Food plants and other grazing. Photo

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This article is intended as a generalization of personal experience on the use of pasture for travel to the North of the Far East. Author's experience is limited mainly to the limits of Magadan region, but I think it can be applied to a much greater margin.
In my opinion, in the summer in the taiga or the tundra away from human habitation can not die of hunger. Yes, all that can be found in nature, strange taste, not very nutritious, and can not replace good nutrition for the modern man, as we are not used to too "wild" foods. However, in an emergency, in case you for some reason ended up in solitary places, without the ability to quickly get out, at grass can survive for quite a while. Although I wish you did not have the occasion to test this assertion by experience.
And in a long journey, with sufficient amounts of food, you can simply diversify the diet that grows under their feet.
Here I am not specifically covered such topics as hunting and fishing with special equipment — a separate issue, and limit to what can be found and to obtain "bare hands." I can not insert here the request of warning — think more than once before you take something from nature — not whether the harm inflicted is too large compared to the benefits. Yes, if you do survive, justified by all means, but if you just order to diversify the diet, you have dug up the roots and ripped everything within a hundred meters — it's too much.
Most different edible things can be found on the beach. The difference in water levels between the highest points of the tides on the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk is 5 m, and sometimes even more. Therefore, at low tide, the water released quite large areas of the sea floor — the littoral zone, where you can find many interesting and edible creations.
Different clams — Mussels, small "saucer", nutella and Natick spirally twisted shells. They can be eaten boiled or roasted in the coals in the fire. Cook for 5-10 minutes to boiling water, cook about the same. If you want, you can even eat them raw, but taste — an amateur, besides, they are often difficult to remove from the shells. On the coast of northern almost all edible clams, which you can find. But be careful — with overeating possible strong food poisoning. Dose at everyone, and you can find it by experience, so just do not eat a lot of mussels, if you have not tried them before. Mussels accumulate toxins, so gathering them near the cities, it is easy to poison
In the intertidal zone or in a pile of emissions is almost always possible to find a variety of algae — sea kale, or kelp, alyariyu, Ulva, and more. Kelp and alyariya are brown algae (or thallus of brown), Ulva — to the green. Taste Laminaria probably all know, because of the seaweed salads sold in stores. Kelp is a long flat "leaves" — thallus, attached to rocks with thick dense rhizoids, "roots." With great excitement, they often come off and thrown to the shore, where they can be collected. The upper ends of the thalli usually istrepleny and tasteless. When cooking them cut off. The rest of the thalli were cut into pieces and cook (in the dilute sea water or salted fresh water), then fried or stewed in a half an hour or more — until kelp reaches the desired degree of softness, to taste. You can add fried onions, carrots or make a salad with raw or canned vegetables, boiled potatoes and greens. You can eat kelp and crude.
Alyariya is a long dense "stalk", framed at the edges of large thin "frills." It occurs less frequently than kelp — where great depths are close to the coast, and, in my opinion, less tasty. She was eating a stalk, cleansing it of "frills." In its raw form it is quite hard and inedible, but if you put out a little longer, it turns out quite a tasty dish. In the presence of sugar can be boiled jam or candied. First water (5 minutes of cooking) drained, and then several times on slightly cooked in syrup.
Ulva — A thin transparent bright green algae usually rounded. Found in emissions, but not universally, as kelp, and on a small scale. Cook it, I have not tried, but Ulva quite delicious raw, or, better yet, in the dried form. Before drying Ulva carefully rinsed, cleaned of sand — better in sea water to sunflower, and laid out on the rocks, or hang on the branches. After an hour or two, depending on the weather, ready unique green chips.
On the rocks in the coastal littoral often grow fucus — bushy seaweed with bubbles on the ends. In its raw form, they are not edible, but if the bubbles cut and fry in a pan (even without oil — liquid coming out of the bubbles when heated, will not let them burn) — it turns out pretty tasty dish.

Mertenziya Mertenziya blooming

On the beach, right on the rocks, or in the coastal meadows, often grow in abundance two plants — ligustikum Hulten (Wild parsley or celery) and mertenziya sea (Borage). Ligustikum taste like really on parsley or celery. You can have that, or simmer as cabbage, add to soup, stuffing or salads. Mertenziya taste resembles a cucumber. From it out very tasty salads with mayonnaise, or sunflower oil. Especially tasty young leaves, but you can use the stems and flowers. Salads can be made from one mertenzii, but better with the addition of about one third ligustikuma. You can also add young shoots of willow-herb, leaves little long-tailed duck. Very well add onions and cucumbers, if any. Mertenziyu can also simmer and add to the soup.
Less frequently found along the coast Long-tailed Duck, forming bright green large loose "cushion". If you look closely, we see that it consists of individual, almost vertically standing stems bearing pointed succulent leaves. Long-tailed Duck, unlike ligustikuma mertenzii and has a fairly strong "grassy" taste, but in small amounts it can be used in soups and salads.

