Speech disorders

Speech disorders.  Photo from www.sciencephoto.com

Speech disorder known since ancient times. Without a doubt, these diseases there are as old as the human word. It is quite common among children and adults. The Greeks and the Romans, in which a public word played an important social role, and learning graceful speech was part of the range of subjects of general education, have already had the concept of many disorders of speech.

This is reflected in the large number of terms used to refer to them. Even Hippocrates are mentions almost all the known forms of speech disorders: loss of voice, loss of speech, tongue-tied, slurred speech, stuttering, etc.


Causes of speech disorders can be a variety of factors, or a combination thereof:

  • difficulties in distinguishing sounds to the ear (with normal hearing);
  • damage during birth speech zone located on the top of his head;
  • defects in the structure of the speech organs — the lips, teeth, tongue, soft and hard palate. An example is the tongue-tie, cleft palate, popularly called "cleft palate", or malocclusion;
  • lack of mobility of the lips and tongue;
  • speech delay as a result of mental retardation;
  • gibberish in the family, etc.

What's going on?

In the most serious violations of speech suffers not only the pronunciation of sounds, but the ability to distinguish sounds to the ear. In this case, limited active (used in speech) and passive (the one that the child perceives the ear) the child's vocabulary, there are problems with the construction of sentences and phrases. All of these disorders if they are not corrected in time, cause difficulty communicating with others. In the future, they can lead to the development of the child zakompleksovannosti, preventing him to learn and fully develop their natural abilities and capabilities.

According to the severity of speech disorder can be divided into those that are not an obstacle to learning in regular school, and severe disorders that require special training. Of severe speech disorders are the most common alalia, various types of dysarthria, some forms of stuttering, etc.

Alalia — Is a complete or partial absence of speech in children with good physical hearing, due to immaturity or defeat speech areas of the brain. If a child does not touch alalia understand someone else's speech, moreover, it does not recognize the sounds of speech: listen to what the people something says, but does not understand what it was. This is similar to how we do not understand us speaking in an unknown foreign language. When the motor alalia child can not learn the language (it sounds, words, grammar).

Dysarthria (anarthria) — Is violation pronunciation, arising as a result of damage to the nervous system. If you do not suffer from dysarthria pronunciation of individual sounds, and the whole speech. A child with dysarthria unclear, blurry, making noises, his voice soft, weak, or on the contrary, too sharp; breathing rhythm disturbed, it loses its smoothness, rate of speech is abnormally accelerated or too slow. Often, children with dysarthria violated small movements of the hand, they are awkward physically.

Children with deleted forms of dysarthria did not stand out sharply among their peers, even not always immediately attract attention. However, they have some characteristics. Thus, these children speak clearly and eat poorly. Usually they do not like meat, bread crust, carrots, firm apple, because they find it difficult to chew. A little chewed, the child can keep food in the cheek, while the adults will not make him a note. Most parents go to the kid to make concessions — give a soft diet, just to eat. Thus, they do not unwittingly contribute to the delay in the child development movement articulation apparatus.

Dyslalia — A violation of the pronunciation of different sounds, another name for this type of speech disorders — tongue-tied. Types of Tongues are very diverse. To indicate they are commonly used by the Greek names of the sounds of speech, pronunciation, which is violated, distorted sound pronouncing "r" has been called rhotacism, the sound "l" — lambdaizma, whistling and hissing sounds ("a", "h", "c", " w "," w "," d "," u ") — sigmaizma (from the Greek letters" ro "," lambda "," sigma "). If the broken utterance of consonants and sound combinations with the exception of "t", so that it becomes quite confusing, then use the term "tetizm" (from the Greek name of the letter "t" (theta)).

Stuttering — A violation of tempo, rhythm, fluency, cramping, spasms in different parts of the vocal apparatus. In this case, the child's speech observed forced to stop or repetition of individual sounds and syllables. Stuttering most often occurs in children between the ages of two and five years. It is important not to miss the first signs of stuttering: a child suddenly becomes silent, refusing to talk. This condition can last up to several days. In such a case, you must consult your doctor immediately.

Often, the cause of stuttering becomes frightened or prolonged trauma. Speech disorders in preschool years, in the absence of corrective work, will inevitably lead to problems in school, in particular, may develop dysgraphia — A violation of the letter, so-called, tongue-tied in the letter. Typically, it occurs when a child begins to learn to read and write. The cause of this disorder is hypoplasia or violation of phonemic hearing. Incidentally, the pronunciation of the ears of all transactions in writing the letters in the correct sequence — quite an effective tool for teaching children to think correctly about the action, then there may be prevention of a graphical errors in primary school children.

In first grade, a child may also occur dyslexia (alexia) — Violation of reading or mastering them in the defeat of various parts of the cortex of the left hemisphere (right-handers). Depending on what specific areas affected, identify different types of Alex.


Some speech disorders disappear with age, some of them can be eliminated with little assistance in working with a speech therapist or a logopunkte parents in the children's clinic or in a conventional garden. Children with severe speech disorders require mandatory lengthy speech by a speech therapist in group speech therapy kindergartens. In this case, the sooner you seek help from a speech therapist, the more successful will be carried out remedial work with your child.

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