March 1, 2013. American scientists from NASA discovered new Earth radiation belt is a ghost. He lasted only a month and disappeared. Researchers have yet to uncover the mystery that appeared there, where, apparently, have all been studied.
New Earth radiation belt was the third. Before that, it was believed that the Earth is surrounded only two. In fact, with the disappearance of a new phenomenon all over again back to square one.
Near Earth's radiation belts also called Van Allen belts and — in honor of the American scientist Dzheymsoma Van Allen, who discovered them in 1958. In the accumulated radiation belt protons and electrons trapped in the Earth's magnetosphere. A magnetosphere, in turn, is the space around a celestial body with a stream of charged particles of the solar wind, deviated from its original path due to the repulsive magnetic field of the planet. It turns out that they are squeezed from two sides — the solar wind blowing in the direction of a celestial body and repelling them back by its magnetic field. In this way, the particles are collected in the field encircles — radiation belt. Such belt is not at all the planets in our solar system. In addition to the Earth, they have giant planets such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
Land has two radiation belts — internal (at an altitude of 1600 to 13 million miles), consisting of protons and external (at an altitude of 19 thousand to 40 thousand km), consisting of electrons. A third was built into the outer belt at a height of 19 100 to 22 300 km from the earth. It was formed September 2, 2012 and lasted about a month.
This belt Scientists discovered by space probes twin Van Allen, created last year specifically for the study of the Earth's radiation belts. This opening researchers found that even close to the Earth land space for us to store many more unsolved mysteries.
"Frankly, I'm ashamed to say thought it was acting up our phones, so it seemed unlikely. There was a feeling that some detail is out of order and the data were skewed, but then it dawned on me — all the devices are normal, and I had to believe it. We made a great scientific opening!"- Says study author Daniel Baker.
It is still unclear how the belt came. Scientists from NASA believed that his "inflated" by the solar wind. For some unknown cosmic irony, is also his and destroyed. By October 1, a new zone completely disappeared — he was literally knocked out of the shock wave of the solar wind.
Discovered new radiation belt
March 5, 2013. Earth's radiation belts were among the first in the number of discoveries of the space age. The new finding, published in today's issue of the journal Science, shows that we still have to learn a lot about them.
NASA launched into space last August probes (Van Allen Probes, are named the same as the observed their belts), have revealed a previously unknown third radiation belt around the Earth. "It's been 55 years since their discovery, but even after half a century, these belts are still able to surprise us" — spoke Nicky Fox, deputy project scientist at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Maryland.
Previous observations Van Allen belts since the late 1950s, recorded two separate regions covered by the radiation surrounding the planet. These regions are known in the scientific world as the inner and outer radiation belts.
Sensors on board the probes revealed the existence of the transition process, which forms the third zone. Scientists have observed it for four weeks before a powerful shock wave from the sun and destroyed it.
Each of the two probes is the same set of 5 tools that allow you to collect research data in unprecedented detail. Key data for the discovery of the device came Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT), part of the probe, called the Energetic Particle and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT).
Lead researcher Daniel Baker says that the first time we have an opportunity to look at the time, space and energy in such a high resolution.
Previous observations have shown the radiation belts single blurred element. It was only after the launch of REPT, scientists were able to clearly see the new zone, and the distance between it and the outer belt.