In search of water. Condensation and desalination

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CONDENSATION

The roots of trees and other plants pulls moisture out of the ground, and the tree can collect liquid with the water table at a depth of 15 meters and more, that's too much to dig. Do not try — let the tree pump it for you in a plastic bag tied to a branch with leaves. Evaporation from the surface of the leaves will condense in the bag.

Choose healthy plants and branches, densely covered with leaves. The open side of the bag, place on top and corner — bottom to it dripped water formed by condensation. Polyethylene coating on any plant will collect moisture vapor from the plant, and it cools, condenses on the plastic. Hang the tent, securing it at the top or bottom of a stick propping. It is necessary that the leaves are not touching the coating, or they will take away water from the tent,
on the surface of which a drop of water must flow into the plastic-lined depression in the ground.

Even cut plants give a condensation, as will be heated by being placed in a large plastic bag. With stones set it so that the leaves do not touch the bottom of the bag and the water, which will be built under them. Again with stones holding tent taut. Prop up his stick with a gasket. Place the tent on a small slope so that water flows to the point of collection. After the formation of water stops,
change branches with leaves.

Solar still

Dig a hole in the ground with a diameter of about 90 cm and a depth of about 45 cm in the center of Place tank to collect the water and cover the hole with plastic film, giving it a conical shape. Solar heat increases the temperature of the air and the soil underneath, and starts vaporizing. When the air is saturated with water vapor, water condenses on the inner surface of the film
and runs down the cone into the tank. This method is particularly effective in the desert and elsewhere, where it is hot during the day and cold at night. Plastic cools faster than the air, which causes severe condensation. This type of distiller must collect a minimum of 550 ml of water in 24 hours.

Distiller can become a trap. Plastic attracts insects and small snakes. They can slip into a cone or get under the film and fall into the pit, and not be able to get out. Solar still can be used to clean water from toxic or contaminated sources.

Stone Roughen the bottom surface of the film to force the water to flow down through it. Use stones or other goods to secure the edges of the film and give it the shape of a cone. Secure the tank to Popeye livestock not pushed him.

It is reasonable to pump water by installing some capacity below the tank and using a siphon effect, not to touch the tank itself.

URINE AND SEA WATER

In any case, do not drink or any other — never! But one can get drinking water by using distiller, and the sea water will give you more and salt.

Desalting

Kits for distillation (distillation) included equipment liferaft, but they can be made from readily available resources. Distillation of liquid you need something can replace laboratory retort. Insert the tube top in covered container filled with water and set on fire (the tube should not touch the surface of the liquid) and the other end of it — in a closed vessel to collect water, which is desirable to set inside another container
from there poured cold water to cool the steam at the output of the tube. This equipment can be made from any of the materials at hand — for example from the machine backpack. To avoid the loss of steam, seal the joints with clay or wet sand. A simpler method involves the use of variants of solar distiller. The water in it will condense a little longer, but it is easier to do.

Insert the tube in a closed vessel in which to boil polluted / salt water or even urine. The second end of the tube, place a solar still. A piece of sheet metal or the bark can be loaded, cover the vessel. Even folded cone plant leaf will help guide couples in a tube.

Water from snow and ice

It is better to melt the ice than snow — from what he gets more water, more quickly and with less doubled energy consumption. If you have to melt the snow, first melt some snow, then add a little. If you put just a lot of snow, the bottom layer will melt and be absorbed into the snow from the top, exposing the bottom, which can burn. Snow lying at the bottom, more granular than at the surface, and give more water.

Water from the sea ice

Sea ice — a salt is not suitable for drinking, until after a certain time. The younger the ice the more salt in it. Young ice has a rough surface and milky white. Old sea ice blue color and has rounded edges due to wind and other weather conditions. Good water can be obtained from ice blue — the blue ice and smoother the surface, the better. But beware, even the old ice that has been exposed to salt spray.

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The basic needs of survival time. Water

To repeat: the basic elements necessary for survival, it is FOOD, FIRE, SHELTER and WATER. Their priority may vary depending on where you were. In the desert, on the list will be water in the polar regions, the main concern will be the fire and shelter.

Setting priorities — one of the first steps to survival. Healthy person needs a lot of time to starve to death, because the body can use its resources are stocked, but the effects of wind, rain and low temperatures can be fatal even in a temperate climate, and in the icy water of the polar seas, death occurs within minutes. The food is rarely the most important factor. Even where it is difficult to find in the first place is usually necessary to solve other problems. Shelter is often paramount in extreme climatic or weather conditions — and not only in the icy polar regions or burning deserts, but for hikers on the mountain in fog. Closely connected with this and the need for fire.

The presence of water on hand at any time perceived by the majority of modern people as a matter of course. We are so used to our tap water, they rarely think about the water until some drought is forcing input control its flow. However, a person who tries to survive in the open sea or after the flood, although surrounded by water, may have a burning need for water to drink — and there are many
such places but the rain is no clear access to water, but … water is always necessary.

