Genitourinary fistula

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Genitourinary fistula — a disease which often has to face the practicing urologist. Genitourinary fistula — abnormal communication between the urinary and reproductive system. If the fistulous orifice opens to the outside, and it stands out from the urine, the fistula called the outer, if No — internal.

In whichever bodies between which is formed fistulous opening internal fistula divided into:

  • cystic fistula: vesico-vaginal, vesico-uterine;
  • ureteral fistula: ureterovaginal, ureterovaginal mother;
  • urethra-vaginal;
  • urethra-vaginovesical;
  • complicated urinary fistula.

Vesico-vaginal fistulas are the most common of all possible fistula genitourinary system.

Why did this happen

Usually urocystic fistulas occur after obstetric and gynecological surgeries such as hysterectomy, cesarean section, complications during childbirth due to injury of the urinary organs. Such a situation may arise during childbirth large fruit, rude conduct of labor, forceps delivery. We should also highlight the fistula appeared after radiation therapy sessions — they are very difficult to treat because of the reduced ability of the irradiated tissue to recover.

What appears

The main complaints, bringing the woman discomfort, reducing its daily activities, and in some cases led to the loss of ability to work and stop sex life is leakage of urine from the vagina, frequent and painful urination, abdominal pain, fever.


Identify vaginovesical fistula usually not difficult. For this it is necessary to conduct a vaginal examination, inspection of the vagina with the help of mirrors, cystoscopy (examination of the bladder cavity using endoscopic techniques) or to perform X-rays (vaginography, cystography, CT).


Treatment fistula surgery. It provides for separate closure of the defect in the United organs. For instance, if talk about vesicovaginal fistulas, first sutured defect in the bladder, and from the vagina. The positive effect is usually achieved after the first surgery in 95% of cases in the absence of inflammation and a good blood supply to the tissues.

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