Carrier task force
Following a statement by China’s management that each power must be majestic aircraft carrier, was quite clear about the transition programs from the creation of the PRC Navy carrier forces into action. But just to start construction before the end of AB 2007 Beijing not reported. Coupled with the fact in March 2007, in one of Hong Kong newspapers, supported by China, posted information that will get its own Celestial first «floating airfield» by 2010.
Somewhat later it became clear that purchased through front office in Ukraine unfinished Russian heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser «Varyag» 11436 project will be completed in China as a real aircraft carrier medium (ABC). In 2007, the ship officially renamed the Shi Lang (Admiral Shi Lang) in honor of the admiral, who commanded the Chinese navy seized in Taiwan in 1681.
It should be noted that China’s way of shopping decommissioned for scrap AB already quite long studies aircraft carrier technology. The first successful acquisition was TAVKR «Minsk» Project 1143. Derived from the Pacific Fleet and sold for scrap South Korean company cruiser assigned to a port in South Korea and resold in 1997 in China for 5 million bucks. The main purpose of buying announced the creation of a floating amusement attraction. After 18 months of renovation, which cost about 45 million dollars, the last «Minsk», turned into an attraction, harbors in the bay of the special economic zone of Shenzhen, near of Hong Kong. Then in 2000, the PRC acquired for $ 8.5 million dollars written off «Kyiv» — the lead ship of Project 1143.
For the «Varyag» Chinese paid 20 million dollars, allegedly intending to reincarnate it into a floating five-star hotel. But suddenly the perfect transaction caused a strong reaction in Turkey, which owns the right to pass and management of navigation in the Black Sea Straits (Montreux Convention). Refusing to pass the ship Ankara ruled «wishes» of the USA, who rightly believed that China longs to finish the «Varyag» as a true AB and so makarom start developing carrier-based technology in military shipbuilding second in importance to the PLA. Only during the visit of Minister of Foreign Affairs Tang Jiaxuan in Turkey the issue was resolved and the ship carried through the Straits in 2001 and in March 2002, was taken to the shipyard (CVD) Dalian Shipyard in the town of Dalian, where he began his completion.
At the time of cessation of the construction of ABC «Varyag» degree of its readiness was estimated at 68-70 percent. This corresponds to the subsequent: all were mounted combat and technical equipment placed inside the hull of the ship, stretched and connected to the mechanisms of virtually all piping and cable trays, tested only in the small mechanisms. For information: ABC «Admiral Kuznetsov» project 11435 by summer 1989, in other words, four months before the release of the factory tests, was ready to just 71 per cent.
So Makar, China was actually ready to ship, but without weapons parts, placed at the top (ropes aerobatsplanes, gazootrazhatelnye shields, radar, SAM, SPAR, etc.).
Chinese spices is long enough not to commence completion of the ship and would only deal with his research as China, may not have received part of the technical documentation, without which it is unrealistic to finish the ship and run tests already installed devices. But since late 2005 revival began outfitting works. Was one hundred percent of the audited units, pipelines and cable routes. Many mechanisms were unloaded and sent to special factory of China. Work on GEM failed because by this time the Chinese had all the documentation set by the Russian destroyer project 956E, which mechanisms are similar mechanisms TAVKR GEM project 11436.
If we talk about the equipment of the ABC, in China has its own creation of virtually all weapons except drive radar and landing also aerotechnical equipment — aerobatsplanes (ARF), and steam catapults (FCT) and certain types of communication. All this, of course, managed to book abroad, as early as 2007 there were reports in the media that China had arranged to purchase four sets of ARF, emergency and other parts of the barrier aerotechnical equipment in Russia.
The first set will be used for analysis and possible copying second set on ABC Shi Lang, third and fourth set for the first 2-Chinese aircraft carriers built. But at the end of 2011 it became clear that our homeland, perhaps under pressure from the U.S. refused to implement the ARF and documentation FCT. According to unofficial data, China succeeded in placing an order for ARF in Sweden and instead PCT is developing its electric catapult (POS) with technical assistance from a number of Western countries, namely the Swedish companies.
