D. Mc Campbell
New approaches to the problem of unidentified flying objects from the point of view of science and common sense
Since then, both in academic circles there is a belief that the emergence of intelligent life on Earth represents a unique phenomenon and that, on the contrary, it is an ordinary and common in the universe, the problem of EC (ETC) has acquired, so to speak, the right to citizenship.
Important in the modern history of problems CC has carried out in the USSR in 1971, Byurakan international conference on communication with extraterrestrial civilizations (the problem CETI).
The Conference recognized the appropriate search Exhibition Centre with the level of development comparable to that of the earth, as well as search for ETI with the technical potential, "far above the earth."
CETI problem becomes more and more a subject of extensive discussion. The possibility of searching, the significance of this problem for the future development of mankind, and others by the very unusual nature of the problem CETI: ETI signals have never been found. Consequently, the basis for her is not allowed yet no scientific fact. Yet she calls "acute scientific interest" as this there is a strong logical foundation.
Meanwhile, as part of the problem, Computer Center, along with the problem CETI, there is another aspect, the basis for which is the logic of space activities advanced civilization.
If the earth's humanity has entered the era of space exploration, it is logically appropriate to assume that the ETI has the technical potential "far above the earth," came not only to his neighbor, but in interstellar space.
And if so, why manned and unmanned space vehicles such VTS can not reach the "other" star systems, and, among them, and our solar system?
If the problem still CETI is not based on scientific facts, the second problem area VC, which can be called the problem of UFOs (unidentified flying objects) is based on numerous observations. However, initial evidence of UFOs so far can not be considered scientific — they are not reproduced experimentally.
However, the logical basis for the benefit of studying the UFO problem is no less reasons to the development of the problem CETI. Especially because of our interest in the UFO problem is also a very important element of patriotism.
D. Campbell's book is an interesting and, to our knowledge, the only pioneer in foreign literature (according to A. Hynek) attempt a logical approach to the explanation of the UFO phenomenon. Basing their constructions assumption that the "UFO observers say the truth," as well as "Correlated general" many reports of sightings, using as source material a relatively secure message archive (such as communications, the Committee Professor E. Condon) , the author applies the methodology of system analysis, argues that an unintended account of any amount of poor quality posts does not change its overall conclusions and offers a relatively orderly explanation of many aspects of the UFO phenomenon.
Campbell said the UFO spaceships and probes CC.
Of particular interest are considered himself the author of sightings UFO people (pilots and passengers UFO), their appearance, behavior and attitudes, communicating with each other and with people, activities, activity on the ground. UFO people — it is certainly a key aspect of the UFO phenomenon.
Also of interest are the data about the running pilot studies in the United States some of the problems related to UFOs, some of the technical data and information, which are of practical interest.
D. Campbell, apparently, takes into account the known position of Poincare on the duties of a scientist who claims to creation theory, and not without reason, that he "managed to bring order to build a house" from a disorderly pile of bricks that represent different kinds of information about the UFO in the literature about this phenomenon.
The challenge of explaining the phenomenon of UFOs can not be over-emphasized especially that the principles and techniques that provide the possibility of interstellar travel, represent achievements of civilizations, "far superior" the earth and, apparently, can hardly be satisfactorily explained by modern earth science. And, of course, can not be overstated as the attractiveness of the idea of establishing contact with the UFO people, which, if desired, can not we just "explain" …
Today, you can just about finding the right approach to solving this problem. In this regard, the experience D. Campbell deserves respect. However, many explanations Campbell identified only by their names (such as "gravity control"), a number of considerations, the authors argue, perhaps, is wrong, needs to be comments that are not included in the translation. The author himself points to the need for criticism and only asks critics to refrain from excessive aggressiveness. Translation is a slightly abridged. Omitted as small parts of the text in which the author consciously or unconsciously use of substandard raw materials clearly.
The book is useful in that it provides systematic information on virtually all aspects of the UFO phenomenon and covers materials scattered in many publications.
Interesting proposals author, he formulated in the final (10th) chapter of the book.
It should be noted that over the last couple of years in the past, negative attitude to the study of the UFO problem in the United States has changed. According to reports created by the nerve center headed by A. Hynek. The activities of this center welcomes the support of various organizations, including government.
Translation of the book printed in several copies directly from the original and, of course, needs editing, especially since the author draws to explain the problems are quite numerous disciplines.