Chin seaside

On coastal slopes and meadows growing rank seaside (Sea peas). This plant belongs to the legume family and appearance resembles peas with bright purple flowers. Edible young leaves and flowers, they can be added to soups and salads. In late summer, mature small, 3-4 cm long, beans containing small pea. Young green pea quite edible raw. Ripen, they turn brown and hard, at this stage, they can be eaten cooked as a regular peas.

Bow scorodite

On dry slopes of the sea can be met Bow straight (Wild garlic). This small, 10-20 cm tall, plant with flat, rather fleshy leaves. In the spring, they appear among the first and, until the flower arrow, edible and tastes like a regular bow. After the appearance of the arrow leaves become too rigid.
On riverine grasslands and forbs on muddy or sandy spits found Bow scorodite, is no different from the green onions grown in the gardens. Its leaves can be eaten throughout the summer. Bulbs also edible, but small, 1-2 cm
On wet slopes and meadows, and forest glades priruchevym meets Kamchatka fritillary. Easily recognized by its dark brown bell with rather unpleasant odor. The plant itself is inedible, but if carefully dig it out of the ground at the base of the stem to light small nodules of about an inch in diameter. They can be eaten raw or cooked, they are sweet and powdery taste, vaguely reminiscent of the taste of potatoes.

Kamchatka fritillary

In the mountain tundra growing plant of the family portulakovyh — klyaytoniya. We have several kinds, but they are similar to each other and all are edible. Klyaytoniya an outlet shiny bright green fleshy leaves and soft stems with white or purple flowers in a circle radiating from the center of the plant. Leaves klyaytonii Eshsholtsa unpleasant taste, gorchat, but klyaytonii platanoides leaves taste like purslane and are quite suitable for salads. All kinds klyaytony have thick long rhizomes, to taste remotely like a carrot, but a dry and powdery. It must dig because it is fragile and easily break off if its just to try to pull out. Then you need to clear the rhizome of a thin brown skin that has an unpleasant earthy taste, and you can eat it, or add to soups instead of potatoes or carrots.

Klyaytonitsa holly Klyaytoniya Eshsholtsa

Willow-herb — Probably one of the most famous plants, know it all. In the Far East is growing 2 types of willow-herb — broad and narrow-leaved. Fireweed angustifolia occurs more frequently and actively colonizes disturbed man land. His high, sometimes a man's height, stems with bright pink flowers in late summer flower garden views give a lot of abandoned wasteland. Housing and roads near the willow-herb collecting is not necessary, but far from the city plant can be harvested in the abandoned villages on the post-fire, and in undisturbed places it occurs quite often. In willow-shoots are edible — they can be added to salads, marinate, stew. You can also dig a long fleshy rhizome — it is also edible, especially in spring and autumn.
Fireweed is broad — the plant is smaller, with pink flowers and a fleshy blue-green leaves. It grows mainly in riverine gravel and along streams. It can be used in much the same as the willow-leaved tea.
From the leaves and flowers of mature plants of willow-herb can make tea.

Oksiriya

Oksiriya, or kislichnik, wild sorrel (Oksiriya). Small unattractive plant with soft rounded leaves on long, thin stalks, growing from a single outlet, usually with one or more floral arrows sticking out of the middle. Oksiriya grows in most streams in the upper reaches of the mountain cirques, sometimes by river or coastal cliffs, usually under the snow fields or in the place of performance of groundwater. Kislichnik really taste like sorrel, but softer and more acid. Oksiriyu eat raw, added to soups or cooked compotes. Edible mostly leaves, but can be boiled and stewed fruit of the arrows. Is obtained from the leaves of a good filling for pies.
Highlander trehkryloplodny. This is a rather nondescript plant is found in very diverse habitats. Height is 20 to 40 cm, leaves lanceolate, broad at the base and pointed at the tip. Knotweed grows trehkryloplodny usually one stem, rarely few stems grow very close. In late June, appear pale cream flowers, gathered in loose panicles. By the end of August at their place are formed dry brown fruit with three protruding edges in different directions (hence the name — trehkryloplodny). This plant is also to taste like sorrel, but the leaves are more rough and tough. Young leaves can be used as a filling for cakes, add to the soup.
Nettle. In the North, the Far East is growing mainly nettles angustifolia, although sometimes there and nettle. In Kamchatka still occurs ploskolistnaya nettle. Stinging nettle is widely known and recognized in medicine. However nettle angustifolia is close to it and can be used as well. Nettle has long been used as food. From it you can make a variety of salads, pre-parboiled, add greens as the first (commonly known nettle soup!) And second dishes, stuffing and filling for pies.
On wet rocks and mohovinam along small streams, often at the edge of the water can be found Saxifrage Nelson — A plant with rounded, toothed on the edges of leaves covered with fine hairs rare. The leaves on slender stalks, gathering in the rosette. Flowers are small, white, gathered in a loose brush. Saxifrage leaves little can be added to salads, soups, meat dishes, stew with willow tea or nettle.