China is unlikely to repeat the mistakes of the Soviet Navy command when AB perches every conceivable weapon and armament. Most likely at the completion of Shi Lang will be applied experience the U.S. and France and the ship will be equipped with the smallest set of tools and weapons, aimed at providing first operating carrier-based aircraft. In August 2011, the Shi Lang its course out to sea on the tests, but still without a carrier-based aircraft, the design of which there are many problems. It is expected that far without them and the ship enters into service in the Navy in 2012.
The media is a never-ending attack on the first Chinese aircraft carrier. Many Russian experts at, for example, they say in unison about the «unreliability of his experience of the Russian power plant project ABC 11435», «weak air defense system,» «the absence of aircraft for various purposes — EW AWACS» that «J-15 (Su- 33) worse than the South American F/A-18A «, etc. But all these claims are unlikely to correspond to reality. Thus, the «unreliability GEM» — a consequence of the principle of supply disgusting residual ABC «Admiral Kuznetsov» in 1992-2005 over the years when the Russian admirals just thrown into oblivion surface ships and worthless sought to preserve the Navy a large nuclear submarine fleet (still have not saved) providing them with all consumables, spare parts and money for repairs. With all this have forgotten all that heavy aircraft type «Kiev» projects 1143, 11434 (four units) operated with that same power plant planned to repair without any problems.
Regarding accusations of «weak defense» may be noted that the usual AB never had a strong defense based on the anti-aircraft missile systems. It is a common misconception naval «strategists», when carrier-based fighter replaced SAM. Discussions about what J-15 (Su-33) inferior F/A-18A, maloobosnovanny as fighter combat power determines not Avionics, and the quality of its tools and Russian missile R-77 hardly worse American counterparts.
AB developed for the Chinese aircraft of all destinies, just experts on this silent. Namely, the machine is created based AEW transporter Y-7 (clone AN-24, which carried out a purge in the wind tunnel). Fascinating detail — Chinese admirals not lay in the on-board electronics of the aircraft (as it sought Russian admirals car radar picket Yak-44) transcendent abilities, because we can assume that the AWACS aircraft is guaranteed to be developed.
Plans for the creation of self-AB were approved in China in 1992, but announced only in 1993. According to Western agencies, ABC construction project started 9985, possibly in 1999 at Shanghai SHA Shanghai Jiannan Zaochuanchang.
An indirect confirmation of this, According to experts, is the fact that naval bases in Dalian, Shanghai and Zhanjiang being reconstructed berths, after which the database will be able to take such a class ships. But the views of some analysts, it is unlikely for the subsequent reasons: ABC project completion 11436M conducted on CVD Dalian Shipyard in Dalian and, as experience with AB receives this particular factory, not Shanghai SHA; China is no established production of steam and gas turbines with a unit capacity of the military mission in the unit 50000-70000 horsepower, and any of their purchases are not available; China does not have the creation of steam boilers or nuclear reactors required for carrier power.
At the same time, some experts point out: and steam turbines, boilers and the respective power would be removed from the heavy aircraft carrier «Minsk» and «Kiev», is considered to be fully possible. It is not excluded, these units were used directly or after repair, or as benchmarks to establish production. But very average operation similar installations on destroyers 956E/EM project indicates that it will be difficult to do.
Likely to build its own AB in China has not yet begun, and design work conducted on such a ship. Bookmark it can only be made in the final selection GEMs and full guarantee of its receipt by the GCC before closing the lower deck of the ship on the slipway.
According to experts, the construction of ABC ends no earlier 2017-2020 period. Displacement of the ship will be 45000-50000 tons, it will be equipped with catapults. Type GEMs is not reported. Of course, he still will meet with an embodiment of the average aircraft carrier nuclear power plant (NPP) and 3 catapults.