FROM THE AUTHOR
The possibility of studying unidentified flying objects (UFOs) — the gift of witnesses and participants of the observation of this phenomenon. If it were not for their messages, we would know nothing about the subject and completely ignored. Therefore, I offer my thanks to the thousands of people who have seen something strange in the sky and were not afraid to talk about their experiences. I am also indebted to many researchers of this phenomenon, which carefully studied the individual observations and published his findings. These information sources are mentioned in the text of the book. However, the literature on UFOs is so vast that it is impossible to list all authors who have somehow influenced my views on this issue. I sincerely thank them all. I do not belittle the merits and also those authors who are not mentioned in this study, although their work on UFOs widely known and significant.
Very few events have attracted as much attention as the so-called Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). Almost every person in the civilized world at least heard of them. Even savages who live beyond the borders of modern civilization, they describe the observed phenomena in the sky, in fact fit the definition of a UFO. As for the unanimity of views on UFOs, it very little. Each of us creates his own opinion on the matter, and these opinions differ in the strongest terms. Most serious people would agree with sufficiently complete and convincing proof of the reality of UFOs. However, UFO remain highly controversial phenomenon because no attempt to explain it has not yet been successful. The fundamental fact that we encounter in this area, is that there is a huge number of reports of UFO sightings. Of course, much of these messages may not be trustworthy. However, many UFO researchers have come to the conclusion that most UFO reports are authentic. This means that there is a certainty: UFO observers really believe they saw something real, external, artificial and unusual. Therefore, our main goal is to find a satisfactory explanation of the UFO phenomenon. Based on logical considerations, we can say that all the possible explanations for UFOs can be broadly classified into two main categories, namely:
A) UFOs represent real physical man-made objects that the observer can not identify with anything known to him, or
B) UFO — it is something quite different, for example, still unknown natural phenomena, or just a fiction, or maybe even kakih-nibud manifestations of mental disorders.
Of course, if we talk about the messages of the first category, it is always possible to assume that the phenomenon seem unique to a particular observer, seems quite clear and quite earth people with great knowledge and experience. Therefore, the core of the issue is the problem of the reality of UFOs, as the basis of observations.
Exist or do not exist UFO category A puzzling mankind, and including experts in every field of human knowledge, which can hide at least some of the necessary explanations?
Most observers are convinced of the reality of UFOs. This belief is shared by nearly all who have closely studied the issue. Conversely, the opposing views often expressed by people who a) consider research data on UFOs something irrelevant to their dignity, and b) are used to reject any new concept, without giving trouble to reflect on it and c) do not express their opinions as long as long as they do not present hard evidence.
Unfortunately, as long as the question of the reality of the existence of UFOs will be in the foreground, the progress in the study of this complex problem, there can be significant. This dilemma does exist because reviewing and considering all the "pros and cons" we divert our attention from the merits of the case and find ourselves unable to detect the important details of the problem: the brain is blocked.
Real progress in the region of interest can be achieved only if we ignore the unjustified skepticism, at least for a while.
In this regard, we have set ourselves the task we ask readers to put aside their doubts and follow the reasoning developed in this book.
Let us assume for a while that UFOs represent the mechanical structures that look and behave exactly in general, as reported by observers. Adoption of such a point of view can not be harmful. On the contrary, this view may be advantageous.
As a working hypothesis, this assumption will free our minds from the above question, and will allow us to study the available data at our disposal. This in itself is a useful thing. Note that the feasibility of this approach to the UFO problem with proper fullness can be assessed only after reading this entire book. And yet we are only a reminder that we only admit the reality of UFOs, as it is done in the games, in game theory, except that assumption proved.
We might ask whether this leads to a more complete gimmick, a more informed understanding of the problem? Reveals whether it is any secret, previously considered intractable, whether it reveals their true meaning, if it helps them to scientific explanation? Tells whether it is any experiments with which to test new ideas? Affirmative answers to these questions determine the value of our hypothesis. Conversely, if this hypothesis would be fruitless, then we will treat it as a dead tree and "discard it out of our garden."
The importance of all these considerations can hardly be overestimated. The reader should consider proposed to him a new perspective for the rest of the book. Otherwise, he does not understand why the author uses the minor changes in the communications UFO observers and considers them uncritically.
