December 16, 2012. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions have always been linked. For example, if you compare the maps of seismic activity and volcanic activity map, we see that they are almost identical. And earthquake, and volcanic eruptions occur at the boundaries of tectonic plates that make up Earth's surface. Earthquakes occur as resetting the voltage produced at the expansion board or when they are immersed beneath one another. Slightly more complicated is the process of magma along almost all tectonic boundaries — this magma rises to the surface, forming volcanoes. In recent weeks, the magnitude of the earthquakes around the world has increased exponentially, some researchers are concerned about, because earthquakes are triggered to wake up volcanoes.
The movement of magma inside the volcano causes earthquakes, are usually small. The tremors also caused shifts the slopes of the volcano and the plate underneath.
For decades, the source of powerful earthquakes and volcanic activity was hidden by a veil of secrecy, as the Soviet government kept outside observers away from the area now called the Russian Far East.
Research the last 20 years have shown that the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kuril Islands are a hotbed of seismic and volcanic activity that could cause a tsunami that threaten throughout the Pacific Basin.
9.0-magnitude earthquake in the region in 1952 caused a catastrophic destruction throughout the Pacific ring, and even less violent shocks affect the Pacific Basin.
In 2006 and 2007 earthquakes in the central Kuril Islands generated a tsunami about 15 meters high. And while the tsunami that crossed the Pacific Ocean were much less one of them in 2006 caused the destruction of New Orleans, California, more than 10 million dollars.
In 2009, a powerful eruption Sarychevskogo volcano in the Kuril Islands paralyzed air traffic in the North Pacific. Specifically, the identification of the frequency of such events is very important for many people, said Bourgeois.
"Imagine that you have decided to build a nuclear power plant in New Orleans. You need to take into account local circumstances, but beyond that more and remote sources of danger, the worst-case scenarios, even a tsunami from the opposite coast of the Pacific Ocean, "- she said.
But this is possible only with understanding the nature of the risk factors and the history of documenting the facts of the earthquake, tsunami and eruptions in Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands is relatively short.
In addition, as the area has long been closed, most of the data fell into the public access until recently.
Over the past 10 years there have been many studies left tsunami deposits and other evidence of prehistoric events, but in the Kamchatka-Kuril subduction zone will spend many more field work.
But for risk analysis need only consider the fact that the subduction zone can trigger an earthquake of magnitude 9.0. So it makes sense to "go back to prehistoric evidence" and find out where and how often the large-scale incidents.
Research Kaskadiyskoy subduction zone near the coasts of Washington, Oregon, Northern California and British Columbia for the past 25 years have shown that the historical data do not provide adequate risk characterization.
It used to be that the risks in the Northwest are small, but studies have shown that before there were documented data Cascadia sparked at least one magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami that reached the shores of Japan.
See also: Modeling predicts a "mega-earthquake" in California, in the Cascadia subduction zone
The Aleutian and Commander Islands — another source of seismic and volcanic activity, the danger of which is to be re-evaluated.
"The Aleutian Islands insufficiently studied — says Bourgeois. — Studies of the Far East — a kind of template for the study of the Aleutian Islands. "
Ideally, a specialized vessel could deliver a number of researchers in the Aleutian Islands archipelago, such as how Bourgeois and other scientists from the U.S., Japan and Russia conducted a detailed research project on the Kuril Islands in the past decade.
Over the past few years, scientists have gradually moved away from the decade at the correct theory that asteroids killed the dinosaurs. As a former professor of history, I can confirm that almost any textbook claims that killed the dinosaurs 65 million years ago due to an asteroid crashed into the Earth. These days, the researchers suggest that the lava that erupted thousands of years in the Deccan Trapp (large igneous province located on the Deccan Plateau in the western and central parts of India, one of the largest volcanic formations on Earth — approx. Ed.) Magmatic Province near Mumbai, could throw into the atmosphere of a critical amount of sulfur and carbon dioxide, which caused the mass extinction due to global warming and ocean acidification.
Live Science writes that recent findings — last salvo in the ongoing dispute that it is — an asteroid or volcanoes — killed the dinosaurs in the era of so-called Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction [KT extinction].
The adherents of the old theory argue that some 65 million years ago, a giant meteorite crashed into the Earth in Chikshulub in Mexico, which led to the release of a critical amount of dust and gas in the atmosphere, blocking the sunlight and cause global cooling, has poisoned the world of dinosaurs and sea creatures. They further indicate that a collision with a meteorite could have triggered volcanic activity, earthquakes and tsunamis.
