Pigmentation, or color of our skin is associated with a particular substance — melanin. It is a dark colored pigment, which is under the influence of sunlight (or rather, UV light) is formed from amino acids, which is a part of most protein — tyrosine. Melanin is synthesized in specific cells — melanocytes by the enzyme — tyrosinase. Increased or, conversely, reducing the production of melanin, as well as in violation of its distribution pigmentation disorders occur.
Excessive formation of melanin is manifested in the form of:
— Efelidov (which in Greek means "sun blotch") — is a small brown spots, which are located mainly on the face and exposed parts of the body. Usually appear in the spring when the first rays of the sun, and in the fall or winter or partially disappear; in a scientific way
- chloasma — symmetrical brown spots, which are located predominantly on the face;
- nevi (moles, nevi);
- pigmentation of various nature
The lack of melanin is manifested in the form of:
- albinism — congenital complete or partial absence of pigment of the skin, hair and iris pigment and eye membranes. The cause of the disease is the lack of the enzyme tyrosinase, required for normal synthesis of melanin. For a typical albino white, sometimes tinged with pink skin, hair, eyelashes, eyebrows, such people are white, and his eyes — red.
- Vitiligo — white, sharply defined spots, with bleached, gray hairs in the affected areas.
Freckles— It's spots, which are often inherited. In fact, it's distant relatives tan, but tan is characterized by a uniform distribution of tyrosine in the cells of the skin and freckles — are islands of tyrosine spontaneously transformed into melanin. The brightest freckles occur in the age of twenty to twenty-five years. Up to 3
Vitiligo may appear on the skin in disorders of the immune system. It is believed that the tendency to vitiligo inherited.
Chloasma — Brown, manifested mainly on the face, dark spots that occur during pregnancy, certain diseases of the female reproductive organs, infection with intestinal worms, in case of problems with the activity of the liver, etc. This type of pigment disorders observed in violation of the ovaries. Sometimes, merging, spots reach a considerable size. For example, spots around the mouth, as a rule, are an early sign of incipient polyposis
Older people often have sharply-defined spots on the dorsum of the hands. But if a person younger than 50 years old, then such spots are a sign of early aging.
Moles or birthmarks — Accumulation of melanocytes in the skin. In a particular quantity they have in any person. Typically, newborns are no moles. They begin to appear in the first years of life and in the future are formed throughout life. Most often, the new "fly" appear at puberty, during pregnancy, during menopause. It also happens that the colorless birthmark, the existence of which you never knew, begin to darken. Moles that are given to us from birth, usually less dangerous (insignificant risk of transformation into melanoma) than the newly formed.
Melanoma (Tumors containing melanin) — the most formidable type of violation of local pigmentation.
In addition to the above, the pigmentation leave behind all kinds of dermatitis. Also spots may remain in place burns, injections, insect bites, against the background of the transferred urticaria. Skin discoloration may be observed in lesions of the immune system, including systemic lupus erythematosus, and as a result of medication, including contraception, estrogens (female hormones).
Diagnosis and treatment
If you change the pigmentation of the skin should be examined by a beautician to clarify the causes of this disorder. May also need to consult a dermatologist.
It should be remembered that:
- sunlight of any type of skin pigmentation is stronger, and therefore should be
avoid sunlight, and apply daily on the face protection from the sun (this can be a special sunscreen or a means of facial skin care that contains UV filter with a high index of protection). if possible
- sometimes unwanted pigmentation resolves on its own after removing the cause, it caused, in other cases require only mild exfoliating agent.
- Whitening pigment, which is a symptom of
diseases of the internal organs, it may be a complete waste of time and money, and also cause the development of serious complications. a
- Whitening procedures include two basic elements — exfoliation of the horny layer of the skin and decrease production of melanin pigment. Exfoliate the skin helps remove melanin from the epidermis, resulting in lightening age spots. To this end, different types of peels. All bleaching procedure even most sparing can provoke skin dryness or increased, which leads to premature aging and wrinkling of the face.
- Mole removal itself is safe, but is prescribed for medical reasons only, and rare — for cosmetology. There are moles that are subject to the degeneration of a malignant tumor — they should pay special attention (usually a large birthmark, a diameter greater than 5 mm, and often traumatized). When the
changes in the structure of moles (color, shape, appearance of ragged edges, inclusions of a different color, perceptible changes in growth) should immediately make its examination. any