take part in the autumn-winter Battle of Moscow.
In August and September 1941, the UK was able to expel the Soviet Union not only the aircraft, and medium tanks "Matilda" and "Valentine."
In the U.S., public reaction to the news of the German invasion of the Soviet Union was not so certain, as in the UK.
Russian Union of rapprochement with Nazi Germany, signing with her non-aggression pact of friendship, and a contract in August 1939, the Americans met a highly negative. Lived anti-Soviet sentiment, 55% of respondents were against the Yankees with the Soviet Union. Yet within a day or two after the German attack on the Soviet Union, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt invited representatives of the press in his own office and said: "Of course we're going to provide all the likely help of Russia."
The legal basis of the first deliveries from the USA to the USSR were the formal extension of the US-Soviet Trade Agreement of 1937 and the issuance of licenses for arms exports to the USSR to the provision of transportation for U.S. Navy ships. The first tripartite document, which itself has been designated as the required number or other weapons, military equipment and other materials, became Metropolitan Protocol 3 powers on the results of the conference, which was held in Moscow from 29 September to 2 October 1941. The document was signed by Molotov from the Soviet Union, Averell Harriman from the U.S. and Lord Beaverbrook from England.
The minutes were recorded in the USSR needs of different types of weapons, military equipment and materials, the ability of the United Kingdom and the United States to meet them. Amount in dollars as the price requested in the protocol is not specified.
Curious fact — Harriman, instructing the delegation from the United States, saying: "Give, give and give without expecting a return, any thoughts about getting anything in return."
According recognizable British historian Alexander Werth in his book "Russia in the war," Lord Beaverbrook gave one hundred percent for themselves aware of the fact that "the Russian at the moment the only people in the world, seriously weakening Germany, and that in the interests of the UK to do without certain things and transfer them to Russia. "
Protocol itself will be supplied in the USSR "3,000 aircraft, 4,500 tanks, and a variety of equipment, raw materials, food, materials and medical supplies — all of 1.5 million tonnes of goods to be sent from the United States and Great Britain in the USSR. Their total price — more than 1 billion dollars. "
Prior to October 1941, for the acquisition of materials USSR paid cash of your own gold supplies. The first ship with a hidden cargo — 10 tons of gold on board was sent from the USSR to the shores of the United States in September 1941.
October 30 message to Stalin, Roosevelt approved the Capital protocol and ordered from November 1941 to make deliveries to the Soviet Union on the basis of the law the Lend-Lease Act. Officially, however, the decision of the Lend-Lease was recorded only president of the United States June 11, 1942 the Agreement on the principles used for mutual aid in the prosecution of the war against aggression. It was signed by the Soviet Union to the United States salting Litvinov, after the departure of U.S. VM Molotov, who held talks with South American control.
Roosevelt told Stalin that South American supplies will be under the interest-free loan of $ 1 billion dollars to pay for a decade starting in the sixth year after the end of the war.
But it should be noted that in 1941 planned for the scope of supply of the United States delayed.
So, the plan for October-November instead of 41 vessel with cargo rate for Russian banks took only 28.
More precisely, in 1941, made his England commitments. Instead of the promised 600 aircraft it delivered to the USSR 711 of 750 tanks — 466 out of 600 tankettes — 300. In addition, the Soviet Union was at that time a certain number of British guns and anti-tank guns.
Planes, tanks, Auto …
After the Metropolitan Protocol in force until 30 June 1942, the main countries of the anti-Hitler coalition were signed three similar document for each annual period: Washington — November 6, 1942, London — October 19, 1943 and Ottawa — April 17, 1944. They determined the amount and composition of the lend-lease supplies to the end of the second world war.
What kind of military equipment and weapons, materials included in the list of lend-lease supplies were obtained in the Russian Union? Until mid-1942 USSR received from the 3100 Allied aircraft. Among their fighters "Cobra", earned the highest score of our pilots, including three times Hero of the Russian Union of Alexander Pokryshkina. After all, 48 of the 59 German planes downed them he recorded on his own battle through, flying to the "Cobra".
Excellent responded our pilots and bomber of the U.S. "Mitchell B-25" and "Boston A-20." But the British "Hurricane" did not cause ecstasy with Russian pilots. Fighters "Spitfire" surpassed the aircraft for a variety of performance characteristics, but they were not enough.
