Imagine the situation of extreme survival in cold weather when your clothes are not able to protect the body, and the appropriate equipment is not at all or it is very limited and ineffective.
Overpower the man with the onset of hypothermia threat to sleep, but you know you will never wake up, if you lose consciousness.
I'll tell you how to survive in such a situation. There is a way that can provide a comfortable, warm place to sleep in the fierce weather, even if your clothes are not adapted to the low temperatures and you have virtually no equipment or special skills to survive in the wild, except for the possibility to build a special place for the night and a fire . In fact, you have quite a few to take care that such a "bed" was cool enough to sleep in it!
A special "bed" for survival, which will allow cold weather to stay warm, and can save your life — is called "fire bed (English firebed) "or"bed on the coals".
Before I explain how to build a place to sleep, I would like to stress that if you're not in a real survival situation, but only practicing, try to pay special attention to the preservation of the environment with minimal damage from your actions. Avoid damaging the roots of trees and plants, be careful with fire in the wild.
Show respect for nature and she will take care of you!
Requirements for the construction of "fire bed"
Since the creation of the "bed on the coals" requires a lot of time and effort, it is important to first find a suitable place. You need to look for different features that make it easier to manufacture "bed", as well as natural materials needed for its construction and the creation of added comfort.
- Protected as far as possible from the wind, rain and snow.
- With soil you can dig to a depth of one foot and not run into large rocks, tree roots, ice or water.
- Places rich dry fuel to sustain the fire. Solid hardwood preferred. They burn longer and produce a hotter flame. Softwood quickly burn and produce a lot of sparks.
- Places with lots of litter dry matter (leaves, pine needles, grass, cattails (cat's tail), etc.) to insulate the body.
Consider each point in more detail.
If possible, choose a place with a natural refuge. Stone ledges, hanging thick trees, and even the roots of fallen trees can provide a good shelter than the open. You will need to find a piece of level ground, which is at least half a meter or meter longer than your body, and wide enough for a comfortable overnight stay.
Suitable for digging soil
Since you'll need to dig a hole in the ground, the right choice of the soil is important. Give preference to the area in which:
- Groundwater is not located close to the surface. If you get to the water — you need to dig in another place.
- The soil is easily processed materials at hand.
- Few roots or large stones, make it very difficult job.
- In snowy areas, looking for a place where you do not have to dig too deeply to the ground.
If you do not have a shovel to dig — do not despair! Use your cutlery set, knife, strong stick, or even their own hands.
Usually, in a cold climate the soil freezes to a considerable depth. Depending on the situation, you can find the soft ground at the foot of the southern slopes of the sun's rays warm the earth enough. Or you can make a fire in order to melt the soil before digging.
Fuel for the fire
Good "bed on the coals," as befits its name, requires a layer of hot and long smoldering coals. For this reason, the best fuel for the construction of a "bed" — it's a solid hardwood. If possible, arrange a bed next to a source of dry fuel.
You can also use soft wood, but they are not able to create high-quality coal, more typical hardwoods. Dry grass and other natural materials leave no coal, but can be used to ignite the fire and heat of the earth.
Softwood: Linden, spruce, fir, aspen, pine, alder, hemlock, pine, chestnut, willow.
Material for insulation
If you are not on warm clothing and sleeping equipment ill-suited to the cold climate or no, you will need a good source of dry, soft material for insulation and padding. Typically, litter is a good natural "blanket" consisting of leaves, evergreen needles and grass.
Even in areas with deep snow cover, if diligently try, you can find the material for insulation. Inspect the large boulders, where the land around the rock are often covered with snow and there are accumulated dried leaves (by the way, a good place for arranging overnight). Check the southern slopes and patches of evergreen forest, which is usually less zasnezhen.
Winter wet areas (swamps, rivers, lakes) can provide you with an excellent material for thermal insulation in the form of Typha (cat's tail) and rushes. Until these plants just to get, because all the water freezes and the snow is blown away with the smooth ice surface.
Canvas or tarpaulins, blankets, polyethylene or other similar material (waterproof and / or retain heat) can greatly help.
Imagine that your truck broke down in a remote mountainous area, and you have to sleep in the cold weather outside, without special equipment. Your clothing consists of sneakers, thin cotton pants, shirts, cotton flannel and caps. Of course, you had to use the three-layer system of clothing, but that no one could not assume that the truck is ever broken — this is the main error in the mountains.
You also have a folding army shovel, an old blanket and the ability to build a fire (flint, matches, lighter, you can use the car battery or the battery from the cell phone).
You will be able to make a "bed of fire," and without a blanket or a shovel, but that no fire will come of nothing. Therefore it is extremely important to always carry an emergency kit, which will be kept waterproof matches, or even better — flint and magnesium bar.
Once you have decided the place, start digging a trench the following dimensions: width — about 30-50 cm, length — about 180 cm, depth — 30 Do not see the ground scatter haphazardly, but neatly in a pile. Later we will need the stones, so separate them from the general ground.
Once the trench is ready, place the bottom of the fist-sized stones, leaving a gap in 2.4 see between them. Stones, in principle, are not absolutely necessary, but they will help to create a layer of air so that the fire will be hotter and get the best coal. If, during the digging you can not find a sufficient number of stones, you can search them somewhere nearby, just not going to porous or layered rocks, as well as those who were in the water. When heated, they may explode!
Now you can start a fire. As I used the tinder dry pine needles and pine cone. When a fire breaks out and the first embers, scatter them across the trench so as to cover the maximum area. Our goal — to maintain a uniform light for the formation of coal and heating the soil around the perimeter of the trench. Add wood as needed and scatter the coals for 2-3 hours. This time can be used for cooking, boiling water, and to dry clothes or litter material.
Then sprinkle the coals 10 cm of soil and tamp it properly. Make sure all the coals are well sprinkled and steam or smoke does not break through a layer of soil.
Everything now is wait. Must pass an hour or so before you feel the pleasant warmth of heated soil. If earlier, you probably need to fill up more 5.3 see the earth from above, otherwise your "bed" may be too hot for a comfortable sleep.
Left to cook "mattress." Look for a dry soft material and dump it in a pile. When coals are sufficiently heat the surface of the trench, can cover the ground even layer of insulating material. The thickness and amount of insulation depends on the specific situation and your ability. It is recommended to use a layer of at least 20-30 cm in thickness.
Several logs laid parallel sides of the trench will reflect the warmth and comfort you further. In addition, they will serve as vetroloma and will not let you slide on the cold ground.
When I made this bed, the ambient temperature was about -4 degrees Celsius. After four hours, the temperature of the ground surface over the coals reached 43 degrees, and the land within 30 cm from the trench was a little warm. By varying the thickness of bedding material, you can adjust the temperature of "fire bed."
The main problem with this overnight — is evaporation. The fact that the soil and / or material used for insulation, usually contains moisture. As a result, the heat from the coal moisture turns to steam and the result is something like a sauna. For this reason, it is advisable to use only the dry means to isolate the body. If you can, then go for a waterproof material (plastic, canvas, canvas, polyethylene).
The next morning, fourteen hours later, after the construction of "bed", the temperature dropped to -8 degrees Celsius, and the temperature of the surface of the soil is still kept at around 32 degrees. This is a great result!
This technique of creating a comfortable warm place to sleep will allow you to survive in cold weather without equipment and special clothing. Good luck!
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