Composition Wing Shi Lang ABC and ABC new project may become a unified and inclusive 24-36 J-15 (Su-33M clone), four AWACS aircraft (based on Y-7 or Yak-44), 6-18 Ka-28PL two Ka-28PS and other machines (up to 50-55 units). As the main multipurpose fighter (IIC) elected J-15. So, in October 2008, Russian sources said that China had expressed a desire to purchase 14 Su-33M IIC. With all of this, perhaps, will be organized in China build additional batch of aircraft or their Chinese version, which can be created through the integration of existing airframe Su-33 radar and avionics installed on the Su-30MK2. Not excluded that in the upcoming modernization of these IIC will provide the ability to launch from a catapult. But in the 2011 sample to conclude the contract for the supply of these machines were suspended. Maybe, again due to pressure from the U.S. to Russia. Refusal to conclude a contract disguised explanations unprofitable production such malehankih party aircraft.
It should be noted that the FAA projects 11435 and 11436 Russian designers at the direction and control of the Soviet Navy vsekrete from political control of the country seats were reserved for 2-steam catapults for masking naming «landing facilities.» Because during another repair ABC Shi Lang trampoline can be removed, and in its place are located usual steam catapults. Chinese, we must assume it all perfectly clear. Hence their intention to build their ABC with catapults.
It should be remembered that for carrier-based aircraft pilots take off from an aircraft carrier — a simple operation, and landing — the most difficult. That’s why China is currently the main thing — to train pilots landing on the deck method AB and takeoff method of secondary importance. In this connection until 2015 to modernize the FAA under Shi Lang catapult they may not be.
In the current time in the media until there design images of the new Chinese aircraft carrier only with an ordinary power plant.
DK. In the battle of the Chinese Navy has about 100 amphibious ships (DC), including two helicopter landing ship dock (DVKD) Project 071 (one under construction). Independent creation DVKD undisputed success of China. This ship is guessed its layout — U.S. Navy type DVKD San Antonio (LPD-17), because the initial design of its images were very similar to the layout. Coupled with the fact frisky build amphibious forces over the past four years (built about 70 tank-landing ships — TBC) showed that Chinese industry is able to build ordinary peacetime ships (technology 50-60s) in the highest pace.
There is no doubt that this really powerful fleet TDK created first for the political pressure on the country, shrouded in the «first island chain» (Ryukyu and Philippine) — Taiwan, Vietnam, the Philippines, South Korea.
DFA. Not counting the amphibious ships in the battle of the Chinese Navy is more than 150 landing craft (DFA), including 10 DFA hovercraft (DKAVP) capacity up to 15 tons. In the current time are working on creating DKAVP with capacities of 50-60 tons for use in the project DVKD 071 as landing craft. Actually China may have up to 500 DFA, but they are distributed between different departments and can not be clearer accounting.
Navy showed enthusiasm for the Russian multipurpose landing craft air cushion (MDKVP) project 1232.2. According to some sources, the supposed order for six-eight ships of this type in Ukraine. But actually ordered only four (two of them to be built in China). As a result, there was a little scandal between Moscow and Kiev for violating the author’s rights. Some experts believe that the claim of in this case untenable, since all the construction documentation for this MDKVP have to Feodosia plant FPE «Sea» (where built and can build such ships) and ran across the post-Soviet Ukraine in the property without any criterion.
EM. By the end of 2011 in the battle of the Navy there were 27 destroyers (EM) of different projects. Hallmark applets construction is the construction of EM 2-ships in the series with different weapons systems and schemes GEMs. More modern of their two EM project type 052C Lanzhou, Chinese shipyards to build on, but with the introduction of foreign technologies and devices (French radar, Ember, 100mm AU, Russian SAM «Reef», Ukrainian GTE, etc.). Purchased in Russia EM projects 956E and 956EM ships inferior data on air defense, surpassing them in shock abilities. Project EM 052S equipped functional radar (MFRLS) with 4 motionless phased arrays (PAR) type 382 made with the introduction of Russian technology.
Since the price of the ship itself was very superior, decided to build a 2-EM 051S project type Shenyang. Unlike EM 052S project on these destroyers instead motionless PAR set spinning antenna post SAM type «Fort-M.»
Chinese Navy, building quite a diverse fleet of EM obviously tend to find faster the better type destroyer and, of course, to get the most advanced technologies.