And in fact, the author is nowhere in this book does not attempt to prove the value of the information submitted by UFO observers or to give it a grade. It just takes the messages in their original form for the purposes of this study and treat them with an open mind. By the way, do not necessarily believe the data that you want to explore. The question of whether they are true or not, should be considered only in the final assessment of the results …
An important basis for the development of science is the freedom to construct hypotheses. Explaining the findings of fact, the proposed theoretical hypothesis does not necessarily have to be very much a moderate. And, in fact, a serious advance in science is not just based on hypotheses which seemed quite wild or, at least, it is extremely unwise. Even won himself a permanent place in scientific thinking, they may seem quite arbitrary and inconsistent with common sense. In search of a new truth, no one can predict what form it will take. Therefore, it is not necessary to put forward to justify the theory. Yet, as a concession to the reader, we present in Chapter 1 of the many details that explain why we chose our hypothesis.
These data — a useful introduction to the study of UFOs for the beginner. Well, the sophisticated reader who is familiar with them or do not see this as a logical necessity, they may miss.
The search for truth in the field of UFO extremely difficult. First of all, the experience of watching HLO may not be reproduced in the laboratory. Can not be as "capture" the UFO for a detailed examination. It is also impossible to predict the time and place of future observations. Spontaneous UFO sightings are so short-lived and geographically so widely dispersed that can not be delivered on time to the observation experts and scientific instruments for participation in the observations.
Exclude if all these circumstances the possibility of improvement of our understanding of the UFO? Probably not. Our efforts in this direction are connected with a curious fact: although reports of sightings are often classified as anecdotal, they nevertheless represent the only source of information about everything this subject. It is clear that if we want to develop our understanding of the UFO, will examine all of this reservoir of information, ie all reports of UFO sightings.
There is no doubt that the structure of this information collection also includes some sample messages from Category B. It is known that some of the messages that seemed well-documented, were later recognized as inventions pranksters. Sometimes the material is accepted for consideration without sufficient criticism and, of course, the consequences were dire.
Serious researchers reported UFO sightings are usually carefully perform their work and are able to filter out false reports. Excessive "push" in this sifting probably would have taken away, and the researchers themselves and the public a number of valuable information. To avoid this trouble and its possible consequences, the use of each specific message, we take in our study, a different approach to this issue: we do not rely so much on the details of each individual message, but rather on the total correlated in many reports, independent of each other, is widely scattered at the place of observation, drawn up by representatives of various cultures.
Those common elements of many messages we attach the greatest importance. Scattered on the scene of action, but similar in content reports and reports give us the opportunity, choosing one specific details, to create a composite picture of a typical event.
Our current analysis of the UFO problem is entirely based on this concept, despite some risk of inadvertent use and poor quality of some posts, fabrications, hallucinations, etc. Note that the total number of UFO reports is so great that some "pollution" of the original weight of the material nedrokachestvennymi messaging is unlikely to significantly reduce the value of our overall findings and discoveries.
Usually do not realize the full amount of the UFO phenomenon. A casual observer might be a UFO in the course of a dozen or perhaps a slightly larger number of newspaper reports of UFOs over several years. He may have accidentally seen a few magazine articles about UFOs, often interlayered with sensational reports about the hunt for polar bears, or the search for treasure on a misty Amazon.
He may be aware of some books about UFOs, but most of all he did not read them. The newspaper comments on the report of the Condon Committee, which he also did not read, had convinced him that UFOs do not represent special interest.
He may be surprised to learn that the average number of reported UFO sightings since 1947 more than 200 messages per year. Meanwhile, in 1967 the number of reports of HLO has exceeded 1,000. Since all of these figures relate only to the U.S., and UFOs are a global problem, so far the total number of observations and reports on them, as we see, should be quite significant. This is their total number is not known, but there is ample evidence that it is of the order of 500,000 or more.
Every single author can only "restrict" the surface of this very voluminous collection of messages. However, the results of his analysis is not necessarily proportional to its efforts. In the end, you can draw a portrait of a tiger on a sufficient number of descriptions. It is not necessary to interview hundreds of people eaten by tigers. To avoid bias in the selection of materials, we will use in this paper catalog of observations, which was laboriously made by other people (Catalogue of observations by the Commission Professor E. Condon — approx. Trans.)
