Since the Russian empire in the history of the Russian school of so-called entrenched positions. "Norman theory." According to this theory, the creators of the Russian state are Norsemen (Vikings of Scandinavian origin). Specifically, the Normans made the first Russian country — Novgorod Russia and Kievan Rus. Slavs, Scandinavians gave the chief princes — Rurik, Oleg, Igor, Svyatoslav.
For the first time this concept appeared in Sweden — Swedish pushed her master Johan III (1568 — 1592) in the diplomatic correspondence with Ivan the Terrible. Supported the idea of a Swedish diplomat Peter de Petreius Erlezunda and royal historian Johan Videkind. Later this idea developed in the German historians Russian Academy Gottlieb Beyer, Gerard Miller, Strube de Pyrmont and August Schletzer.
Virtually so was created the myth of black underdevelopment, "wildness" of the Slavs, Rus, their inability to statehood. It was advantageous, as Western historiography and flooded the Russian foreign scientists, various kinds of adventurers (put them above the "wild" Slavs), the church, which also claimed that she brought to Rus base of civilization. Most of the great Russian historian later adopted this theory — to follow NM Karamzin (the creator of the 12-volume "History of the State Russian").
Although a number of Russian researchers have while trying to resist this Russophobian concept. Among them are such giants of Russian thought as MV Lomonosov (thought that Rurik was of the Elbe Slavs), VNTatischev, SA Gideons (Rus considered Baltic Slavs — Obodrits), DI Ilovajskij ( advanced guess southern origin Russes) and a number of other researchers. Namely Lomonosov objecting Miller wrote: "… the Vikings and Rurik with his native who came to Novgorod, were knee slavenskogo, says the language slavenskim, came from the old Russia and were not from Scandinavia, but lived on the southern shores of the East Viking Sea, between rivers, the Vistula and move … the name in Scandinavia and Russia on the northern shores of the Viking sea never been heard … ". In time, a large Russian enemies Norman theory was a historian and archaeologist Rybakov.
However, this theory proved to be very tenacious, because with the interests of a very significant way — the intelligentsia, which was oriented to the West, the church, the nobility of German-, French-, Anglophile. This trend continued into the Russian Union and the Russian Federation. It is supported by a very massive forces that are not interested in the fact that the descendants of Vikings, Rus, know and remember about Slavic Europe, disaster brother Slavs in Central and Northern Europe. The story is geopolitics.
What they say annals?
Russian chronicles report back that the three "tribes" (more accurately, "earth", an alliance of tribes) — Slovenes Ilmenskye, Krivichi, Meria got tired of strife was sent overseas to the Varangian Rus, with the words: Land Our great and plentiful, and the dress is not there. Come to reign and rule over us by law. " Responded to the call of three brothers — Rurik, Sineus and Truvor. "And from those Vikings nicknamed Russian land. "
According to the views of Normanists, these Vikings were Scandinavians. And in some modern editions, including children, in general, they say the "Swedes". Lead and the "evidence", allegedly the term "Rus" was not an ethnonym, and meant "rowers" — the squad that went to the march on rowing boats. Swedish word sounds like "Rots" because, they say, the Estonians hitherto called Sweden "Rootsi." So Makar, build scheme: Estonians first met "rowers Swedes" and handed them the name of "unreasonable" Slavs. Shaped absurd.
The problem is that the word 'growing up', 'Russian' occurs in historical records since then and is specifically people. Also, "Norman civilizing" The Russian government is establishing disappeared without leaving a word of native speech, or the names of their own gods, nor titles of cities they are based, nor objects of the real culture. And this is very surprising. Recall the historically nedavneshny example: the Spanish conquistadors, taking in large areas of South and Central America, with all this, does not hesitate to take a wife and a concubine of beautiful Aboriginal left a significant mark on the culture of Latin American countries. Their descendants (Creoles) long and had so far are the elite of Latin America, and Spanish (Portuguese) language, culture dominate.
There davneshnie and more than similar examples. The members of the royal house of francs to read as X century in their own environment and to enter into contracts on German dialect. Although they are still in the V century, under the control of its own leader Clovis seized the main part of Gaul (modern France). Romance dialect of the majority of their subjects, they did not have, even after almost half a millennium. A similar example, we litsezreem and won the Norman Duke William of Great Britain. Norman elite centuries did not know the language of the local population. Imagine a prince Alexander Nevsky, who is in talks with representatives of Batu in a dialect of Swedish or Dmitry Donskoy talking to the prince and commander Dmitry Bobrok-Volyn on "Urmanskoye" language.
German and Scandinavian tribes had their gods, unique culture and mythology. And there is no trace of this in Russia. Well, the name of Rurik (Rarog) — West Slavic origin, probably generic nickname associated with the eagle. A falcon — is the embodiment of Roda, God the Father, the Slavs, the Slavs are the princes of his power on earth. This is confirmed by the sign kind of Rurik — falcon, it is saved in the arms of an old Lake Ladoga (the first capital of the Rurik). Stylized variant of this image is a modern coat of arms of Ukraine. It must be said that the modern West Slavic nations (Czechs, Slovaks and Poles) and nowadays use the name Rurik.
