Strategic missile submarines of the South Asian powers
Organization of defense research and development (DRDO) of India in March held today, the first successful test of its own sea-based ballistic missile K-15, which was launched with an underwater platform off the coast of Andhra Pradesh.
By the end of 2012 graduates from all these trials and carrier BR — first Indian nuclear submarine ‘Arihant »(INS Arihant S-73). With the adoption by a complex consisting of SLBMs and strategic missile submarine, New Delhi will find vsepolnotsennuyu marine component of the nuclear forces and the South Asian giant will become a member of an elite «club» owners SSBN.
Fleet for growing economy
First of the new millennium Authority of India, has taken, according to observers, a tough course on the country’s transformation into a regional superpower with the intention of coming to join the military and economic world society favorites, came to the conclusion that a radical revision of the main directions of development of the state of the Navy.
In the short time the document was developed, received the title of The Navy’s Maritime Capability Perspective Plan («Perspective Plan naval construction.») He defined milestones, which must adhere to the process of building power in the Indian Navy during the 2005-2022 period. Now operates newcomer version of this document, adopted in 2011, prior to the approval of military construction XII Plan for 2012-2017.
The main goal of an ambitious applets, which means to perform in three steps is to develop by 2022 the modern Navy. They are according to plan vberut a new technological achievements will own network-centric capabilities and the ability to perfectly solve all puzzles. Namely, a new type of IUD should be ready for combat operations during armed conflict at least some intensity (from local to large-scale conflicts, wars) and the implementation of the policy of nuclear deterrence, project power through the intertidal (pribrezhnuyu. Prim. Ed.) Zone, to participate in humanitarian and peacekeeping operations.
Increased attention is given in the program need to protect the public interest in the Indian oceans, which, of course, not the case. In 1-x, India implies that by 2025 its economy will be released on the 4th place in the world (and it is almost all tied specifically to the supplies by sea). In-2, according to official data, the bulk of the country’s trade (more than 90 percent by volume, 77 — by value) is carried out now specifically sea. Plus about 97 percent of the oil produced for India on the shelf or it is delivered by tanker.
Navy Commander Admiral Nirmal Verma India recently identified in this regard: «As our country moves along the path of economic development and is beginning to play a huge role in the world economy, the growing importance of sea lanes and thus inexorably grows and role in ensuring public interest and measured economic development played by national naval forces. «
With all this one of the methods to ensure the ability to freely use in maritime interests of the country is considered to be a more active use of means of strategic deterrence, including sea-based. Namely, in the section on nuclear deterrence latest, designed for 15 years of naval strategy in India, has been called The Freedom to Use the Seas: India’s Maritime Military Strateg («Free access to the open sea: naval strategy in India») and officially promulgated in May 2007, states: «High stealth submarines with ballistic missiles suggests that the dark side will not be able to find evidence of their deployment, and redeployment of forces building … have nuclear weapon submarines — more effective means of nuclear retaliation. Taking into account indicated above, you can make a specific conclusion that nuclear submarines — a more desirable standard armament for the creation of small nuclear forces. «
The first time the need to have nuclear submarines armed with cruise and / or ballistic missiles that are capable of carrying nuclear warheads, was designated in 1999 in a document entitled Nuclear Triad («nuclear triad») and is considered non-confidential part of the «preliminary» nuclear doctrine of India. It stressed that the outlined conclusion is made based on the fact that marine underwater nuclear weapons carriers owned a number of advantages, including the least vulnerable to detection and destruction of the enemy than the air or ground vehicles.
Placed in 2003, «full» of India’s nuclear doctrine confirms the need for the creation of the marine components of the nuclear deterrent, as adopted in the future, the principal naval doctrine obviously showed a tough New Delhi’s intention to acquire the marine component of the nuclear forces.
Unclassified part of the conceptual document justifying efforts on marine nuclear weapons, of 184 pages was published in June 2004 under the title Indian Maritime Doctrine («Naval doctrine of India») and contained detailed and unambiguous postulate: Navy — a more appropriate view of the armed forces on the basis effectiveness of beliefs and abilities placement of nuclear weapons and its combat deployment, and more desirable carrier rockets YABCH — submarine.
«In order to meet the challenges of strategic deterrence for the country is a very principled get their hands on nuclear submarines capable of carrying missiles with nuclear warheads,» — stressed in doctrine.
In a brand new edition of naval doctrine, 200-page unclassified portion of which was posted August 28, 2009, the importance of having a public Navy carriers of nuclear weapons, especially submarines, proved again. When this practice is already ripe for the theory — 26 July 2009, was launched first Indian-built SSBN «Arihant».
Ceremony with a hint
Common in Indian seafarers coconut nut — instead of a bottle of champagne — on board the ship broke wife of Indian Prime Minister Gursharan Kaur.
— I christen thee naming «Arihant» — «Fighter enemies» and wish you all the best of the submarine — said «godmother» nuclear-powered icebreaker, removing cover nameplate attached to the tower.
The very same Prime Minister Manmohan Singh opened the ceremony, noting in his speech, the work done by the director of programs from ATV (Advanced Technology Vessel) Vice Admiral retired D. Sai Prasad Varma. «Today, we were among the five selected countries, able to build nuclear submarines,» — said the Prime Minister.
Noteworthy that the date of launching the «Fighter enemies» have chosen not the case, the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the victory of India in the Kargil armed conflict with Pakistan.
