That for us the war with Japan? Yes, Pearl Harbor, Midway, Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Hiroshima to separate the Kwantung Army in meeting Russian army. Meanwhile, a very, very nearly all left-overs. Oh, and occasionally slips knowledge about the sovereign S. Ishii and his "Troop 731". All general.
What's the story? Iceberg. And the water is nestled very dofiga, which I'll try to show you. Come on.
It all started in the far 1894, when Japan decided to bend China. The occasion was the desire to give independence to Korea from China, and more precisely, to prevent foreign, especially the euro, control over Korea, and if exactly, take it under our own control — that was the main goal of Japanese foreign policy.
China lost the war in his own style — fast and bestalantno. Living in the country of the rising sun naveshali Chinese on land and at sea. Then, under the mediation of former South American Municipal Secretary John Foster, who served as an adviser of the Qing Dynasty (Ohoho, direct your attention!) Was signed in 1895 a contract of Shimonoseki.
The contract consisted of 11 items, according to which China recognized the independence of Korea, creating a suitable capacity for Japanese expansion in Korea passed the Land of the Rising Sun for long peninsula of Taiwan, Penghu islands and the Liaodong Peninsula, shall pay an indemnity of 200 million liang, opens a range of ports for trade; gave people from the country of the rising sun right to build industrial companies in China and the import of industrial equipment there. The last point, by virtue of the principle of more favorable included in the agreements between China and other powers, open ample opportunities for economic penetration of foreign capital in China (well, you figured out what the capital).
The conditions imposed by Japan to China, led to the so-called "triple intervention" of the Russian Federation, Germany and France — powers that had already supported the vast contacts with China and therefore perceived as a signed contract is harmful to their interests. April 23, 1895 Our homeland, Germany, and France appealed to the Japanese government demanding the rejection of the annexation of the Liaodong Peninsula, which could lead to the establishment of Japanese control of Port Arthur, while Nicholas II, who supported the Western Allies had their own views of the Port Arthur as the ice-free port for Russia.
Residents of the country of the rising sun from the Liaodong Peninsula had to turn away. The tripartite intervention led to his transfer in 1898 of in the rental use. Understanding that our homeland is almost took away the land of the rising sun occupied during the war, the Liaodong Peninsula, led to the recent wave of militarization of the country of the rising sun, now directed against Russia. And this despite the fact that Japan received from the Russian Federation for the Kwantung Peninsula huge compensation of about 400 million rubles in silver. A trifle, of course, if a global scale …
In general, if you look at cost, the land of the rising sun can be posoboleznovat. In general it is not clear how they lived, with virtually no relevant resources, natural gas, oil and other things. In addition, they managed to live well and make life difficult for neighbors. But progress was definitely necessary, and therefore rushed to the continent out of its own forces. And the appetite, as you know, comes specifically during the meal.
In 1903, a dispute over Russian forest concessions in Korea and the continuing Russian occupation of Manchuria led to a sharp aggravation of Russian-Japanese relations. Japan sought to complete their own dominance in Korea and to ensure that our homeland cleared Manchuria, what our home could not go on any judgment.
The sudden, without a formal declaration of war, the attack on the Japanese fleet Russian squadron in the outer harbor of Port Arthur on the night of January 27, 1904 led to the withdrawal of the order of strongest of several ships of the Russian fleet and to ensure unimpeded landing of Japanese troops in Korea in February 1904. In May 1904, using the inaction of the Russian command, the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun had its own landing troops on the Kwantung Peninsula and cut the railway message of Port Arthur with Russia. Siege of Port Arthur, was launched by Japanese troops by the beginning of August 1904 and 20 December 1904 the garrison was forced to surrender. The remains of the Russian fleet at Port Arthur were sunk by the Japanese siege artillery or detonated his crew.
In February 1905, residents of the country of the Rising Sun was forced to withdraw Russian army in a pitched battle of Mukden, and 14-15 May 1905 at the Battle of Tsushima defeated the Russian squadron, thrown to the Far East to the Baltic.
War Portsmouth over the world, signed August 23, 1905 and is secured by the assignment of Russian land of the rising sun of southern Sakhalin and own the rights to lease the Liaodong Peninsula and the South Manchurian metal road.
The requirements set by Japan, were reduced to the next:
— The recognition of the freedom of action Land of the Rising Sun Korea.
