Irregularities in the pituitary

Irregularities in the pituitary

Hormones that affect all organs and systems into the blood of the special endocrine glands, which are combined into a single endocrine system. It is the adrenal glands, thyroid and parathyroid glands, the ovaries (in women), testes, and testes — (for men), pancreas, hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Perhaps, in the body there is no more hierarchical and disciplined system than endocrine.

At the top of the power is pituitary— A small gland, rarely exceeding the size of the nail on the little finger of a child. The pituitary gland located in the brain (in the very center) and tightly controls the majority of the endocrine glands, highlighting special hormones that control the production of other hormones. For example, the pituitary released into the blood thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which causes the thyroid gland produce thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Some pituitary hormones have a direct effect, for example, growth hubbub (STH), in charge of the processes of growth and physical development of the child.

Lack or excess of pituitary hormones inevitably leads to serious diseases.

Pituitary hormone deficiency leads to:

  • By secondary hormone deficiency other endocrine glands, such as hypothyroidism — deficiency of thyroid hormones.
  • Also, the lack of pituitary hormones themselves cause severe physical disabilities. Thus, the deficit of growth hormone (GH) in childhood leads to dwarfism.
  • Diabetes insipidus— In the lack of antidiuretic hormone (ADH produced in the hypothalamus, and then enters the pituitary, where released into the blood)
  • Apituitarism— Lack of pituitary hormones — in children may manifest delayed puberty, and adults — sexual disorders. In general, hypopituitarism leads to severe metabolic disorders that affect all systems of the body.

Excess pituitary hormones gives bright clinical picture and disease manifestations differ depending on what or which exceeds the norm hormones.

With an overabundance of pituitary hormones:

  • High levels of prolactin (hyperprolactinemia) In women is manifested by menstrual irregularities, infertility, lactation (breast swelling and secretion of milk). In men, hyperprolactinemia leads to a decrease in sex drive, impotence.
  • The excess growth hormone (GH) has given the world of giants. If the disease begins early in life, there is a gigantism, If the mature —acromegaly. According to the Guinness Book of Records, the tallest man was Robert Pershing Wadlow, born in 1918 in the United States. His height was 272 cm (288 cm span). However, according to the national record books Divo, the highest in the history of the world was a Russian citizen Fedor Mahov. His height was 2 feet 85 inches and weighs 182 pounds. In acromegaly patient thicken the hands and feet, facial features become coarse, increase internal organs. This is accompanied by disorders of the heart, neurological disorders.
  • Enhancement of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) leading to disease Cushing. This is a serious disease manifested osteoporosis, high blood pressure and the development of diabetes, mental disorders. The disease is accompanied by characteristic changes in appearance: weight loss of arms and legs, obesity in the abdomen, arms, and face.

Causes

To understand the causes of diseases of the pituitary gland, it is necessary to remember that it is a part of the brain. Above it are the optic nerves, the sides — the large cerebral vessels, and oculomotor nerves.

The reason excess pituitary hormones in most cases is a tumor of the pituitary gland — adenoma. This increases the level of the hormone or hormones that produce adenoma cells, whereas all the other hormone levels may significantly reduce the because of compression of the remainder of the pituitary gland. Growing adenoma dangerous by the fact that compresses around the optic nerves, blood vessels and brain structure. Almost all patients with BPH have headaches, visual disturbances are common.

The reasonspituitary hormone deficiency may be:

  • perfusion defects,
  • hemorrhage,
  • congenital hypoplasia of the pituitary gland,
  • meningitis or encephalitis,
  • compression of the pituitary tumor,
  • craniocerebral trauma,
  • some medications
  • irradiation
  • surgery.

Diagnosis and treatment

Diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the pituitary gland has been endocrinologist. The first time the doctor will gather history (complaints, information on medical history and family history), and on the basis of this study will appoint the necessary hormonal profile (blood test for hormones), thyrotropin-releasing hormone test, test sinaktenom etc. If necessary, can be assigned to computer tomography brain Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, etc.

Treatment of diseases of the pituitary gland is aimed at normalizing hormone levels in the blood, and in the case of adenoma — reducing the pressure of the tumor to the surrounding structures of the brain. With a lack of pituitary hormones used hormone replacement therapy: a person is given drug analogs relevant hormones. This often lasts for life. Fortunately, pituitary tumors are rarely malignant. However, their treatment — a difficult task for the physician.

In the treatment of pituitary tumors using the following methods or a combination thereof:

  • drug therapy;
  • surgery — removal of the tumor;
  • Methods of radiotherapy.

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