For quite a long time, scientists believed the legend of the Tower of Babel a symbolic legend and human arrogance. It was not until the end of the last century came from Europe, archaeologists have found the exact location of the ruins of Babylon.
A hundred kilometers south of Baghdad, many centuries loomed lifeless hills with flat tops and steep slopes. Local residents considered their natural details of the relief. On the tops comfortable Bedouin Tents, praising Allah pious Arabs. None of them did not know what lies under the feet of the greatest city of all time. Here in 1899, headed the German archaeologist Robert Koldewey, which in a few years will go down in history as the man excavated Babylon.
The excavation of the hills on the plain Sahni, which means "pan", began in the spring of 1899 year. Success came to Kolda-veyu since the early days and did not leave a techenieposleduyuschih fifteen years, during which he and two hundred workers extracted from the ground evidence of the former existence here of an ancient civilization. The scale of Babylon archaeologist got an idea after a few months of operation. First he dug a wall of mud brick width of 7 meters and a height of 12 meters. At a distance of 12 meters from the ground to hide her another wall of brick width of about 8 meters, and behind it was a third wall width of 3 meters, once girded with a deep, lined with bricks ditch.
The space between the first two walls at one time was filled with earth, which turned two walls in a completely impenetrable and impregnable ramparts. On the inside of the wall every 50 meters, standing guard towers. Subsequently Koldewey counted 360 turrets! Thus, the inner wall of Babylon had a length of over 18 kilometers! If we assume, as in the Middle Ages, that "the city — is enclosed by a walled settlement" that Babylon, built over four thousand years ago, at all times remained the largest city, erected by man on planet Earth!
Koldewey working literally filled findings. These were the fragments of bas-reliefs of glazed brick, covered with copper city gates, the majestic winged lions, skillfully made by ancient sculptors. Hidden underground artifacts overshadowed brilliance and grandeur of the masterpieces of Egyptian culture and set the scientific world unsolved mystery: where in ancient Mesopotamia emerged as a highly developed nation? Now archaeologists believe that ancient Babylon — this is the last glimpse of the mysterious civilization of the Sumerians, the people who had settled thousands of years ago, between the Tigris and Euphrates.
The Sumerians were building large stone city. Their jewelry made of gold is still the envy of the famous Parisian jewelers and tombs, where are found the remains of hundreds of sacrificed people make shudder seasoned archaeologists. About the Sumerians, little is known, but there is evidence that their nation was destroyed by the Flood, In any case, after the cultural layer of the Sumerian civilization, archaeologists discovered the two-meter layer of clay, testifying about what happened here once a catastrophic flood.
Probably after the Flood survived not only the Old Testament, Noah. The surviving representatives of the Sumerian people established the city of Babylon, which revived the greatness and depravity of civilization, exterminated by God or the elements. But all these discoveries and hypotheses that shed light on the mysterious legends of the past, appeared after Koldewey. The very same German archaeologist found archaeological evidence of two legends — the Tower of Babel and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.
First, in the north-eastern part of the ancient city Koldewey unearthed the remains of cellars with an unusual form of the vaults. The archaeologist was puzzled — for the first time during his long work in Babylon he met underground structures. And they hid inside the jelly, consisting of three mines. Technicians have prompted archaeologist that trehshahtny served well in time for the intake and had the tape lift, intended for continuous water supply. In addition, a set of underground structure was laid with stone, found Koldewey only once at the north wall. And then it dawned archaeologist! All ancient writers Josephus, Diodorus, Steciw, Strabrn and cuneiform tablets of the ancient Assyrians — only twice referred to the use of stone in Babylon instead of the usual bricks in the construction of the north wall and in the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Queen Semiramis.
Found cellars, followed only possible conclusion vault were evergreen gardens of Babylon. They acted unique for that time of water-supply systems, which provide precious moisture mnogoterrasnoe giant garden construction. It saw him Herodotus and ranked to the wonders of the world. Before us is reached only once magnificent building basements, for which, alas, can not be judged on its architecture and height. Survived only a tradition that from the terrace of your favorite hanging gardens of Semiramis rushed down after being handed the throne to his son. As she fell, her hands turned into a pigeon wings, and the body — the body of a dove, and the queen, according to legend owned a magical knowledge, ever departed from this world.
The second finding Koldewey, stunned the Western world, have become the remains of the legendary Tower of Babel. The Babylonians called it "Etemenanki" — "the cornerstone of the Temple of Heaven and Earth." To date, the foundation has remained only a colossal structure. Width of the square base, excavated by the German archaeologist, was 90 meters. On all sides of the tower surrounded by the ruins of the wall, which, as he wrote Koldewey, sided with all kinds of religious buildings. She also served as the Tower of Babel gigantic shrine, on top of which stood a temple to the god Marduk.
The story of the fate of the Tower of Babel brought us the cuneiform clay tablets unearthed) archaeologists in Babylon and other cities of the Assyrian-Babylonian kingdom and the Greek historian.
It is difficult to imagine what level reached Babylonian engineering science, through which erected such majestic ITATION structures as the Tower and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.
See also: The Forbidden archaeological finds, forms of existence of matter in the universe.