We regard this work as a kind of preliminary study that may need to be repeated and developed on a much larger scale (see Chapter 10). In the meantime, we are quite satisfied with the opportunity to demonstrate the efficiency of the chosen method to uncover some new areas of the UFO problem, even if they are, at this stage of the study, seem to be insufficiently clear.
The nature of the material world and the sequence of his studies require extensive citation of primary sources. This need is dictated by other considerations.
The information presented in this book are divided into several categories that we should distinguish. But it would be too burdensome to negotiate every time these categories. Therefore, while remaining within the accepted our hypothesis, it is quite possible to say that the thing happened, then it is known that this incident we have only the message of an observer. The reader of this book will always know where she is received or other information, so that it always has the opportunity to further explore the data of interest to its particular incident.
Much of the information used in this book, from a technical and scientific point of view is flawless, it is obtained from reliable sources about and can be very useful when testing and further development of some of the findings of our study. Of course, sometimes it is necessary to distinguish between deductive conclusions of the author, in which he is fully confident and extrapolation with less than solid foundation. Observations made by the author facilitate this work.
Bibliographic data are numbered and collected at the end of each chapter. A detailed study of UFOs can not be arbitrarily limited to a few areas of technology in which strong or that author. This elusive goal should be prosecuted on all its tracks, where they have failed. As will be shown below, it needs specialists various fields of science and technology. One can not, of course, expect that any single author will prove equally competent in all areas, or that its research in these areas will be completely error-free. One can only hope that his general conclusions are appropriate, that its invasion in various technical trades will not be considered to be too aggressive and that the relevant experts will provide him the necessary assistance in the future to eliminate the shortcomings.
Chapter 1. The question of the reality of UFOs
"… No one has the right to deny the reality of UFOs and in general to have any opinion on the question of the reality of UFOs … as long as it explores … the evidence …"
"Shortly after the Second World War in the sky began to appear strange, disc-shaped flying objects" — first about what they said about this phenomenon many citizens. Over time, the rumors about these objects began to spread quickly. Sometimes they brought this explanation: "This is the air force have a new kind of secret aircraft." And to the question: "Whose Air Force?" Posted: "Ours, of course." And admitted that maybe, broke Russian forward.
One could count a long series of other possible explanations. For example, these: people are lying or simply in order to gain fame, or for any benefits, or that they just thought they saw something unusual, or that they saw a natural phenomena, but under abnormal conditions, lighting, or that it talking about natural phenomena, as yet unknown to science, or that it simply tricks pranksters, or that it sets some unknown civilization that produce exploration of our planet …
"Flying saucers," as they were called in those days, became a sensation. Newspapers, radio and television reported on all of the new observations. In magazine articles and books discussed the idea that we are talking about ships from outer space …
Many belonged to unidentified flying objects (UFOs) as to some not very dangerous infection, "Yes, these objects are, but the importance they do not have …" However, the U.S. Air Force reacted to this story seriously and began to study the UFO on a national scale . Hoped to prove that "all these UFO" is nothing but the manifestation of human stupidity. Hoped that the interest in UFOs had die out soon after the necessary clarifications.
But it did not happen.
Was a whole quarter of a century, and the status of the UFO changed very little. Twenty-five years of papers on UFO investigations "tired" U.S. Air Force and they stopped their search. But UFOs are still with us …
As they started to notice a substantial uniformity in the various reports of UFOs, there was strong suspicion that the participants and witnesses of the observations may tell the truth. For example, the impression of the fact that the French physicist in 1954 and the Brazilian farmer in 1968 reported the same type of an unknown flying object. It is particularly important that in similar cases, observers mention the same strange details of observation.
You can, of course, the suspect in this match, but often the coincidence is extremely unlikely or even impossible. In this example, the Brazilian farmer never knew anything about the events on the outskirts of his village and never heard anything about UFOs.
How not to be considered remarkable by the fact that the message of the peasant as an echo reflected the content of another observation made in a distant country. Does this mean that both reports are correct and, in general, is there any way to establish the veracity of reports on UFO sightings?
Reliability messages and UFO sightings
During the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles, the reliability has gained much importance. These weapons placed in underground mines in the western areas of the U.S., has for a long time to be in standby mode and at the same time in a state of operational readiness. These rockets are extremely complex machines. Therefore, they always find a considerable number of elements that may prove to be a critical moment unusable.