European spetsy visited in 2007 by EM Guangzhou (Project 052B) and made the following conclusions. At first glance the ship corresponds to the level of the XXI century. Here and close coupled superstructure and outside extensive use of technology to ensure stealth «Stealth». But a closer study of the destroyer affects a large amount of technology used 50-60s. This is an old, yet Russian general ship systems, quite primitive ventilation system through corridors along the sides of the nose through the superstructure aft. According to experts, when such ventilation in case of damage to a ship full of fumes in the smoke from the fire or new poisons happen faster than the crew time to wear personal protective equipment.
Big surprise caused gas-door design which can lead to warping and damage in combat injuries or severe storm. Many of the gun (324-mm torpedo, RBU and others) have only hand drive, which is especially striking for a ship with a significant saturation very modern avionics.
Detailed consideration of electronic weapons showed that cable runs most systems have no protection against possible electrical stimulation and therefore are compact and very ordinary.
After inspection, one of the professionals gave this assessment work creators Chinese Navy EM: »For even their project 956E destroyers will still remain long of cosmic ships …»
Because most experts believe that while China still can not build a completely modern and equilibrium in combat and technical systems ship.
DF. In the battle of the frigate is 51 (RF), some of which on the European systematization can be attributed to corvettes (EOC). Not counting the 6 FR (Project 054A), all others are feeble defense presented in the best case, only short-range air defense missile systems (such Crotale). A significant number of obsolete frigates and 053 projects 053N was sold a number of Third World countries.
For substitution of old DF and as an addition to comparable expensive new EM built over a cheap frigates. By late 2011, the project built two FR 054 with a lightweight defense that have similar properties and composition of the hardware with the French frigate La Fayette. In these upcoming DF were built (built 6 ships) by the modified project 054A, comprising substitution SAM HQ-7 (Crotal) the SAM HQQ-16 («Calm») 1h32 CPG (32). In addition, four AK-630 ORD changed to two ZAC type 730 (Goalkeeper). It is clear now about the ongoing construction of another 2-DF type.
Due to the configuration of weapons has changed the whole concept of building frigates in China. Previously it was thought that expensive EM should be complemented by a cheap comparable frigates. But with the advent of new management control FR Navy came to be regarded as a rather powerful universal ship limited displacement, and new destroyers may already be considered as ships outposts future aircraft carriers.
Prior to 2003, no new construction combat boats (BCA) for the Navy was not planned. But in 2004, the development of CAD programm suddenly received a new boost. Please weakened enthusiasm for patrol (PKA) and rose to the rocket (PKA) boats. So, the best of the RCA project 037/1 (25 units) were dovooruzheny ASM C-802 and transferred to the RSA.
At this time, the technology developed in Australia, large-scale construction of PKA type Houbei, filled with new C-802 anti-ship missiles. Total by the end of 2011 more than 60 built PKA. They have moderate to full speed (36 knots), but thanks to architecture and catamaran hull form, made according to the requirements of technology «Stealth», seaworthiness own overpriced and low visibility.
There is no doubt that many of the former RCA years of construction can be derived in the reserve and the total number of CAD reduced very recently.
In the battle of the MTS is now available just a few minesweepers (TIH), and more than hundreds of ships and boats in this class are derived in reserve. For example, only one raid proryvateley minefields (RPMZ) Project 312 in the reserve fleet is above 50. According to the majority views of professionals, CSI force — the weakest component of the Chinese Navy, the development of which is being inexplicably missing pace.
The general conclusion
Certainly, China’s shipbuilding industry has mastered many technologies, but they are achievements of the past. Chinese shipbuilders while absolutely can not create, even licensed, marine gas turbines, steam turbines and large high-pressure boilers for warships class AB.
But contrary to most Chinese people — not counting the ballistic missiles they do not own high-quality models of naval guns and weapons. Those that do exist are copies made with a lag of 10-15 years, with the worst features in comparison with the originals. In the Chinese Navy, for example, no automatic artillery of all calibers, torpedoes and mines its development.
This suggests that effective research in this field in China are not held. In general, available in China normal and guests generally do not meet the prospects of development of science and technology. Most experts believe that China in today’s criteria to design and make an atomic bomb and of cosmic booster easier than usual to create highly cost turbojet engine for Airbus passenger.