More restrained, but still positive evaluation Russian pilots were given other types of lend-lease aircraft ("Tomahawk P-40", "Kittyhawk P-47", etc.). But the sailors greeted ecstatically supplies flying boat "Catalina".
By 1 October 1944 the USSR received from the Allies 14,700 aircraft. In total for all years majestically Russian war, the Allies sent in Russian Alliance 22,195 aircraft (according to other sources — 18297). USSR during the war produced at its own factories, according to Russian reports, 143,000 aircraft (for zabugornom data — 116,494). So Makar, every fifth or sixth plane in the Red Army Air Forc
e was the lend-lease.
Shred the lend-lease supplies to the Russian Aviation Navy was superior to 20% (2,148 aircraft).
Price of aviation Lend-Lease to the USSR as a whole amounted to 3.6 billion dollars, or about 35% of the total allied assistance.
Our aviation gasoline needed vysooktanovy, and it was a weak spot Russian economy. Lack of aviation fuel supply was compensated by the Lend-Lease Act. From the United States, Britain and Canada received more than 1.5 million tons of this fuel, which is slightly higher than its creation in the USSR.
The main material used for construction of aircraft aluminum. By November 1942, the Russian Alliance has lost 60% of the production capacity of duralumin. The need for aluminum, according to AI Mikoyan, amounted to 4,000 tons per month and, in addition, 500 tons of aluminum. All Western supplies of aluminum for the war amounted to 325 thousand tons.
The bill tank Lend-Lease opened British armored vehicles descended on the quay port of Archangel with a convoy of ships "Dervish" August 31, 1941. During the war, the Soviet Union sent 12,788 tanks (from the United States — 7500, from the United Kingdom — 5218).
In the Russian Union during this period were produced 110,000 tanks. So Makar, reddish army had its own with 12% of imported tanks.
Most of the Red Army was the American medium tanks "General Sherman" with a 75-mm gun and a width of 38-100 mm armor and "Stuart", armed with 75-mm and 37-mm cannons.
British tanks of the most massive in the lend-lease supplies were mentioned medium tanks "Valentine" and "Matilda." The first of them was armed with 60-mm, the second 40-mm cannon. The British and delivered a heavy tank "Churchill" with armor up to 152 mm and 75-mm cannon.
The Allies also sent in Russian Alliance 4912 anti-tank guns, anti-aircraft guns, 8218, 376 thousand shells, machine guns and 136 thousand 320 thousand tons of explosives.
In the summer and fall of 1941, the cargo fleet USSR lost 159 thousand cars (58% of the original composition), as a number of factories making parts of cars. The lack of vehicles adversely affected by mobility artillery ability relocation.
Came to help lend-lease cars, priemuschestvenno of the United States. Specifically, they almost all have decided to move the problem of gun mounts. This is the first "Studebakers", "Dodge", "Le Villi", "Fords".
Total of allies priemuschestvenno from the U.S., Russian alliance got 427,386 (according to other sources — 477,785) cars of different models and 35,170 bikes.
Russian Navy under the Lend-Lease has delivered more than 500 combat ships and boats. Among them 28 frigates, 89 minesweepers, 78 huge submarine hunters, 60 patrol boats, 166 torpedo boats, and 43 amphibious ship.
Unfortunately, most of the ships started to arrive in the Soviet Union only in 1944, with most of the Pacific Fleet, on the eve of the war with Japan.
From the USSR's allies got about 1000 radar and sonar. 25 per cent of the Lend-Lease was food.
The main route
For delivery in the USSR Lend-lease cargoes were four main routes.
First, the smallest on which cargo transported 4,000,000 (22.6%), ran across the North Atlantic at the area between Spitsbergen and the shores of the Germans occupied Norway. From August 1941 to May 1945 from the United Kingdom and Iceland to Murmansk and Arkhangelsk made the switch 41 arctic convoy. A total of 811 vessels were convoys.
As a result, the German attack submarines and aircraft in transit killed 100 vessels (82 British and American, Russian 9 and 9 other states), and with them thousands of American, British, Canadian and Russian sailors.