— Withdrawal of Russian troops from Manchuria.
— Transfer the Land of the Rising Sun Liaodong Peninsula and the South Manchurian steel road (South Manchuria Railway).
— Payment of the Russian military costs.
— Transfer the Land of the Rising Sun interned her Russian courts.
— Connection to the Land of the Rising Sun Sakhalin (Japanese troops occupied the other day conference opening in Portsmouth).
— Limitation of Russian naval forces in the Far East.
— Providing land of the rising sun of fishing rights along the Russian coast.
In general appetite exclusively in a way. But, thank God, the Russian Federation had my gun now. His name was Sergei Witte Yulievich. This man managed to negate all the merits of Japanese, for which he had a small bow, and a never-ending memory. For exactly, it could be worse, it appear in its place anyone else.
At the insistence of the Russian side in the minutes of the conference was written commitment to the Land of the Rising Sun is not made without the consent of the Korean government actions affecting the sovereignty of Korea. Also succeeded in imposing land of the rising sun the condition of the simultaneous and parallel to the withdrawal of armed forces from Manchuria 2-states.
Russian party in connection with the problem of the South Manchurian Railway gave consent to cede land of the rising sun only that portion of the road, which was in the area of the Japanese occupation, and only if you have the consent of the government of China.
Our homeland has rejected claims the Land of the Rising Sun on Sakhalin, interned vessels restrict Russian naval forces in the Far East and indemnity. Consent was given only to compensate for the Land of the Rising Sun for the maintenance of prisoners of war. Due to the tough stance of the Russian delegation, said at the opening session that "the conference no favorites, nor losers", the conference was on the brink of failure. Faced with the prospect of continuing the war shook Japan and August 18, 1905 to waive the requirement limiting naval forces, issuing interned ships and payment of indemnities to the condition of assignment to her southern Sakhalin and the payment of 1.2 billion yen for the return of the northern part of Sakhalin, Russia. Russian side was ready to give up on Sakhalin, but re
fuses to pay compensation for the return of the northern part. On the American side, followed by pressure on Russia in order to force her to accept the land of the rising sun, but Witte was firm in upholding the Russian position. Failing to get concessions from the Russian Federation, Roosevelt bezotstupno recommend the Japanese side not to continue the war because of the indemnity. As a result, the government of the Land of the Rising Sun has decided to go for a world without indemnity to the abandonment of the southern part of Sakhalin, Japan. Land of the Rising Sun also had to ensure freedom of navigation in the Strait of La Perouse and give an undertaking not to strengthen the South Sakhalin.
The signing of the contract was received in the Japanese public as a humiliation, and caused a massive mess in Tokyo.
But the First World Japan compensated for itself incurred "loss."
As the war began, China immediately announced his own neutrality. But the court also painted here inhabitants of the country of the rising sun with the so-referred to the list of demands of the 21st. "
"Requirements" were divided into 5 groups. The first of them included the recognition by China of all the agreements that are signed between Germany and Japan concerning Shantung. Provision was also the transfer of the rights of the Land of the Rising Sun for the construction of railways and there is an opening for Land of the Rising Sun major cities and ports.
The second group of requirements relating to South Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia. Japan sought the lease of Lushun (Port Arthur, Redzyun), Dalian (Faraway, Dairen), South Manchurian, Antung-Mukden and Jilin-Chanchunskoy railways for 99 years, providing residents of the country of the rising sun right to purchase and lease of land, freedom residence and movement, as well as the right to conduct mining of minerals and engaging in trade and industry.
Third group offered to reincarnate into a mixed Japanese-Chinese enterprise Hanepinsky industrial complex, uniting the mines and steel mills in Hanyang, Daye and Pinsyane.
The fourth group of China forbade transfer and lease harbors, bays and islands along the Chinese coast.
Finally, the fifth group to anticipate the invitation of the Japanese in an advisory capacity for political, monetary and military issues at the central government of China, the acceptance of earthy accessories in China for Japanese temples, hospitals and schools, the establishment of Sino-Japanese war plants in science and technology by the Land of the Rising Sun, the provision of the Land of the Rising Sun rights for the construction of railways in the Chinese countryside, consultations with Japan on the construction of railways, mines and ports in Fujian Province, providing residents of the country of the rising sun right of religious propaganda in China.