In these systems, weapons, everything from management and ending with the maintenance schedules must meet stringent safety requirements. The need for high reliability has led to the creation of a powerful new tool, known under the name of reliability theory (1). This theory establishes a relationship between the characteristics of a complex system and its component parts. If you know the reliability of individual components, then the rules reliability theory, one can calculate the reliability of the complex system. Conversely, given a Required reliability of the complex system as a whole, then, again according to the rules of reliability theory, it is possible to establish the necessary reliability of all components. In the latter case, each element of a complex system needs to be thoroughly tested, to show that it meets the requirements of the relevant standards. Mathematically, the reliability of the fixed number ranging from zero to 1.0, similar to the definition of probability. Absolute reliability, represented by the number 1.0 is theoretically unattainable.
Reliability theory has been successfully applied to the evaluation of UFO reports. As in any complex system in the problem to determine the reliability of the first allocated to all of its elements. Includes such factors as, for example, the number of participants observing or meeting with UFOs, their level of fitness in the observations of atmospheric phenomena, the circumstances of observation.
Valued part of the primary documentation, with special attention paid to surveys and interviews with participants observing or meeting with UFO and professional qualifications of the researchers conducting the surveys. Finally, taking into account the quality of secondary reports prepared on the basis of primary documentation. To assess the reliability of UFO reports by the rules of the reliability theory display the corresponding equation.
Were selected and analyzed data from one hundred and sixty observations and encounters with UFOs in Japan, France, Venezuela and the United States (2).
In 1961, the famous commentator, who works in television, along with hundreds of other people watched a large spherical object over the city of Indianapolis in the piece. Indiana. This first object hovered over the city at two different heights, and then quickly retreated to the south. He was clearly the metal surface, the upper part of the object glowed green uniform, not the bottom were visible red light flashes. Above the equator of the object was visible row of windows.
Reliability index for this observation is more than 0,999! In other words, you are sure that this incident, according to reports about him, really happened, although the absolute certainty of the event is excluded. Even detail the configuration of UFOs, as the windows in this example must be seriously taken into account, since they are spoken of in a very reliable records (it is worth noting the similarity of the UFO with the object shown on the cover of this book).
The following is a summary of other interesting sightings for which the reliability index is recognized as a large 0,999:
a) A bright light in the dark regarding the site. Radar confirmation. Radar capture the object lifted into the air by jet fighters. The separation (decoupling) UFOs into three parts, followed by a flight Qa'dah part separately.
b) A clear form of a cloud in the form of a "submarine" with a metal plate, committing around it in a spiral motion. Such a disc flew around the object within a radius of about 6 km, after which he returned to the "submarine."
c) A bright, cigar-shaped object with windows. Hover or hanging object, followed by rapid departure. Isolation of some strands or fibers, evaporates on contact with the human hand and left for a spot.
g) An oval-shaped object with an aluminum color. Landing on the hill. Crumpled grass at the landing site at the site of circular shape with a diameter of about 18 m to move the object was like a white cloud with blurred edges.
d) Two convex disc-shaped object near a large cylinder-sphere. Change the speed of flight. Exceptionally high rate of departure. Size evaluation of 60 to 90 m
e) Night Lights rigid mutual arrangement. Near, hung, then flew away. The total size of the order of 45 m configuration details are indistinguishable. Impression metal surfaces.
g) A bright glowing object flying over hilly terrain in a serpentine path.
These examples are particularly important because they are typical of the accounts and reports of UFO sightings. There is no reason to ignore such events or interpret them somehow wrong, as they report to.
And one more word about the necessary caution: any reported seeing a UFO or a meeting, even if the reliability index of the message and not tall, not necessarily to be regarded as fiction. HLO any single observer who does not have technical training, not professionally associated with the observations of phenomena in the atmosphere, can not occupy a high position on the scale reliability. Nevertheless, any farmer in Pennsylvania, sharp-eyed, certainly able to present a sincere and accurate description of UFO sightings. Consequently, all UFO reports should be examined without prejudice, except for those specific cases, of course, when it is proven that we are dealing with an invention or misunderstanding. Only on this basis can be used to study the complex problem of UFOs maximum amount of information available.