Second route of lend-lease supplies, given the name "Persian Corridor", passed by the coast of the United States and the United Kingdom through the Persian Gulf and Iran. This route transported 4.2 million tons (23.8%). It became operational in 1942, after entered Iran occupying forces of Great Britain and the Union of Russian prisoners in accordance with the Anglo-Soviet-Iranian contract.
In Iran, the allies were built more roads and steel roads, airfields, aviamasterskie and automobile assembly plants. Hence the aircraft flown in and brought Russian pilots were distilled on the area to the front of the USSR, and the car loaded with lend-lease materials under its own power, overcoming daunting, more than a thousand-kilometer route through the deserts and mountainous terrain, walked to the Russian border to the Azerbaijani town of Julfa or to Iranian ports on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea.
On the third, Pacific route, which functioned throughout the war, the amount of cargo delivered to the USSR was large and amounted to 8,000,000 tonnes (47.1%). Lend-lease materials were loaded on ships in the ports of the west coast of the United States and arrived in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Magadan and Vladivostok.
Convoys on the Pacific route was not. All vessels were alone, "drip flights," but virtually every ship had guns, machine guns and small military teams. The losses here were disproportionately lowest than in the northern convoys, but the 10-ka torpedoed ships can be calculated.
The fourth was a special route that is associated with the aviation land-ysis. This so-called AlSib. According to it, the South American planes were distilled in the Soviet Union under its own power on the highway Alaska — Chukotka — Yakutia — Krasnoyarsk. From Krasnoyarsk fighter wings with complex loaded on the train platform and transported to the European part of the country, and the bombers flew themselves on the front-line airfields.
This route to the USSR delivered about 8,000 aircraft, including 5,000 fighters "Cobra" and "Kingcobra", about 2000 bombers, "Boston A-20" and "Mitchell B-25", also 710 transport aircraft "Douglas C-47" .
Total price with the Soviet Union under the Lend-Lease Act, as per Russian economists and historians (NV Butenina and others) post-Soviet years — more than 12 billion dollars (the cost of the war years).
REMEMBER, APPRECIATE, THANKS
Representations of Russian and English Professionals on assistance to Russian Union for the Lend-Lease
All four years of the war the allies supplied under Lend-Lease to the USSR arms, ammunition, food, military equipment … How important was this help and how could beat Russian alliance without the support of Britain and the United States? To answer this question tried Russian and British experts in a Moscow — London RIA announcements. Was on it, and the correspondent of "Military-Industrial Courier", which results in the expression of some of its members.
Supervisor Center stories of war and geopolitics of the Institute of World History
— I know one thing: thanks to including American, British, Canadian aid, assistance from other states together we won the war. Defeated the very unsafe and massive enemy who trampled all over Europe and was able to put together a military unit of brutal states.
Without a doubt, the assistance we received under the Lend-Lease Act, first through the famous northern convoys (they were in Russian Alliance of England in 1941-1942 and later), had a very great importance. Especially in the first years of the war, though in 1941 it was very, very insignificant.
An even greater effect then had a moral factor, in this case not only for the army, and for all our people. The knowledge that we are not alone, that are fighting together with such massive allies like Britain and the United States was crucial to raise the morale of soldiers at the front and in the rear of the population
Lend-Lease is highly valued in our country. There is no harsh work, no matter how this assistance is not mentioned, do not let her score, respectively. And now we can re-express gratitude for that management and the peoples of the anti-Hitler coalition.
Dr. Exeter Institute
— As of principle was to help ensure that your country won in the war? We remember that the Russian Alliance before entering this aid under the Lend-Lease was able to tilt the Nazis from the walls of Moscow. Need to be aware of: the underlying configuration and prerequisites for this change occurred in the Russian army before the start of Lend-Lease.
But the Lend-Lease, in my opinion, was very important. He has promoted a planned Russian Union in supplying the army gun and ammunition, supplies of material resources of fuel. Other than that supplied food, raw materials, technology … All this allowed the USSR to redirect its industry to create a first of weapons and military equipment.
I think the mixed delivery, it does not just AME, and different materials, equipment, assist Russian Union more successfully produce large-scale offensive operations, including in 1943-1944. Because of their importance can not be minimized.