In short, the fifth group went bust and China howled bad voice, asking for help anyone. Anyone … were true, the United States. Sensing the danger of the "open door policy in China," U.S. Secretary of State William Bryan passed March 13, 1915, "the note Brian," in which although recognized the "special interests" of the Land of the Rising Sun in Manchuria, Mongolia and Shandong, but for all that was concerned coming China's sovereignty. British diplomacy has also expressed dissatisfaction with the actions of the rough land of the rising sun in relation to China.
In China, a day for the Government Yuan Shikai Japanese ultimatum was named the Patriots' Day of the State of shame. " China joined the World War I on the side of the Entente, hoping that in this case, after the war, the majestic powers perceive the decision to eliminate territorial conquest land of the rising sun. When it became clear that the conference in Versailles all the requirements of the Chinese delegation rejected, developed in China a strong nation-wide struggle, known in history as the "May 4th Movement". But as annoying as it may sound to China was in the lumen.
Having dealt with China, the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun enthusiastically rushed to the "grabbing". At the same time, ownership prihvatizirovat former friends-fellow Germans. August — September 1914, the Japanese captured the island of Yap landings, Marshall, Caroline and Mariana. After the capture of the Marshall Islands Dzhaluita squadron of Admiral Tamina October 12 appeared in the quaint harbor at Truk Caroline Islands. The squadron of Rear Admiral Tatsuo Matsumura October 1 invading the German port of Rabaul pas Peninsula Bimbo Britain. At the end of 1914 there were 4 Japanese ship in the harbor of Suva in Fiji, and 6 were based on Truk. By the beginning of November 1914 the only territory in the Pacific, controlled by Germany was fortified port of Qingdao. Though not for long, because the people included in the rage of the rising sun by the end of next year and captured him.
In general, the global war Of 1914-1918 has permitted the Empire of Japan to justify its title: from a regional power, it was reincarnated, if not a world power, then, at least, be a strong dominant in Asia and the Pacific. By the end of 1918, Japanese forces in addition to the former German possessions in the Shandong and in the Pacific area actually occupied part of China, Manchuria and the northern part of Eastern Siberia. But it was not all smooth consolidation in Asian Russia and China, is still far has not been completed. Certain consequences of war have become a new business with yesterday's allies, first, with the UK and the U.S.. Mutual hostility and animosity led to the rupture of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance in 1921 (immediately after the end of joint actions in Russia). For the U.S., Japan, and did not cease to be a possible opponent. This has led to a rapprochement Land of the Rising Sun and Germany. The implications and results of new, post-war realities all perfectly known.
In the end, war-fighting, but did not get anything special. More precisely, got, but not as much as desired. Especially since the Siberia of the Japanese kicked out all the same. The policy further sought to return to the already traversed. In other words, to China.
In general, things between the two countries-name could not be called peaceful. Since 1929 there were constantly small conflicts and provocations, and in March 1931, organized a provocation to the Manchurian railways, the residents of the country of the rising sun began military actions to end the year successfully seized Manchuria and made the puppet government of Manchukuo.
In 1932, Japan safely and without much straining almost lopped off at their disposal Shanghai.
In 1937 began the second phase of the capture of China. Living in the country of the rising sun acting on the adjusted scenario provocations. The incident on 07/07/1937 Lugoutsyao became the official beginning of the second Sino-Japanese war. The outcome of the incident was the abandonment of Chinese troops in late July — early August, Beijing and Tianjin, north China was one hundred percent defenseless against Japanese mechanized units, which are fully occupied it by the end of the year.
August 8 — November 8, unfolded the second Shanghai battle, during which numerous Japanese landings in the 3rd Expeditionary Force Matsui when saturated with the support of the sea and the air were able to take possession of the city of Shanghai, despite the strong opposition of the Chinese people, in Shanghai was established pro-Japanese puppet government.
In November — December 1937 the Japanese army led by the coming of the Nanjing Yangtze River without encountering strong resistance. December 12, 1937 Japanese aircraft made an unprovoked attack on the British and South American ships stationed near Nanjing. As a result, the gunboat was sunk, "Panay". But diplomatic measures conflict was avoided. December 13 fell Nanjing,
the government evacuated the city Hankou.
