In the conditions of the global crisis, which threatens to destabilize Eurasia, large regional and even global conflict, the problem of food security of the Russian Federation is a matter of survival of the population of our country.
Our homeland, having a large area of agricultural land destination — 10% of the world's arable land, aquatic resources for irrigation — a quarter of fresh water of the planet and producing more than 8% of the supplies of fertilizer, continues to take a significant portion of food abroad. Russian citizens have become accustomed to take in food stores meat from Argentina, Brazil and Australia, garlic from China, seafood from the Land of the Rising Sun, South Korea, China and Norway, the freshest vegetables from the Netherlands, Israel and Turkey. Our home purchases from abroad significant amounts of meat, fish, milk products, citrus fruits, coffee and tea, sunflower oil, sugar, cocoa, etc etc.
You can recognize when a Russian import citrus, coffee, but absolutely amazing to look deliveries of potatoes and carrots from Israel and Turkey, or the import of frozen fish, with so many seas in the Russian Federation.
According to the data on the 2008 fraction of Russian products in total consumption accounted for meat — 60% for dairy products — the least 80% on sugar — 58% of vegetables — 84% on Fruit — only 40%. In particular the high fraction of imported goods in the big cities.
Such dependence is dangerous, not only in the event of any crises (global crop failure due to natural disasters or the beginning of World War II), and because of the low zabugornoy properties of the product, its artificiality, the introduction of GMOs. Thus, only in the summer of 2011 there was a scandal when they found the digestive stick to vegetables in Germany, Holland and other European countries. It is curious that a temporary ban on the import of European supply of tomatoes and cucumbers did not cause them to lack of, that is, the Russian commodity producer itself can provide the people of the Russian Federation vegetables.
We can recall cases where Chinese products found overestimated the amount of nitrates, heavy metals (such as mercury).
In addition, buying food the West and the East, we support the economies of our direct rivals. Thus, according to Rosstat disk imaging, only in January-July 2011 the Russian Federation was imported foodstuffs and agricultural raw materials by $ 25 billion. bucks. This figure rose to almost a third of a comparison with the index of the previous year. Soared over the mentioned period the volume of purchases of meat, butter, sunflower oil, sugar and cereals. In 2010, Our homeland has bought food at 36400000000. bucks. It is clear that the best solution would be to put these funds to a large-scale program from the Russian Federation to ensure their food security. For example, in 2011 the federal budget to help farmers allocated 170 billion. rubles (approximately $ 5.5 billion. dollars), and in 2012 plans to allocate even less — 130 billion. rubles. In the case of entry RF the WTO, the situation will become even worse.
It should be noted that Ware market could bring significant revenue Rossi, taking into account the global challenges of food — the population is growing in a number of factors in the aquatic resources and arable land.
Another plus is the development of Russian agriculture — is the fact that according to scientists, nutritionists person more useful food products that are grown in the community, and not brought to distant lands.
The danger is, and degradation of the scientific framework to ensure selection of new types of crops, vegetables, fruits, development of new, more productive livestock. Complete loss of this base will lead to total dependence on transnational agricultural companies.
It must be said that the management of the country takes some steps towards achieving food security and development of the internal market for food of. In January 2010, the Decree of the President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev has approved the Food Security Doctrine. It states the need for a reliable supply of the population of the Russian Federation in food products and the development of Russian agriculture and fishery complexes. One of the strategic objectives is to ensure non-hazardous Russian population in agricultural products, fish products and food.
From 1999 to 2008 year production index of Agriculture has increased by 55%. In 2008, the volume of output Russian agriculture was 87% compared to 1990, more than the worst situation in the livestock — about 60% of the 1990 level. This year has seen unimportant growth in agricultural output (less 1 percent), but the continued reduction in the number of cattle, production of milk, vegetable oil, cereals and wholemeal flour. A worse situation with dairy products, increasing consumption of milk and dairy products, the number of cattle in Russia continues to fall.
On the causes of the serious condition of food security of the Russian Federation
— Russian legacy defined dependence on food purchases abroad appeared since Khrushchev, who, with his "experiments" undermined Soviet agriculture.
— Complete destruction in the 1990s, when there was almost a conscious destruction of agriculture of the country.
— They say some experts on the strengthening of the ruble, which increases the competitiveness of imported products in comparison with the products of Russian manufacturers.
— Net bad contribution to the growth of the foreign sector in the domestic market for food retail chains are entered. They are kept under control to half the retail trade RF and prefer to work with large zabugornom suppliers with a measured volume of the product, and in Russia there are very not enough.
— Another factor is bad — it is the highest price of fuel for the village, so at the end of July 2011, the cost of diesel fuel in the domestic market has increased in comparison with the level of the previous year by 35.2%, while gasoline cars by 35.9%. In the end, often turns out that the growers have to sell their products at a loss to themselves.
— In the middle of other factors: the highest price loans hitch with the staff and the support of young professionals (first prepyadstviya with wages and housing), with prepyadstviya processing industry and the failure of its modernization program, low productivity, delays in the introduction of new products.
In such a situation, an ordinary citizen of the Russian Federation can recommend to recall a phrase from advertising — a "house in the country. Rural house, garden area can smooth part of the possible problems caused by the global crisis in the area of food. For example in 2007, most agricultural products were given specific purpose private farms (48.75%). As they say, the rescue of drowning — the handiwork of drowning. Although the same horticultural friendships own weight problems: according to 2010 only 3% of gardening friendships were equipped with honey Fri, only 21% have access roads, 17% are not electrified (and up to 80% of the equipment is worn out and in need of substitution), and 80 % friendships have difficulties with water supply (especially with drinking water). In addition, the new generation does not have a work culture Russian generations — up to 75% of gardeners, it is the elderly and veterans. There is a problem with the garbage collection, policing.