 

WATER

Water is essential for life, all life depends upon it, and all living things it contains. An ordinary person can live without food for three weeks, but without water only three days. This is a number one priority. To start a search for water, not wait until it's over. Take care of the one that you have, and look for the source as soon as possible, preferably flowing fresh water, although any water can be sterilized by boiling or using cleaning chemicals. The human body is 75% water. This cooling unit, which maintains a constant body temperature, it is necessary to remove the kidneys of waste products, and to some extent the water is a means of transmission of nerve impulses. But the amount of fluid in the body is limited. Water consumption should be filled, otherwise suffer and your health and your performance.

Water consumption

The average person loses 2-3 liters a day — even those who rest in the shade, losing about a liter of fluid. Even just by breathing spent liquid, and its loss through breathing and perspiration increases with activity and temperature. Vomiting and diarrhea diseases further increase fluid loss. That the water balance falls below a critical level, these costs should be recovered or water as such or water
contained in the food.

How to save water in the body

For the information of fluid loss to a minimum, follow the following:

  • Minimize the physical stress. Rest.
  • Do not smoke.
  • Do not overheat. Stay in the shade. If there is no natural shade, do shed.
  • Do not lie on the hot ground, or hot surfaces.
  • Do not eat or eat as little as possible. If water does not enter the body, the digestion of food, he begins to take it out of their bodies, further increasing dehydration. Fats are the most difficult to digest, and it requires a lot of water.
  • In no case do not drink alcohol. For its assimilation is taken too important water bodies.
  • Do not talk, breathe in the nose rather than the mouth.

Search for water

The first thing to notice is the bottom of the valleys, where water flows naturally.
If there is no obvious current or still water, looking zarasli green plants and try to dig there. Immediately at the surface may be water, which will fill the cavity. Even in the parched canyons and channels of streams can be directly on the surface of the water, especially in sandy or pebbly ground. In the mountains, looking for water that had collected in the crevices and cracks.

On the coast, if you dig up the top level of the tide — and especially where the sand dunes — the chances are high enough to attack about 5 cm of fresh water, which runs down through the soil and accumulates as if floating on top of the heavier salt water. It can be unpleasant, salty taste, but good for drinking. Where the rocks down to the sea, look for areas with lush vegetation, even of a fern or moss, in rock crevices, and you can find a stream or spring.

If you can not find fresh water, can desalinate salt water.

Be careful with those bodies of water, around which there is no green vegetation or near many animal bones. It is likely that the water is contaminated with chemicals, located close to the surface of the soil. Bank check for the presence of substances that may be indicative of an alkaline environment. ALWAYS Boil water from standing waters. In the desert there are stagnant lake, they become salt lakes. Water from them NEED opersnyat for drinking.

Collect dew and rain water

Despite the "acid rain", which are formed in the industrialized countries and can lead to the accumulation of pollution in the soil, rain water is safe to drink everywhere, and only need to assemble it. Is maximum catchment area, the water pouring into any available containers. Pit lined with clay, will be good to hold water, but it should be covered. If you do not have waterproof material that can be used to collect water crust or plates. If you have any doubts about the collected water — boil it.
In a climate where it is very hot during the day and cold at night, you can expect heavy dew. When it condenses on the metal objects, it can be collected, such as a sponge or lick. You can use a cloth to absorb its water, then wring out. As one of the ways to collect water can tie a clean cloth around the hips and ankles, and walk on the wet undergrowth. The water can drain from the tissue or pressing.

Animals as Signs of WATER

Mammals

Most animals need water constantly. Grazing animals are never very far from the water — although some travel thousands of miles to get away from the dry season — because they have to drink at dawn and dusk. Converge in one direction animal tracks and trails often lead to water, follow him down the slope. In carnivorous (meat-eating) animals between visits watering can pass a lot of time. They get the liquid out of the animals, which feed on and therefore do not represent pointers near water.

Birds

Birds that feed on grain, such as finches and pigeons, never moving away from the water. They drink at dawn and dusk. If they fly low and straight, then sent to the water. Coming back from the water,
heavy with, they flit from tree to tree, often resting. Make sure they move, and you can find water.

Water birds can long without food and water, and therefore do not necessarily indicate a nearby water. Hawks, eagles and other birds of prey also receive fluid from their prey and therefore can not be considered a sign near the water.

Reptiles

Is not indicative of the water. They use the dew and get liquid extraction and can go without water for long periods.

Insects

A good indicator of water, especially bees: they do not fly more than 6.5 km from the nest or hive, they do not have a specific time to water consumption. Ants can not live without water. The chain of ants,
running up the tree, goes to a small reservoir of accumulated moisture. These bodies of water are even in dry areas. Most flies do not fly away on 90 m from the water, especially
European fly, whose body iridescent green.

Traces of human

Usually lead to a spring, well or well. Water can be covered with branches or stones to reduce evaporation — after use of the source to restore coverage.

REMEMBER: It is better Dosed sweating THAN WATER!

If you have to dispense the remaining water, drink it sips. After a long time did not drink water, do not jump on it greedily, when you find it. First drink in small sips. Gulp when dehydrated the body can cause vomiting, which will lead to even greater loss of valuable water.

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