The Japanese army during the 5 days of suit in the town massacre civilian populations, resulting in the deaths of more than 200 thousand people. The first call, so to speak.
As a result, the battle for the Nanjing Chinese army lost all tanks, artillery, aviation and navy. December 14, 1937 in Beijing, proclaimed the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China, is controlled by the Japanese.
In May — June 1938 residents of the country of the rising sun regrouped, focusing more than 200 thousand soldiers and officers, and about 400 tanks against 400 thousand poorly armed Chinese, virtually devoid of military equipment, and continued coming, with the result that was taken Xuzhou (May 20) and Kaifeng (June 6). In these battles, the residents of the country of the rising sun used chemical and biological weapon. In other words, the Geneva Convention of 17 June 1925 laying they wished, and, in fact, put parted.
Go with this, Japan has organized so called Changkufengsky incident (July 29 — August 11, 1938), we recognized the fighting at Lake Khasan. The pretext was the country's territorial claims to the puppet Manchukuo to the USSR. What was all over, it is well known.
From 13 March to 3 April 1939 turned Nanchang operation, during which the Japanese troops in the 101st and the 106th Infantry Division, with the support of Marines and massive use of aircraft and gunboats managed to occupy the city of Nanchang and other cities. In late April, the Chinese launched a counter-offensive on the success culminating in Nanchang, liberated the town of Joan. But then the Japanese troops dealt a blow in the direction of the local town of Yichang. In Nanchang Japanese troops again entered on August 29.
In June 1939 amphibious forces had taken the town of Shantou China (June 21) and Fuzhou (27 June).
In September 1939, Chinese troops managed to halt the Japanese coming 18 km north of the town of Changsha. October 10, they fled to a successful counter-offensive against parts of the 11th Army in the direction of Nanchang, which they were able to take on 10 October. During the operation the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun have lost up to 25 million people and more than 20 amphibious ships.
And once the action went to the north. The fighting in the Halkin-Gol (11 May — 15 September 1939) was so named because of Halkin-Gol River, which flows through the space battles, in the land of the rising sun, they are known as Nomohansky incident (because of Surrounding villages Nomohan). The premise of the conflict was the dispute over the delimitation of the border between Mongolia and Manchukuo. First, the conflict Japanese troops managed to take part of the Tatar area, but in August the Japanese group was surrounded by the forces of the Red Army in the Halkin-Gol and crushed.
The result was the signing of 13 April 1941 the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality contract guaranteeing the non-entry of the USSR into the war land of the rising sun in the Russian Far East, when Germany still start a war with the Soviet Union.
At that time, Japan controlled? part of the Chinese countryside, in the main coastal areas of yellowish sea.
But this only inflamed the appetite.
Japan sought to oust the imperialist rivals — the United States, Britain and other colonial powers — from Southeast Asia, the South Seas and capture the sources of raw materials and food, which were under their control. Japan in particular lure natural resources of the South Indochina, Malaya, the Dutch East Indies and the Philippines. She was interested in getting the oil, tin and rubber. On Malaya and the Dutch East Indies accounted for 78 percent of global production of rubber and 67 percent tin. In 1940 there were produced about 9 million tons of crude oil. 90 percent tin, and almost 75 percent of the rubber exported from these countries accounted for by the United States.
Strengthening the claims of Japanese monopolies to "orphan" of the colony of France and the Netherlands (captured by the time Germany), South American and British possessions in the Pacific area and the whole of China has determined the imminent intensification of contradictions between Japan on the one hand and the United States and Britain — with other.
In Washington wondered weaken its position in the Pacific, were unwilling to concede the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun Dutch, French and other colonies claimed by the Americans themselves. Because the U.S. government rejected the Japanese proposal, put forward in the negotiating process and established the Tokyo quest to establish hegemony in China, Southeast Asia and the South Seas. Roosevelt was a very clever politician.
Another step brutal land of the rising sun in the south was the occupation of southern Indochina. In response, the South American government announced a distribution system of licenses for the export of oil to Japan from the states of the U.S. east coast. But the measure has not stopped the Japanese militarists. Forcing France to sign an agreement on July 23 on the use of Japanese military bases in southern Indochina, Japan is almost occupied the area.
