The telegraph was invented in Kiakhta. It was predicted Buryat shamans

19.04.2004

19.04.2004


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The first Morse telegraph invented not, according to most, and our compatriot. Paul Schilling made a major scientific discovery in the five years before the American. This happened in 1832 in Kiakhta. Then the invention of Kyakhtinsky many have said, and now remembered only by historians.

In the museum named after the city Obrucheva Kjahta is a unique model of the invention of the electromagnetic telegraph. This old machine has traveled around the world, exhibited in America, then in the capital's Polytechnic Institute. In the late 50s the unit returned to the place where he once was created.

Paul Schilling, known in the past century orientalist, corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences came in the early thirties of the last century Kiakhta responsible for the execution of public order — with the expedition of the Department of Foreign Affairs, Schilling studied the situation on the border, trade and described the traditions of men, living in this area — Russian, Cossack, Buryats, Mongols and Chinese. In addition to this work, the St. Petersburg scientist in the gaps between the bearing of the civil service and the filling of the set of papers developed in Kiakhta model of the electromagnetic telegraph. It went so well that Schilling invented "dalneizveschayuschuyu machine" before he could return from a business trip. It happened in Kiakhta discovery. Then about this development American Samuel Morse, officially patented in the 37th was the telegraph, not even suspected. It is believed that on the basis of the knowledge gained inventor of the telegraph in Eastern Siberia, and was the largest opening. What is interesting, shortly before the arrival of Schilling Kiakhta local seers have foretold that it would come to a particularly enlightened person owning unearthly knowledge and performing some kind of special, almost divine mission. It may be coincidence, but Schilling Kiakhta took it for a messiah. To the scientist came to worship the capital from distant villages, it is not prayed and offered any assistance possible. Paul himself Schilling take it with humor, but not once used his position, asking locals to bring him to the writings of the ancient Mongolian and Chinese.

Morse has Mongol roots

Siberians crowds came to him and gave all they could. Sometimes such a sacrifice leads scientists puzzled. He was afraid to leave quite uneducated population without books and decided to not take itself at all, and copy. By studying the books donated by Kyakhta, Paul L. drawn attention to the ways of Eastern Literature and cryptography. Later, he laid the foundations of a coding information transmitted by telegraph. Historical documents are stored in museums, they say that rocked the capital of the scientist and how to predict the local Chinese astrologers, actively practicing at the time in Kiakhta. They guessed the future with the help of simple systems 64 pieces. Each geksogramm comprised of six lines of two types — a continuous and intermittent.

"If by six lines Kyakhtinsky seers tell the whole fate of man, then certainly for the transfer of the alphabet it all the more enough!" — Said the scientist in his records.

A contemporary of Pushkin and Gogol, Schilling first in the world has proved the possibility of practical application of electromagnetic phenomena for communications and opened the way for further work Morse and Cook. There was even talk that the Morse code was created by oriental research Schilling.

Inventor besserebrennikov

According to some reports, he did not patent his invention because he sickened money selling their discoveries. They say that more than once he offered to sell his telegraph in England or the United States, but he refused. Especially because in the nineteenth century in Russia the patent system was poorly debugged. Many then assumed that the invention has gone to the West illegally. Nevertheless, at the end of the eighteenth century in Kiakhta was already laid the first international telegraph line, she connected the Russian merchant city of Mongolia. Ironically, the owners of this line were the Swedes, they charged a fee for the telegram in his own pocket and independently set prices — then the cost of a single word in a telegram between Kyakhta and Trotskosavskoy large village, a few kilometers away from the city, was 5 cents. For most residents of the city it was incredibly expensive. The well-known to all students of Pushkin's poem that "genius — one of paradoxes" appears, dedicated to discovery made by Paul Schilling on our land. The great Russian poet, was a close friend of the scientist and devoted to the invention made by the Buryat ground his work. Pushkin himself was going to come in Kiakhta. Kiakhta ni wanted to visit for several reasons: first, historians say, very much he could not wait to see the best city in the province and go to China, where he could safely move from Kyakhty. And secondly, in Siberia, he dreamed of to come from the fact that here a hundred years ago, his great-grandfather, Abram Petrovich Hannibal built the Peter and Paul Fortress, located on the banks of the river Chikoy. All requests to allow the poet to go with Schilling in Kiakhta, Alexander Sergeyevich was answered in the negative. How to know if Pushkin in the 32-year came to Kiakhta, this city would mean in school textbooks and more as a place to write a great writer, "Dubrovsky" and "Eugene Onegin."

Ekaterina Shevtsova

16.04.2004

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