21.05.11.Teplye May days are finally pleased Nikolaev sunshine and good weather. Moreover, without any transition period came the heat. Naturally, in those days you want to go near the water — if you do not swim in the river, then at least help your feet in the cool and refreshing water. But everyone who came in the second half of May to the beach "Arrow" expected a nasty surprise — the water was covered with a green film of dull green. Even the sand at the water's edge acquired a greenish tinge.
No need to be an expert in the field of ecology to understand — this is a so-called "green water" — breeding in large numbers of microscopic algae. The phenomenon, in general, normal, and observed in our waters every year. If it was not a "but", "bloom" of water, ie, the mass of algae usually occurs in July and August. And yet here and summer not really started — and the water is already "blooms."
Everyone remembers another summer of 2010, pobivshee all temperature records. Combined with human influence — for water reservoirs large amounts of organic matter — this has almost an ecological disaster. Hundreds of tons of fish and other representatives of the fauna of the river died. Correspondents "News-N» last year first reported tons of dead fish, which is dotted with beach Southern Bug, Ingul, Bug estuary and in Nikolaev, and outside the city. The water in these ponds is highlighted in brown, thick layer of fish lying on the bottom and on the shore, to the stench of decomposition of dead fish in the heat added to the sharp smell of hydrogen sulfide. Scale of the disaster rattled even seasoned scientists and environmentalists! Experts call what is happening for two reasons: the heat and getting into the river a large number of organic substances — including, and because of the powerful showers that washed from fields fertilizer, topsoil, etc.
Fortunately, nature while coping: in winter the water in the estuary is cleaned and early spring in that same beach "Arrow" river water was clean and clear — as is usually the case at this time of year. And now — a new attack. Why water bloomed so early? What threatens similar shift timing? And in general — it is a bloom or about any pollution?
Nicholas ecologist Oleg Derkach, which we asked for comments, said that a similar situation is observed in other bodies of water in our region. He believes that this phenomenon — witness the ongoing changes in our environment. The reasons, according to him, are the same: a large amount of organic matter in the water, accelerate the growth of algae, plus the temperature factor. Oleg Derkach not rule out that maybe it is a mutation of some blue-green algae bloom which falls exactly on May. But what is really going on, and what are the implications Oleg predict not taken — you need to make a thorough analysis, taking water samples, and only then can we say anything.
In any case, the "flowering" of water — a big problem. Microscopic algae are short lived, and died. Death of, or more simply, rotting blue-green algae is essentially a process of oxidation occurs with the consumption of oxygen. Intensive consumption of oxygen, especially in the deeper layers (more than 3-5 meters) exceeds its supply by natural aeration and photosynthesis. As a result, the inhabitants of the river — fish, shellfish, etc — lack of oxygen, and they start to die. In addition, when flowering blue-green algae produce toxins in the water. It's one thing if the water blooms or six weeks in July and August, and if it starts to bloom in May and bloom all summer?
With the questions we asked in the Odessa branch of the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas. AO Kovalevsky National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Deputy Director of the Institute for Science, Doctor of Biological Sciences Galina Minicheva also agreed that the specific findings necessary to analyze the water. At the same time, it allows the probability of algal bloom in May.
— Now is the active sun. Therefore, the peaks of flowering may occur in mid-late May. We have a concept of regional rule, therefore, to understand whether the observed phenomenon fits this rate, you need to know about what's in question, which part is blooming. To say how this unusual phenomenon should at least see the concentration of algal blooms in water — explained Galina.
She remembered the conversation Galina Minicheva and summer of last year, when, in her words, "the whole ecosystem to break down in front":
— Temperature records were in the first ten days of August just one after another. Plus, because of rainfall the water level in our reservoirs were 16 cm above normal. Green water was just too extreme — in some areas Bug estuary algae concentration reached 8 kg per square meter!
Reasons for such unusual and very unpleasant phenomena Galina calls the coincidence of several factors. First, it is the above-mentioned heat, which kept for quite a long time. Secondly, it is a lot of rainfall, which increased the level of water. Wind direction was such that nestles within the shores of the algae, organisms — formed areas of high concentrations of organic matter. Algae die quickly, begin to decompose and take oxygen from the water. Lack of oxygen, in turn, led to the death of fish, shellfish, etc. 2010 has been a model for biologists — that is, with fixed parameters, which occurred already know which bodies of water can be a situation, called the environmental crisis.
With regard to the human impact on the aquatic ecosystem of the region, then, according to Galina, compared with climatic factor, anthropogenic in strength to become an afterthought.
— If 15 years ago, experts, biologists, referring to the ecosystem, it is clearly talking about the anthropogenic component (emissions, effluents, local), now factor climate begin to prevail. And this problem is not be resolved within the city, the state, the adoption of some sort of regulations, programs, — says Galina Minicheva.
— Galina, and if such heat will last several years in a row? Is not there a threat that normal water all lost?
— Fall, I attended a conference of the professional oceanography, on climate change. All told, there are definitely changes. But nobody is accurate predictions about where this will lead, can not provide. As for the current temperature, it may be a long one, may not be accompanied by precipitation, and maybe this year we will "skip". What will happen, for example, in 2014, 2015 — no one can say.
In any case, pay attention to the "non-standard" algal blooms, which began in mid-May, according to the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, it is. Therefore, until the situation is cleared up, experts advise in the green water is not swimming. Just in case.
Irina Chernysheva, Nikolai Fyodorov
News N — Nikolaev news