It is curious that have already passed the century, and Norman theory as before actually exists in the form of a constant and stores in the brains of babies and young people of the Russian Federation 'virus' neglect cases to their ancestors, the old Slavic civilization. But for the XIX century and in particular the XX, the beginning of XXI century historical science got a lot of new material, archaeological, anthropological, linguistic, mythological, etc. There's even a fascinating auxiliary discipline, as a DNA genealogy. For a long time it was believed that in the ancient language of many Norman borrowings. For example, words such as Prince, Griden, serf, Veera, the shipyard, Norman thought. But the researchers found, and among them was a Russian and Slavic scholar, ethnographer, palaeographer, academician Ismail Sreznevsky (1812 — 1880), that virtually all of these words have Slavic roots, and some occur in languages other Slavic peoples in lands where Scandinavians are not wander. "Norman civilize" the Slavs who owned for centuries (according to the views of Normanists), have left traces of their own language. Dana (forefathers Danes), part of the UK had a total of about half a century, and that was enough to enrich the language of the British and 10% of the roots. Until a few centuries after the expulsion of the Danes, it was decided to give their children the Anglo-Danish and Danish names, some Scandinavian place names have survived to the present day, not to mention the significant number of archaeological sites. Besides restoring the Anglo-Saxon lords his authority over Danelagom saved Scandinavian law and customs, and some fled to the general English practice.
ue to today's Russophobia both Russian and Western, who shoot films like "Thirteenth Warrior" (1999), where "Wendel" Slavs living on the level of primitive society, many people think of the old Rus, the Slavs perfect savages who lived in the forest "life animals and birds "before the arrival of Scandinavian and Christian civi.
Apparently, this theory has patrons in the middle of imperative structures, Russian and Western. Norman theory is a good tool of information war, it puts the Slavs on the lower level of the hierarchy of conditional nations, where the leading position occupied by Germanic and Romance peoples, "the people of the Scriptures." Favorites write the story for themselves. We watch this process and much more approximate to our events — the second world war. Judging by Western sources, the decisive battles were in the Pacific Ocean and on the Western Front, in Africa.
Normanists tireless work and their supporters in the intelligentsia, the words "Varangian"And" Norman "have become synonymous. Allegedly, the Vikings — is "Old Russian title Scandinavians." But the problem is that neither in the annals nor sagas no phrases like "Varangian konung" or "Varangian knight."
In Russia and in Europe clearly distinguished between "sveev", "dan", "Urmanov" (Norman), "Angles", "ready", "Vikings" and other tribes of Northern Europe. The chronicle says, "idosha over the sea to the outsider, to Russia. Thee thus bo zvahut Varyag you Russ, for they behold my friends call svee, friends of the same Umraniye, anglyane, inѣi and Gotha, tacos and si .. ". For the Slavs, the Vikings were one of the peoples who inhabited Europe. In addition, there is the Scandinavian tribe "Vikings".
According to the Chronicle by the Varangian Sea (then called by the Baltic Sea), "sitting" Poles (ancestors of the Poles), the Prussians and Chud, not counting their Vikings lived there, their land stretched right up to the English countryside (segodnyaschy Danish province Angeln). It should be noted that a record lyaham applies Pomeranian Slavs and lyutichey. Between them and the Angles only the territory of the Slavic Union Obodrits. They occupied a large area: the lower reaches of the Elbe (Labe slav.) west of modern Mecklenburg, the eastern part of Schleswig-Holstein and the north-eastern part of the modern Lower Saxony (area, east of the town of Hamburg — the so-called. "Wendland" district Lüchow- Dannenberg). Fascinating, and the fact that the Novgorod Chronicle reports that the Vikings lived and east of the Poles, Prussians and Tschudi, "to the limit of Shem" (to the lands of the Volga Bulgar). And this land, "Novgorod Russia." The chronicler reports: "Novgorod, people of Novgorod — old varjazhskogo …".
This is also confirmed by archaeologists, anthropologists — a real culture bodrichey-Obodrits and Ilmenskie words actually similar, as well as their appearance. Archaeologists say they have the first signs of Ilmenskie words — "culture burial hills" (6-7 century of our era) has obvious features of the West Slavic origin. And there is a new girl ages 9-10 intruders wave of Slavic Baltic. First findings of Slavic ceramics in Novgorod are feldbergskoy culture (early medieval Slavic archaeological culture on the south coast of the Baltic Sea). The design of the Novgorod Detintsa 1116 (inner city fortress), has a clear analogy only walled Baltic Slavs. Archaeological traces of the Baltic Slavs also found in Pskov, the old Ladoga and other settlements Ilmenskie Slovenes. Novgorod had and dense trade contacts with the Western Slavs.
The Russian linguists (Shakhmatov, DK Zelenin, etc.) also found similarities in Novgorod and Western Slavs. For example, the famous Novgorod "clip-clop" has analogues in nizhneluzhitskom language (comes from Polabian adverbs), it read as tribes and Sorbs Obodrits. It explains and not "Slavic" the name of Prince Igor. Name a later transformed, in the northern dialect called him "Ingorem", hence the "Svyatoslav — Sventoslav." In the manner of the Baltic Slavs town called — "Guard", "Nemogard — Novgorod."
The chronicle reports that the Vikings founded the Rostov-on-Don, Moore, Beloozero. Archaeology states that there has traces of 2-groups of the population — the Finno-Ugric peoples and the Slavs to the obvious features of Baltic culture (they initially dubbed the "Scandinavian complexes") and there is no inheritance "Norman." Well and town are not "Norman" name, no memory and about their gods. By XI — XII centuries, these were absolutely Slavic town.
Fascinating, and the fact that the alliance was to obodritsky tribe Wagram, they are the same caste, Varga, Varin, etc. A European sources known "Vagirskaya Brand", also "Wearing brand", they were placed in the Slavic lands Obodrits.
And with such mass of facts from a variety of sources, which justifies the Slavic origin Vikings, Norman theory until now alive and thriving.