Most of the Japanese soldiers chose life in the Russian camps
For the inhabitants of the Urals, the Urals, Siberia and the Far East, the unexpected appearance of many thousands of Japanese was extremely sudden and least confusing. In general, all cleared up later. These were prisoners of war, the Soviet Union found themselves on the ground by a momentary defeat of Russian troops of the Kwantung Army.
65 years ago — August 8, 1945 statement was taken by the Russian government, which stated that on August 9, the Soviet Union considers itself at war with Japan. Combat actions in Manchuria and North Korea, Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands ended after a day or 24. September 2 land of the rising sun surrendered. Experience battles with the Wehrmacht was not in vain. In addition, technical equipment of Russian armed forces were then at a high level.
Russian prisoners is not so bad
All the characteristics of the Red Army was superior to the Japanese army. But when war is waged with the obvious advantage of one of the parties, without the huge numbers of prisoners were not enough. Some Japanese officers middle management, being in a hopeless situation, do hara-kiri. But the bulk of the troops, after coming to the conclusion that the campaign is lost, surrendered without resorting to this unique method of suicide.
As a result of instant war in the late summer of the 45th before the Russian troops laid down their weapon over 594 thousand Japanese, Koreans and other nationalities soldier who served under the banner of the Kwantung Army. Only part of the 1st of the 1st Far Eastern Front during the period from 9 to August 31, captured more than 300 thousand people.
How was forthcoming fate of these people? Most of them handed over to the Head of Department for prisoners of war and internees NKVD. Some were just rebuilt in the camps in the Urals, Siberia, the Far East, for example in the camp number 16 in Khabarovsk. Others were sent to the levels in those prisons, where they were kept, German, Hungarian, Finnish, Italian troops.
So, in Yelabuzhsky camp Number 97, in which the officers found the seat of the Wehrmacht in the main taken prisoner at Stalingrad, in the period from December 1945 to February 1946 brought 2244 the Japanese. But the process has not been completed. During 1946 to Yelabuga brought another 7256 Japanese prisoners of war.
What did they do? Sawed wood, grew vegetables in the fields attached to the camp-represented. In addition, worked in various business organizations Elabuzhsky Tatarstan region, also participated in the construction Bondyuzhskoe (Mendeleev), chemical plant, power plant Kazan. In this case, the Japanese officers for volunteering earlier in order to sign a document in which stated that they are willing to work on areas of the USSR. Now the Russian prisoner seemed to them not so terrible …
From sad to funny one step. In autumn 1946 to Elabuge rumors: the captive population of the country of the rising sun caught bloodless dogs removed from their skins, and put them in a form crawls through the camp enclosure. Local residents like even beheld such werewolves running around the streets of the town. As they say, terrified eyes significant. Completely may be that some of the Japanese in fact with dog skins tried to infiltrate the city, the human is all rumor is brought to delirium, turning it into a funny thing.
Laughter laughter, but the Japanese prisoners waited another test. In the spring of 1947 in the middle of the former officers of the Kwantung Army, caught in Yelabuga, an outbreak of typhoid fever. Fortunately, Russian doctors rapidly localized, and then one hundred percent have eliminated this danger.
ESCAPE did not make sense
The duration of the working day or for both German and Japanese prisoners of war was for the standard 8 hours. According to the circular of the NKVD number 353 of August 25, 1942 in the occupied captive soldiers of Hitler's army blocks provide monetary allowances. Privates and junior commanders paid 7 officers — 10 colonels — 15 generals — 30 rubles per month. Prisoners of war who worked on the valuation work, accrue additional amounts depending on the output. Overfulfils rate assumed 50 rubles each month. The same amount received foremen. With a good job exchange rate could rise to 100 rubles. Prisoners of war were given to doctors every month for 40 rubles, the paramedics — 20. In addition, all the inhabitants of the camps were supplied with free soap. If the uniforms come in a deplorable state, instead it captured nothing changed clothes and change shoes.
In accordance with the same circular NKVD USSR on standards of allowances to each prisoner of war was supposed to 400 grams of bread a day (later this rate increased to 600-700 grams), 100 grams of fish, 100 grams of cereals, 500 grams of vegetables and potatoes, 20 grams sugar, 30 grams of salt, too little flour Surrogate tea, vegetable oil, vinegar, pepper. Generals, also officers and fighter dystrophy patients, the daily ration was richer. The norms of this circular with the August 1945 spread to the Japanese prisoners. But often former members of the Kwantung Army instead of bread were given a corresponding quantity of rice.
Curious fact that the prisoners of the Japanese in contrast to the Germans almost did not guard. While working in the logging in the districts Yelabuga they huddled in tents in summer, in winter in dugouts. Worked almost without help, without supervision, with all this shoot actually was not. So where to go? From the Urals to the land of the rising sun — a few thousand kilometers. If before lunch residents of the rising sun made the daily norm, then after 12 hours of day or strolling through the woods, picking berries, mushrooms, nuts, and on the subsequent morning again went out for firewood.
Most of the Japanese people (as well as the Germans), which were to be kept in the camp number 97, first delivered to the station Kizner that in Udmurtia, a column of prisoners of war and later moved to the foot sadly Elabuge. The local boys were among the first learned of their arrival. Somehow, it became clear that the intruders from the Far East requires a lot of paper. The kids guessed change it to the soap: take 2-3 ruble book and gave its residents of the rising sun for a slice of scarce product. From time to time, the prisoner managed to fool Yelabuga guys. They began to slip them wood blocks, plastered with soap and water. But the guys have realized quickly how to fight with samurai cunning: they took with them a needle, and if she does not puncturing piece — which means slip a piece of wood.
Already in October 1947, throughout the Soviet Union began the repatriation of the Japanese homeland. In April 1948, Elabuga, for example, have left 2,494 people. But for prisoners who were serving sentences under Article 58 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR (military offenders, anti-Soviet), stay in detention was extended for 25 years. With all this the Germans were convicted or residents of the country of the rising sun often exercised the filing appeals against the verdict. However, September 28, 1955 a law was passed that allowed both German and Japanese military offe
nders to leave the place of detention and vorachivatsya home. Soon, the last remaining still in the Russian Union of Wehrmacht soldiers and the Kwantung Army left the USSR.
In 1995, the Japanese photographer Kazuo Sumida town of Nangoku arrived in Russia and traveled by train from station to station Lada Kizner to visit those places, where his father, the past Japanese prisoner of war, lived and worked in the forties. This officer in 1945 initially sent to the camp at the station Lada in the Tambov region. After some time, together with other Kizner transported to the station, unloaded from the cars and sent their own power to Yelabuga. The railroad was not there until the present time, you can get to a place or a car, or by river — the Kama. In 1995, Kazuo Sumida just like his father, overcome by foot path from Kizner to Yelabuga.