The experience of the Air Force United States in the study of the UFO problem
History of the U.S. Air Force participation in the investigation of the UFO phenomenon is practically the modern history of UFOs. It is a long and complicated story. Since it has already been studied by many authors, we do not dwell on it (3) We restrict ourselves to only a reminder that the UFO investigation was entrusted to the leadership of the Air Force special office is placed on the base of the Wright-Patterson in the piece. Ohio. This office assigns different code names. Of these, the most recent and prolonged was the name of the "Project Blue Book." The period of active rassledovatelnoy activity began in the summer of 1947 and lasted until December 1969, when the Air Force was disbanded research staff and handed over to the warehouse all the files on UFOs (4). The general impression given by all this activity is to ensure that all UFO sightings were explained by natural phenomena. However, one can hardly imagine a conclusion farther from the truth. According to Captain Edward J. Ruppelta, a former head of Project Blue Book in 1953 by a group of prominent scientists were asked to consider, among other possibilities, and the issue of UFOs, as interplanetary spacecraft (5). By the time of this study was prepared by a group of scientists in 1593 analyze reports of sightings and encounters with UFOs.
A lot of effort has been expended on trying to determine — what natural causes could stimulate each of these reports and messages. For many of them managed to come to the firm conclusion that they are the real cause of the distortion at different observation planes, balloons, astronomical objects, etc. Yet, 26.9% or 429 cases from 1593 had to include a so-called "unknown."
If there was at least some possibility that the incentive could be to observe the plane, then in such case take no prisoners, "probably the plane."
If there was even a remote possibility that the observer could see the plane, then in such case took concluded, "perhaps an airplane."
Some inexplicable messages hidden under the label of "psychological" or "insufficient data."
The name "unknown" meant not only that the message object has not been identified. It meant a definite conclusion that the message object is really unknown. Among the "unknowns" were classified as incentives 429 observations. Their actual number of these cases in 1593 is likely to be much larger.
For example, it is assumed that 11.76% of these cases are explained observation planes. But most of the observations in this category have not been confidently explained: the majority was related to sub-categories "probable" and "possible" aircraft.
If the findings in all categories add up all the cases that made an unequivocal decision, the entire amount will be only 179 cases, ie 11.21%. In other words, 88.79% of the cases were identified. In fact, the situation was even worse because, according Ruppelta "only actually received about 4,400 messages", but most of them were rejected and rejected even before counting interest.
If you take 179 cases referred to quite certain conclusions to the original number of 4400, it is obvious that all was explained only 4% of cases. And the others are not explained.
If we accept the fact that, as follows from the statements of the Air Force, to the category of "known" phenomena attributed only 179, it is not that clear evidence that UFOs are plentiful?
According to published data for a number of years, "Blue Book" was dealing with several hundred messages per year.
Minimum occurred in 1959 and amounted to 378 posts, maximum — for 1957: 932 posts (6). The effectiveness of investigations, apparently, all improve, given that the percentage of "known" with approximately 8-10% of the initial period dropped to about 2% in 1965. It is obvious that in this game with a lot of random numbers so that these results can be extracted very little useful information. In any case it is clear that "the hands of the Air Force were full of UFOs," and they officially declared so.
The findings of Professor Condon Committee
In late 1966 a group of scientists at the University of Colorado under the direction of Dr. Edward U. Condon was undertaken an independent investigation of the UFO problem. This renowned physicist has previously worked in the United States as head of the National Bureau of Standards, has been elected president of the American Physical Society and president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Originally a work group was allotted $ 260,000. In the future, expenditures increased and exceeded $ 500,000.
The results of the study were published in a volume, a few congested heavy technical jargon and, of course, many have chosen to view newspaper opinion on the report of the study report.
Scientists from the group Condon reviewed several hundred reports of UFO sightings, focusing on 59 separate observations to deeper analysis. One of the most well-known findings U.Kondona was his general conclusion that "the 21-year study of the UFO problem was not found anything that would increase our scientific knowledge" (7). In the end, he aisle to the conclusion that "further extensive study of UFOs can not be justified, since from it you can not expect anything useful to science."
As a result of assessing the significance of the problem HLO has been a sharp decline in interest in UFOs, the refusal of the media to publish further reports of observations and collapse of the "Blue Book."
