October 16, 1946 — a day when one of the tributaries of the River Isar (near Munich), ash dump it eleven major war criminals — the Nazis had been sentenced to death at Nuremberg international military tribunal. Favorites decided that nothing should be completely stay away from the dust of the Nazi favorites. Isar, Dov, the Black Sea … — Ash was sentenced should be dissolved and the gap in global waters.
The decision to condemn the major war criminals of Germany's victorious countries (USA, USSR and Great Britain) was already at the Potsdam Conference (July 17 to August 2, 1945). Never before has there occurred the courts, which would be in the dock planted favorites country that lost the war. In the euphoria of victory, many politicians and lawyers decided that may be fair to judge the tribunal, but the reality is more a parody out.
Specially made international military Court, which began its work in Nuremberg 20 November 1945, 24 people accused but convicted 22 (1 st of them in absentia) of the major Nazi war criminals. German Fuhrer Adolf Hitler, propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels and Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler already committed suicide. Took his own life and managing the German Labor Front, Robert Ley, and industrialist Gustav Krupp could not be judged because of the disease. The death sentence by hanging announced 12 defendants (Reichsmarschall "Nazi number two" Hermann Goering at the last moment managed to commit suicide, but the head of the Nazi Party Chancellery Martin Bormann, not knowing that he had already died, the death sentence awarded in absentia). The mortal remains of the 11 convictions later cremated.
"… Impossible to hang Reichsmarschall Germany!"
Together with municipal officials, functionaries, bureaucrats and the military were tried at Nuremberg and eight other organizations: the German Government, the Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei — hidden municipal police), SS (Schutzstaffel — Protection Service), SD (Sicherheitsdienst — Security Service), CA (Sturmabteilungen — Strike Force, shturmotryady), a political management Nazi Party, the General Staff and Graduate Management Armed Forces (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht).
Shortly before the trial began, the defendants raised accusations of sins four categories: the seizure of power by komplota, crimes against peace, war crimes and prestuplleniya against the population of the earth. In the process it became clear that the allegations of the first 2-categories quite poorly reasoned. Patrons of the defendants simply justified that very little surprising conspirators considered members of an internationally recognized government with which countries the judges (the U.S., Britain, the USSR and France) have entered into various contracts. In a particularly nasty situation got Russian Alliance, which is the original period 2nd World War was an ally of Nazi Germany.
Confirmation of charges of war sins and sins against the people of the land were convincing. Many of the documents showed a ruthless occupation policy of the Nazis, the Holocaust, the mass of people winding up in the death camps and mass executions.
Court decisions have been different. From time to time, so difficult to grasp that were astonishing. Were justified Halmar banker Schacht, managing the radio department of the Ministry of Propaganda Hans Feyche and Vice-Chancellor of the first government of Hitler, Franz von Papen. Justified and the German government, the General Staff, General Command of the armed forces. 6 defendants (for example, the Deputy Fuhrer in the affairs of the Nazi Party — Rudolf Hess, Grossadmiral Erich Raeder Compatible weapon and missiles and munitions minister Albert Speer) gave different periods — from 10 years to indefinite detention. Twelve Nazi leaders, as mentioned, have received a death sentence. Ended their lives on the gallows Minister of Foreign Affairs Joachim von Ribbentrop, Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, the Governor General of Poland, Hans Frank, the minister had occupied the eastern regions of Alfred Rosenberg and six other people.
Many defendants shocked torturing method of the death penalty. In a letter to the Allied Control Council (a body of higher management in Germany), which is dated October 11, 1946, "chief military aggressor "(as specified in the judgment) Hermann Goering said:" Without unnecessary ceremonies has permitted I would have to shoot you myself! But unrealistic hang Reichsmarschall Germany! It can not allow — for the sake of Germany. (…). Did not expect that I will not let die the death of a soldier. "
The Nuremberg Trials: the pros and cons
The Nuremberg process made a legal precedent, which became the prototype for future international military tribunals. In judicial practice, a new conclusion, indicating that higher order does not release a person from liability for their actions crimes.
From the very beginning of the process and sounded very harsh criticism. Many lawyers are not considered applicable, the charges at Nuremberg were essentially on their own ex post facto (from the back by force). They believed that the sentence can not be without the law — you can not judge a person if at the time the crime was absent legislation classifying his actions as crimes. Nuremberg was exactly the political process, inventory acts of the victorious countries. His main drawback — the fact that he was limited to considering only the Nazi atrocities. While not supposed impartial examination of war atrocities and crimes against the population of the earth in general.
Soon after the court began its work, the representatives of the USSR, Britain, France and the United States signed a hidden contract. He noted that in the process will not affect the nasty questions for the Allies. Court, for example, did not take to the signed between the USSR and Germany, August 23, 1939 hidden protocol division of spheres of influence in Eastern Europe, which marked the beginning of the second World War and destroyed the independence of the Baltic states.
Prosecutors in Nuremberg can be blamed in conscious mutilation stories, distortion and concealment of the truth. For example, the trial did not see the bombing of cities, the perfect German Air Force, as the "bomb war" would not only subject to the charges, and the double-edged sword: in this case failed to warn the nasty debate about much more devastating attacks of English and American aviation in the German town.
Most process Nuremberg discredited the role of Russian Union. From the beginning, there was the principle of international law: if one of the parties during the war is doing some illegal act, it is not right to blame the analogical acts of his opponents. In connection with this, Stalin's USSR was fully entitled to judge Nazi Germany! But what made the Moscow? According to Stalin's instructions, prosecutors from the Russian side during the process of preparation and first brought charges in the murder of Polish officers in Katyn, arguing that it made the Germans. Only when the lawyers of the accused failed to prove that the facts of the indictment, brazenly rigged, and the trail leads to the side of the USSR, the Russian side swiftly rejected the charges.
And the behavior of the Western powers in this case was, of course, immoral and cumbersome to justify. Even before the Nuremberg executive with British Foreign Minister Alexander Cadogan in his diary in connection with the murder at Katyn wrote these words: "It's all in the highest degree sickening! How can we look at it through his fingers, and if nothing happens, open a discussion with the Russian question about "German war
But the Nuremberg tribunal took a different stance. He refused to even see the episode of Katyn, pointing out that only considers the Nazi atrocities. Yes, English, French and South American judges did not want to then put the Kremlin in a hopeless situation, as it has thrown a shadow over the Western democracies, but in the name of historical justice is certainly needed to be done! Then in today's Moscow, speaking of Nuremberg, at least, tried to court judgments and reasoning to reincarnate in the "gospel" and treat it as a "holy writ."
Nuremberg and is now the main bastion of one-sided and unscientific "version of the winners' about the Second World War. But long ago the time has come to challenge this version.
On Nyurnberskom during the prosecution were four thousand documents, 1809 legally authenticated documentary evidence and witness 33. Nuremberg verdict then was worth 4,435,719 dollars (in today's dollars — 850 million). Proceedings of the Nuremberg Trials that were placed in 1946, took 43 volumes.