Horsetail

Horsetail. Early in the spring after the snow melts appear light brown translucent succulent stems with a long pointed "spikelet". It mature spores. Stems thick, with a pencil, and brittle. Soon after they die, and instead she grows green "pine" with a thin stem with a slightly upturned "branches", which is usually called horsetail. Greens in food do not use. Edible young brown stems and spikes. Spikelets better not to use a lot of raw, there is information that they contain thiaminase (an enzyme that destroys vitamin B). When cooked thiaminase destroyed, so horsetail can be in any amount to add to soups, fillings for cakes, fry bread crumbs. We and Alaska natives used as small nodules that grow on rhizomes horsetail. Collect them in spring, right after the snow, because then they become tough and tasteless.

Young fern

Fern. In the Far East and Kamchatka widespread bracken fern. Its in fairly large quantities are collected, and then sell the salt or cooked in various ways. In Magadan region to collect two types of suitable fern — Dryopteris extended and lady-fern. They grow normally kamennobereznyakah or alder thickets along streams, under the snow, and other wet areas. The size of their young shoots of bracken shoots are smaller and covered with brown scales. Flakes reduce palatability, but scalding hot water, and after salting of their falls off. Collect fern in "snail" — only show the "leaves" — wai, collapsed in the ring, on a thick stalk. Fern collection period is very short — until the fronds will not grow to a height of 10-15 cm, then the leaves start to turn and become stiff. There are first, "snail" about the middle of June (on the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk). You can collect them for about a week. (Exception — the mountains with long lying snowfields where ferns are common on the slopes of the loops, and the edible stage can find up to August). Assembled fern be processed for 4-6 hours until it zaderevenel. His or salt (salt is placed about 1:10 by weight), or boiled and then put out for about 15-20 minutes. Can be extinguished at once, for 30 minutes. In ferns can add sauteed mushrooms, fried onions or carrots.
Edible as basal part and young stems of various grasses and sedges. This is what is usually called the actual grass — a plant with a long stem, inflorescence bearing a spike or panicle with long, narrow, often rigid leaves. They can grow as a single stem, and forming lumps of various sizes.
By the sea, on the shingle and coastal meadows growing kolosnyak — A plant of the family of cereal with a thick ear, similar to wheat. He has a fairly large for a wild grass seeds, which mature in mid to late August, and if you have the patience to clean them of the many layers of the husk, they can also be fed.
Can be eaten raw or cooked Kidney larch, birch, alder. If you cook, "porridge" of the kidneys, is not very tasty, but a useful and nutritious dish. In every season, edible inner layer larch bark, birch and alder, but that is "a last resort".
As a vitamin supplement can be used decoctions of young shoots of mountain pines and Larch, rich in vitamin C. Stems creeping, (yellowish, with short thick needles that grow on the tips of branches), collected in the mid-to late June, over very low heat bring to a boil in water or sparsely syrup, or pour boiling water in a thermos. The resulting broth to drink that, or add sugar and lemon to taste. In winter, you can also make vitamin decoction of pine thickets, while vitamin C in it, of course, will be less than in the decoction of the young branches. The main thing to remember when cooking broth — vitamin C is rapidly destroyed by boiling.

Rowan buzinolistnaya

Berries. In the North, the Far East is growing many different edible berries. This cranberry, blueberry, cranberry, crowberry, honeysuckle, various types of currant, cloudberry, raspberry, rose, mountain ash. Rowan We found two kinds. Siberian mountain ash — high, slender tree with some bitter berries and buzinolistnaya, which is found only on the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk and Kamchatka. Both species are edible, but rowan berries Siberian rather dry and bitter in taste. After the first frost berries are not so much gorchat as fresh and can be used to make jam or compote, but the taste they can not compare with the dishes of large, juicy and sweet berries of mountain ash buzinolistnoy.
Briar. Certainly known to all prickly shrub with bright pink fragrant flowers. Almost all of the plant is edible. From fresh leaves can be brewed tea, rich in vitamin C, filling them with boiling water. The roots can also be brewed. The petals can be added to tea, or make jam from them, as from rose petals. On the nutritional value of fruits can talk a lot. It is sufficient to say that they are very tasty and useful both in raw form and in compotes and tea. All other berries are very tasty and can be used to make jams, compotes and other dishes suggested by visionary chef.
Inedible berries. In Magadan region there are 4 types of edible berries. It Derain Swedish — Maturing in late summer white and pink berries from loose powdery contents on thin legs height of 10-15 cm Derain Swedish non-poisonous, but its berries loose and tasteless, with large hard seeds.
White dogwood, Svidina. This shrub 1.5-2 m, with reddish stems and white juicy, fatty berries 5-8 mm in length. The berries are eaten svidiny hazel, but they taste good and are considered inedible.
Arktous, "Wolfberry" — Tiny clumps, with large thick leathery leaves, turning red in autumn. They are 2 types — Alpine (black fruits) (arktous_alpiysky) and krasnoplodny (arktous_krasnoplodny), is less common. Arktous alpine sometimes forms a fairly large clumps in the char, but the berries ripen usually very small. Berries arktousa considered inedible, but they are quite tasty, and I know of no credible cases of poisoning them.