In 2009, the oil companies, burivshie well on the east coast of India, discovered a very ancient lava deposition, buried at a depth of about 3.3 km below the ocean surface. They contained many fossils belonging to some small-Tertiary [Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, the K-T boundary] — the disappearance of the dinosaurs. Lava from these deposits drifted about 1,603 miles from the Deccan Trapp.
Adatte Thierry, a geologist from the University of Lausanne in France, said that the igneous province now covers an area equal to the area of France, but in the Cretaceous period was the size of the whole of Europe.
The idea that volcanic eruptions could break the life of dinosaurs, opens our eyes to the dangers actually represent the eruption for the existence of civilization. This is even more staggering when you realize that earthquake are generally detonator eruptions.
World data for the last week show an increase in magnitude and a significant increase in the frequency (magnitude> 5.5) earthquakes. The newest graphics clearly show an alarming worldwide trend towards an increase in the frequency and strength of earthquakes. These data correlate with the information on the website U.S. Geological Survey, which shows the increased frequency of large earthquakes (magnitude over 5.0).
This trend indicates that the depth of earthquakes diminished and they come closer to the surface. Shallow earthquakes occur along the fault lines when the accumulated stress. Seismic waves can propagate far enough to cause other earthquakes, this may explain the increase in the frequency of recorded earthquakes.
Some scholars argue that the frequency of earthquakes recorded was higher as the worldwide installed more devices-pointers — they allow you to see more small earthquakes. But, be that as it may, these graphs show the increase in the number of large earthquakes; also useful to remember that the Richter scale — this is the common logarithm.
See also: Scientists are looking for reliable ways to predict earthquakes
Does not ease the situation increased the population of the planet: more people suffering from these events.
Recent events may even convince the average person that the world is more and more strong earthquakes:
Earthquake in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming was felt in areas of Montana and Idaho. Earthquake Center in Wyoming, December 15, 2012, was in the north-western tip of the state. Although not received any information about the devastation, we must remember that in Wyoming is Yellowstone caldera.
History of Yellowstone is located above the fireplace mantle of molten rock, which occasionally break out. Over the past 18 million years has created a series of creepy Yellowstone eruptions, some of which were classified as superizverzheniya. A volcanic eruption can throw your stock magma so fast that the surface will collapse into the magma chamber and formed a caldera. I'm talking about a lake the size of Texas, and even much more. Yellowstone caldera is called supervolcanoes because it can produce incredibly ambitious volcanic explosion.
Due to the volcanic and tectonic nature of the region, the caldera experiences from 1,000 to 2,000 earthquakes a year.
Last superizverzhenie Yellowstone eruption occurred about 640,000 years ago. This eruption thrown about 240 cubic miles of volcanic ash in the atmosphere and on the ground.
On Saturday, December 15, 2012 around 12:25 pm local time in Yellowstone Park has been a slight earthquake. However, according to official data, the depth of thrust was only 9.6 kilometers below the surface of the Earth. As a result, the earthquake could be felt throughout the region.
The U.S. Geological Survey notes that earthquake occurred about 40 kilometers south of Cooke City-Silver Gate [CDP in Montana]. The earthquake occurred at 71 km to the south-east of Gardiner [CDP in Montana]. Officials reported that the quake was 75 km west of Cody, Wyoming and barely 450 km from Salt Lake City, Utah.
As I mentioned, earthquakes often occur in this area, one is not particularly worrying. However, the Yellowstone supervolcano is one of the largest in recorded history, and is thus answered by a serious threat. Most scientists believe that if he is cast now, he is quite capable of destroying virtually all the territory referred to as the United States. And everything else, will have an immeasurable impact on the global climate, agriculture and living standards.
Around the world there are about 1,500 active volcanoes, 50 or 60 of these erupt each year, releasing steam, ash, gas and lava. These soft, weak explosions and not even close to the threat posed by the Yellowstone. In fact, if it ever explodes, it will take a few seconds to destroy all life in the area.
In the U.S., to avoid its impact zone is practically impossible. One can only hope that it will not explode in the near future, but someday it will still happen. All you need — a couple of well-placed earthquakes.
Science is what to do.
Translation: Anastasia Antoshkina