The report Condon collected an enormous amount of technical detail about UFOs. Many of these are very useful in the study of this problem, although the section of the report devoted to the study of observations, there are some interesting aspects. For example, in the analysis of the famous observation Makminville in sht.Oregon and, including those made by witnesses photographs all these observations were considered "appropriate assumption that both the witness saw an extraordinary flying object, silvery, metallic, disk-shaped, several tens of meters in diameter obviously artificial "(8). Note that this description applies to any of the ordinary UFO. In another case, refers to the visual observation of a fast-moving object white flight which has been confirmed by both radars Service Mission Control two air bases. Brought up in the air jet fighter, induced by this facility reported the capture of radar targets. UFO circling back of the plane, departing from it by using evasive maneuvers. The report Kontsona assessment of the incident devoted eight pages and concludes that "… the probability of participation in the incident, at least one of the UFOs is quite high" (9). As all this is interesting! In another case, mentioned that one of the three fires, maneuver over the building of schools, quietly flew to the three women and eleven year old girl and stood over them at a height of 6-9 meters. According to their description — it was a disk the size of a car. That which is really unusual object flew over the school, has been tested by two police officers who responded to a telephone call. Much of this observation was attributed to the planet Jupiter. However, the report states that "there was no attempt to explain the near UFO sighting reported by the three women and girl" (10).
In fact, the group successfully Condon explained more than 25% of cases investigated by it, so that the Condon report represents another official document indicating the existence of unknown objects and at the same time aiming to create a general impression that they do not exist.
It should be noted that the study Condon was not taken anything like a systematic survey nor the many thousands of messages recorded in the project "Blue Book" or even the approximately 700 sightings of objects which by then had been officially designated as "unknown."
Probably the most effective work in the field of UFO was done by informal civic organizations. The most notable of these are the NICAP — National Research Committee on weather conditions in the Washington, DC, organized by Major Donald Kehoe and APRO — The Organization for Research atmospheric phenomena in Tucson, sht.Arizona based K. and D. Lorenzen.
The number of cases of unexplained observations is enormous, and many of them are well tested. It is believed that in the archives of these organizations registered respectively 15,000 and 10,000 cases with little duplication.
Group Condon made a survey published by these organizations materials, but all of this information, the reservoir has not been properly used.
Scientific analysis of the UFO problem
One of the most famous and respected scientists for a long time engaged in UFOs is Dr. DA Hynek. Dr. Hynek, the famous astronomer, working in the North-West University and is responsible for the activities of Dearborn Observatory. He is best known to the public in connection with his work as a civilian consultant to the U.S. Air Force during the years when they were engaged in research on UFOs.
It is interesting to follow the evolution of the views of the scientist on the issue of UFOs. Originally, it was to check the messages received by the Air Force, and determine which of them could be caused by the observations of astronomical objects. Apparently, some people are indeed able to take Venus, a planet or other celestial objects for UFOs.
Of the first 237 messages received and analyzed by the Air Force Heinecke, about one-third can be attributed to "astronomical origin" (11). The remaining two-thirds, is clearly not associated with the observations of astronomical objects that fell into two almost equal parts. One of them, based on the nature of observation, it was possible to give this or that rational explanation, and for such other the chance. While Hynek very low score for the concept of an extraterrestrial origin of UFOs and "saw the whole thing as a result of human error, as a form of purely American interests or insanity, which was to be held as usually pass all such passions" (12). However, after several years of collaboration with the Air Force, the so-called "hard core" in reports of UFOs which could not manage to explain the "usual means", began seriously to worry Hynek. Hynek publishes an article that mentions the outside space as a possible "source" unidentifiable flying objects, and calls for a serious and scientific study of UFOs (13). In an open letter to his colleagues, he "strongly recommends that the Air Force asked scientists physicists and sociologists to take a serious scientific study of the UFO phenomenon" (14). He pointed out that he could not dismiss the problem because of the reports of unexplained sightings are often referred to the same characteristics of the kinematics, geometry and luminosity of a UFO. In subsequent chapters of this book will show how important are these characteristics. Speaking before the Committee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Representatives, Haynok insisted that "… the study of the UFO phenomenon may give scientific" fat "and can even be extremely valuable, and therefore for a frontal attack on the problem requires research on a scale of which previously was out of question … "(15). A year later, a similar call for action was made at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in the session on UFOs (16).
Dr. Hynek also published material about the discoveries he made during his own UFO research (17).