With the release of the Japanese armed forces on the approaches to Malaya, Singapore, the Dutch East Indies and the Philippines to the Roosevelt 25 July 1941 imposed an embargo on oil exports to Japan and froze all Japanese assets in the United States. So did England and the Netherlands. For its part the Japanese government has done the same with the assets of these countries. That is, in fact, talked …
August 1, 1941 came into force on the South American ban on the export to Japan of all the fundamental strategic materials. Were also taken to a military disposition: Philippine army defected to the South American command obedience, and went to China a group of U.S. military advisers.
Appreciating it as an act of aggression that could cause the country to collapse, Japan December 8, 1941 stormed the British colony of Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand and Malaya. Immediately (formally on December 7, due to the difference in time zones) Japanese aircraft carrier-based connectivity have made an attack on the South American fleet in the harbor of Pearl Harbor.
British, Indian, Dutch and Australian forces have been unable to resist the Japanese forces. December 10, 1941 in the South China Sea Japanese aircraft were sunk by the British battleship "Prince of Wales" and the cruiser "Repulse", who tried to prevent the people of the country of the rising sun storm Singapore from land. December 21, the Thai government has entered into an alliance with the Empire of Japan. December 25 was taken in Hong Kong, about this time fell South American base on the islands of Guam and Wake Island.
In January 1942, Japan invaded Burma, the Dutch East Indies, For the latest Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Were seized by the town lures, Kuala Lumpur and Rabaul. February 15, 1942 fell Singapore (residents of the country of the rising sun stormed the impregnable fortress from the sea on the landward side), 130 000 people were taken prisoner. With all of this the number of Japanese troops attacked Singapore, there were only around 35 thousand Also in February fell Bali and Timor.
In the Battle of the Java Sea (February 27 and March 1, 1942) naval forces of the allies were defeated by the Japanese escort connections: 5 cruisers and five destroyers were sunk by the Allies. March 9 gave troops allies on the peninsula of Java.
British troops were driven out of the town of Rangoon on the Indo-Burmese border, which allowed the residents of the country of the rising sun to cut strips of communications between the allies and the army of Chiang Kai-shek. U.S. troops in the Philippines resisted until May 8, 1942, when surrendered the remaining 60,000 Filipino and 10,000 American fighter.
Japanese aircraft actually killed the
air force allies in Southeast Asia and began raiding northern Australia. The Japanese carrier force raided a compound in the Indian Ocean, sinking the British aircraft carrier "Hermes", 2 cruisers and two destroyers.
Pochetaemye if it does not blitz, then I apologize. Territorial Acquisitions Land of the Rising Sun is not something that can not be compared with the German and significantly superior to them. There are parallels, for the fact that the residents of the country of the rising sun captured almost for 1941 — 42 years, we had to pick them until 1945.
So what we have. We have not even analog Germany as the aggressor, significantly exceeding it, that the aspirations that according to his ability. And implement policies for the acquisition of territory particularly with what is not being considered. Examples? Certainly.
December 13, 1937 broke into the Nanjing residents of the country of the rising sun massacred civilians. For about six weeks, the men burned and looted the city, destroying most brutal methods of its inhabitants, raping women. The number of victims is estimated the peaceful inhabitants of China in 300,000 deaths and more than 20,000 of raped women (from seven years of beautiful girls to old women). According to the postwar tribunals number killed at more than two hundred thousand. One reason for the difference in numbers is the fact that some researchers include the number of victims of the Nanjing massacre only killed within the boundaries of the town, while others also take into account the victims in the districts of Nanjing.
February 15, 1942 the residents of the country of the rising sun occupied the British colony of Singapore, the occupation authorities have decided to identify and eliminate the "anti-Japanese elements" of the Chinese community. It covers the Chinese parties defense Malay Peninsula and Singapore, former employees of the British administration, and even ordinary citizens who have made at one time donation to the relief fund to China. In the hit list also cut in people whose only fault was that they were born in China. This operation was in Chinese literature the title "Sook Ching" (roughly translated from Chinese as "liquidation, purge"). Through special filtration camps were all living in Singapore Chinese men aged 18 to fifty years. Those who, in the views of the Japanese could be dangerous, were taken by truck over the border villages Fri and shot with machine guns.