Arktous Alpine Arktous krasnoplodny
Hellebore

Of poisonous plants is called only hellebore and hemlock. In spring, when the trees begin to break the eggshell just kidneys, Erman forests or thickets of alder appear numerous bright green succulent shoots hellebore ostrodolnoy, growing small groups of 5-10 pieces. They are somewhat similar to the wild garlic and mind and asks to speak, but they have by no means impossible.
Cicuta or milestones — Poisonous plant of the Umbelliferae. It is a great herb with strong naked hollow stems with an umbrella inflorescence (like dill), a height of 1-1.5 m hemlock grows in moist shady places. Very poisonous! In the Magadan region of the hemlock-like plants found only non-toxic, tasteless and angelica, Kamchatka milestones are sometimes confused with cow parsnip.

Mushrooms
Mushrooms are probably the most used and valuable species grazing. They have a low calorie (300-500 calories per kg of mushrooms), because they contain a small amount of fat and carbohydrates. But at the same time, they contain significant amounts of protein, minerals and vitamins. Therefore, even a small amount ingested, mushrooms evoke the feeling of satiety.
The Magadan region, most poisonous mushrooms. However, the collection is not yet hope that a poisonous mushroom you do not get. Take only those mushrooms, which you are sure. Here, I will not give a detailed description of all edible mushrooms — it would take too much space, and confine myself to general information.
Most fungi macromycetes (ie, those that we can see with the naked eye) are divided into tubular and plate. At the lower surface of the tubular mushroom cap has fused together tubes and is similar to a sponge. They are known to all aspen, boletus, boletus mushrooms and white. All mushrooms are edible tubular except oiler pepper and mushrooms or deer Reshetnikov.
Greasers pepper (It is also called bile fungus). Hat to 6.5 cm in diameter, dense, cushion-shaped, ocher-brown, naked, smooth, shiny, immersed to the touch. Tubes rusty color. Flesh is yellow hat in crimson, yellow in the leg, in the context of red. Mushroom is not poisonous, just very unpleasant to the taste.
Deer mushrooms (Reshetnikov). Their several kinds, here I will write to all common symptoms. The cap is usually dry, tomentose-scaly, sometimes slimy with large chunks of general covers. Color cap — deep red, brownish-red, pink or yellow-pink. Pores (tubules) of various shades of yellow color, large — up to 3-4 mm in diameter. Deer fungi also are not poisonous, but have a strong bitter taste and are considered inedible.
In the lower part of the plate mushroom caps consists of platelets, diverging from the legs to the edges of the cap. With edible agaric more difficult, some of them are much more toxic. The most widely known and common mushroom, but there are others. Therefore, the collection plate of mushrooms, be especially careful.
Most often, there are different russules and mlechniki. Syroezhek in the Magadan region, about 20 species. It's pretty meaty mushrooms with broad blades brittle white or yellowish and fragile stem. Russules hat can be painted in a variety of colors — green, brown, yellow, orange, pink, red, purple. Russules all edible. Species of insipid, you can cook at once, and the bitter and pungent — after pre-boiling for 5-7 minutes.
By mlechnikam are actually mlechniki, mushrooms, volnushki, gorkushka, Gladyshev. A characteristic feature of this group is the allocation of latex on the cut. Mlechniki all edible, but only after special treatment — soaking or boiling, since sap of most species caustic. Mlechniki and mushrooms can gradually add to the pan with the other mushrooms (1/5 — 1/10 of the total), but they are best, of course, salt.
Here, in brief, and all the basic information about the grazing, which I wanted to share with you. For more details, I refer the interested reader to the list of used and recommended reading:

Literature
Berkutenko AN, EG Virek Medicinal and Edible Plants of Alaska and the Russian Far East. Vladivostok, 1995
Sazanova NA Mushrooms of the Okhotsk-Kolyma region. Magadan, 2000.
Chastuhina SA Wild plants — food and medicine. Magadan, 1992.
Chastuhina SA Medicinal and Edible Plants of Kolyma. Magadan. 1995

Author — Elena Andriyanova (Magadan)

Photo Mochalova OA, Horev MG

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