In order to care he dismissed any reports of UFO sightings emanating from observers of single and studied only selected cases of observations with many participants, the cases that he personally investigated.
Its findings should be considered conclusive for the most skeptical reader.
Hynek said that in the daytime in the vicinity of the Earth flying disc-shaped metal devices of unknown origin. At night, their presence shows strange lights moving in typical UFO trajectories.
The materials of the so-called UFO sightings near Hynek finds: a) some structural details of these devices, and b) the traces of their physical presence left on earth, and c) data on human-like beings arriving on these machines.
We believe that everyone should read this book Hynek.
Springboard to the secret
Applying technically sound and widely used in many areas of the methods had to admit some UFO reports exceptionally reliable. In fact, for many years the U.S. Air Force confirmed to the public that UFOs are flying in large numbers in the vicinity of the Earth. This statement was then backed up by a costly independent study conducted by scientists at the University of Colorado.
Civic groups collect and investigate reports of tens of thousands of UFO sightings. On this subject, published a very serious book. Leading astronomer, professionally associated with this subject for 25 years, said that his initial opposition to UFOs, as a result of scientific research, gradually gave way to the conclusion that UFOs are real.
We believe that all these factors make a rational basis for making the reality of UFOs at least as a hypothetical perspective.
If a UFO and in fact represent a strange kind of artificial devices, it is certain that, carefully examining the reports of observations, it will be possible to identify their essential data.
1. See the article «Reliability of Equipment and Bibliography», McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Vol II, p. 471, 1971.
2. Olsen, Thomas M., Editor, The Reference For Outstanding UFO Sighting Reports, UFO information Retrieval Center, Inc., Riderwook, Maryland, November, 1966.
3. For example, a detailed history can be read in this book, although the author clearly came to the conclusion that "the golden age of UFO" ended in 1970: Flammonde, Paris, The Age of Flying Saucers, Notes on a Projected History of Unidentified Flying Objects, Hawthorn , 1971.
4. In 1969, the American Association for the Advancement of Science has decided that the dossier "Blue Book" should be kept, and sent a similar proposal to the Minister the Air Force.
5. Ruppelt, Edward J., The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, Ace, p. 275 ff, 1956. It is also very useful to explore the previously secret reports of the "Blue Book" No. 1-12: United States Air Force, Projects Grudge and Blue Book Reports 1-12, assembled and republished by National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1968.
6. Annual statistics "Blue Book" from 1953 to 1965, see Vol.: Condon, Edward U., Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, p. 521, Dutton, 1969.
7. Condon, Edward U., Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects. p.1, Dutton, 1969.
8. Condon, Edward U., Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects. p. 407, Dutton, 1969.
9. Condon, Edwarrl U. , Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, p. 265, Dutton, 1969.
10. Condon, Edward U., Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, p. 270, Dutton, 1969.
11. Hynek, J. Allen, The UFO Experience-A Scientific Inquiry, p. 179, Regnery, 1972.
12. Symposium on Unidentified Flying Objects, Hynek, J. Allen, Statement to the Committee on Science and Astronautics, US House of Representatives, Ninetieth Congress, p.4, US Government Printing Office. July 29, 1968.
13. Hynek, J. Allen, «Flying Saucers-Are They Real?» The Saturday Evening Post, December 17, 1966.
14. Hynek. J. Allen, «UFO's Merit Scientific Study,» Letter to Science. 21, October, 1966.
15. Symposium on Unidentified Flying Objects, Hynek, J. Allen, Statement to the Committee on Science and Astronautics, US House of Representa tives, Ninetieth Congress, p.14, US Government Printing Office, July 29, 1968.
16. Hynek, J. Allen, «The Earth, The Solar System, and the Cosmos;» Unidentified Flying Objects, Session II: UFO Reports, Audiotape Program, 136th Meeting, American Association for the Advancement of Science, December, 1969. Transcript published in UFOs, A Scientific Debate, Sagan, C. and Page, T., Editors, Cornell University Press, 1972.
17. Hynek, J. Allen, The UFO Experience, A Scientific Inquiry, Regency, 1972. Chapter 2
McCampbell J. UFOlogy. New Insights from Science and Common Sense. 1973. Translation IM Sheydina.
(To be continued)
Russian UFO Digest 04 / April 2004