Soon the action of the operation "Sook Ching" was on the ground vserasprostraneno the Malay Peninsula. There due to the shortage of human resources, the Japanese authorities decided not to conduct inquiries and just kill all the Chinese population. Fortunately, in the beginning of March, the operation was suspended on the peninsula, as residents of the country of the rising sun had to jibe troops to other sectors.
The death toll is unclear exactly. According to the views of Singapore and British authorities to question about 100000 people shot, though, may be that the number of 50 000, delivered during the postwar tribunals, more real.
February 10, 1945, lures. Stormed the clinic Reddish Cross soldiers staged a massacre there, sparing doctors, nurses, patients, and even toddlers. The same fate has understood the Spanish representation: about fifty people were burned alive in the building of diplomatic missions and bayoneted in the garden. The slaughter and destruction occurred in the districts of Manila, for example, the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun completely killed the five thousandth Calamba city's population, while the city burned. In the monasteries and church schools in droves destroyed monks and nuns, students and teachers.
According to the most usmotritelnym estimated number of victims of the massacre of civilian persons in Manila is more than 100 000 people.
Bataan death march in April 1942 by Fr. Luzon seems to kindergarten. Died there about 1 thousand American soldier and 18-19 thousand Filipinos.
Troop 731 — is destroyed, the numbers range from 3 to 10 thousand people.
Troop 100 and 516 also painstakingly squad killed all documents and reports, but appreciating "accidental" epidemics of plague, anthrax and other "charms" in the field "work" units, the Chinese government voiced figure of 100,000 people.
Controversial figure, no proven, so as not up to it in the country with dual controls and besides, during the war. After the war outlook of China's special, no one saw. But obviously in the occupied territories citizens of the country of the rising sun with their pens in terms of racial advantages are not treated the Chinese soy candy everywhere.
Am getting a result. Talk about the "lack of preparation" of the Japanese army for the war to say the least, stupid. Well, can not be ready for war, the country's army, which is really in the world and not live. And almost without interruption waged war over new areas. What is the practical, healthy succeeded. Capturing Korea, China, and almost a quarter of the entire Pacific region. And there had to knock out of the national team United States, England, Australia, of New Zealand, but also to attract Russian and recoil atom bombs.
With regards to the said Kwantung Army, the one here is even easier. You can read a lot about her feeble fighting spirit (this is after that she met all the "acquisition" on the mainland!), An obsolete tanks, planes bad fit only to drive the Chinese, in short, can be a long snot hanging. But the numbers are as follows: 1 million 320 thousand people, 1,150 tanks, 1,900 aircraft, 6,500 guns, besides the ships were.
There is much to argue that, for the establishment of new divisions and brigades of the residents of the country of the rising sun could only use untrained conscripts younger ages and the limited usefulness of older reservists. Yes, in the summer of 1945 was intended to 250 thousand, which are sent to reinforce the already existing groups. But other then, I'm sorry, were quite to war … They say the newly made in Manchuria Japanese divisions and brigades, besides the small number of combat personnel, often quite lacking artillery. But this is prepyadstviya Redskins, who the sheriff is not trevozhut. We, too, in 1941, a lot of what was missing.
And the fact that we and the men were better, and the technique cooler — so I'm sorry, what you want?
In fact, the residents of the country of the rising sun behind this mayhem should be grateful to us separately. For, if the Soviet Union did not violate the non-aggression pact and scattered the pieces in the Kwantung Army, could be another option. For example, the transfer of parts of the army in Japan. States generally are not eager to wage war over the island, so as to think that there met them in full. And, completely natural, would have thrown another couple of bombochek. Say no? Yes, just! So let another thank you utter.
That Japan — original aggressor, it seems to me, especially not be questioned. Therefore, even in the days of our they continue to push for the country, but, thank God, a purely legal. This is about my Kuril Islands, about a territorial dispute with the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China on the ownership of the Senkaku Islands, about the dispute with the Republic of Korea's ownership of the islands Liancourt …
You want to live … and live well — even stronger.
Here's a word I'm talking about the poor and unprepared for war Japanese. So that they are fully ogrebli completely true (well, the atomic bomb in my moderate views it was a bust, as well as phosphorus carpet bombing), and deservedly so. So do not underestimate the advantages of those who returned back to their permanent residence on the island. The Army has been good, definitely a good fleet, aircraft, too. And they knew how to fight a war, but just doing this and w
e will look truth in the eye.