«Arihant» — a head in a series of nuclear-powered submarines, design and construction of which are carried out under the above programs from ATV. Missile built at the shipyard shipbuilding center in Visakhapatnam, there is evidence of intent to enter into operation in the fleet of more than 3 SSBN. According to unofficial data, the cost of nuclear-powered vessel head of R & D, coupled with $ 2.9 billion dollars, the price of the same series of ships will not exceed 600 million dollars (30 billion rupees).
The official date of launch programs from ATV, which, according to Indian sources, this day has already spent 300 billion rupees (6.02 billion dollars), it is assumed in 1984. After painstaking research and consultation with professionals in New Delhi have decided to implement the program from creation of the state of the nuclear submarine fleet in two steps. In 1-x, to lease one BOARDS Soviet Project 670 («Chakra» in the Indian Navy). In-2, begin to develop a boat NPP and most specifically using Russian submarine professionals. But the destruction of the USSR, Russia’s refusal to extend the lease «Chakra» and termination of joint activities relating to the reactor and the most naughty boats affected the state program there.
First project manager ATV (1984-1988) Mihir K. Roy — then Vice Admiral — recalled in 2009: «We were moving pretty fast, but then there was a long delay — the Soviet Union collapsed, and all treaties programmke ATV were changed.» In general, in 2004, signed a new agreement on this subject, and Manmohan Singh said at the launching ceremony «Arihant» on the water: «I thank our Russian friends for their consistent and invaluable cooperation, which symbolizes the close strategic partnership.»
The program design and construction SSBN was so hidden that the official head of the tab missile has never been announced. Now there are reports that it came out in the presence of Dr. Abdul Kalam, head of DRDO and then President of India, in 1998. Well SSBN descent of the water was closed from prying eyes dry dock — this complex is called in the Indian press base Matsya. Present forbade conduct photographic and filming permission received only a couple of government photos showing VIP-persons.
According to Indian sources, the total surface displacement «Arihant» — about 6,000 tons, a large submarine hull length — 110 meters, width — 11 meters. The boat can develop submerged speed of 24 knots and armed with 4-PU for K-15 SLBM (three rocket launchers), nasal six 533-mm torpedo tubes (30 torpedoes and missiles of «Club-S»). GEMs ship — nuclear (one pressurized water nuclear reactor thermal power of 80-85 MW), single-shaft. Declared working depth — 300 meters, the crew — 95-100 people.
Road layout ship NPP was commissioned September 22, 2006 at the Department of Research Center of the nuclear industry name Homi Bhabha in the town of Kalpakkam. In August 2009, this setup allowed a group of journalists, while at the Department of E. Murthy says that the land layout pressurized water nuclear reactor, which is running the last three years, and reactor for submarine match at 1:1.
Incidentally, in the article published in August 2009 in the journal «Frontline», quoted the following words of the control of the Department of Atomic Energy of India Srikumar Banerjee: «Russian experts at gave us advice, while throughout the submarine, and not only on the nuclear power plant» . But last Head of MR Srinivasan said: «Navy spetsy received some help from the Russians in the issue of designing a submarine, but the reactor — quite Indian development: power plant components and fuel were made hands of professionals of Indian Industry.»
The main instrument of ‘Arihant’ is designed spices DRDO missile system with K-15 SLBM, which can be equipped with both nuclear (power up to 200 kilotons) and ordinary warheads. The missile, called in Indian sources «Sagarika» (in Hindi — «Ocean»), was created with the widespread introduction of developments acquired programs BR «Prithvi» and KR «BrahMos». Flight tests K-15 began in 2004 (the first run — 23 January), the reported Indian sources, the missile did not successfully start up once and underwater shield (first run — 27 October of the same year).
SLBM — a two-stage, solid-fuel, its length in the transport and launch container (TPK) — about 10 meters, the greatest diameter of body — 0.74 meters, starting weight — from 7 to 10 tons, firing range — more than 700-750 km, throws weight — 500-1000 kg. In some Indian sources indicate that the developer seeks to increment the distance traveled by the rocket up to 1300 km and more than — techno respectively Tipo assistance requested from Israel and Russia.
It is interesting to follow. In the article by S. Annitana «Secret Underwater Weapon» posted in January 2008 edition of «India Today», quoted Rear Admiral Raja Menon retired that SSBN carries more than 12 rockets, any MIRV (multiple reentry warhead blocks with personal guidance) that totality gives 96 warheads. Neither before nor after which Indian sources of MIRV for K-15 is not mentioned. In general, some experts are skeptical about the words of a retired admiral.
It should also be noted that in some Indian sources claim: DRDO based on BR «Agni III» under the «black programs» (in other words financed closed budget items), which is called in Indian sources «missile program family» K «, is also involved in development of K-4 SLBMs (firing range — 3500-5000 km, throws weight — 1000 kg). On submarines type «Arihant» can be positioned are four such missiles for which the main purpose is no longer Pakistan, as is the case with K-15 and China. With nedavneshnih then arise in the Indian press reports and papers on SLBM K-5 — intercontinental range.
Locate SSBN this type, and is now on the stocks already second PLAT «Aridhaman» (INS Aridhaman, a synonym for «Fighter enemies»), planned by the new naval base, which is being built on the east coast of the country near the Rambilli, near the naval base «Vishakhapatnam», in works, codenamed «Project Varsha» (Project Varsha). It is understood that on the ground area of about 3,000 acres (1,214 hectares more) will work only military personnel — to comply with excessive secrecy measures. Implemented the first step of the construction cost of 15 billion rupees (300 million dollars).
And finally — not so long ago in the Indian media reported that the government has approved the construction of another 2-class SSBNs «Arihant».