The term "noosphere" was proposed in 1927 by the French mathematician and philosopher E. Leroy. «Noos» — an ancient Greek title of the human mind.
The first man-made culture-Paleolithic (Stone Age) — lasted about 20-30 thousand years. It coincided with a long period of icing. The economic basis for the life of the human society was hunting for large animals: a generous and reindeer, woolly rhinoceros, donkey, horse, mammoth tour. At sites of Stone Age man found numerous bones of feral animals — evidence of a successful hunt. Rich extermination of large herbivores resulted in comparable Hassle reduce their numbers and the extinction of many species.
If small herbivores could make up the loss from the pursuit of the highest birth rates by hunters, the large animals because of the evolutionary history have been deprived of the ability. Additional problems emerged due to the configuration of natural criterion at the end of the Paleolithic. 10-12 thousand years ago, it was a sharp warming, the glacier retreated, forests spread to Europe, extinct large animals. This made the new conditions of life, to destroy the existing economic base of human society. Ended the period of its development, characterized only by the introduction of food, ie purely consumer attitude towards the environment.
In the subsequent era — the era of the Neolithic (New Stone Age) — along with hunting, fishing and gathering has become increasingly important process of food production. Made the first trial of domestication and breeding of plants originates the creation of ceramics. Already 9-10 thousand years ago there were settlements in the middle of residues which exhibit wheat, barley, lentils, bone pets — goats, pigs and sheep. Develop the rudiments of agricultural and ranching economy. Is widely used for fire and destruction of vegetation in the criteria slash farming, and as a means of hunting. It starts with the development of mineral resources, metallurgy born.
Population growth, high-quality leap in the development of science and technology over the past two centuries, and especially in our days are led to the fact that human activity has become a factor of global scale, the guiding force of the coming evolution of the biosphere. There antropotsenozy (from Greek anthropos — man, koinos — general, community) — a society of organisms, in which man is the dominant species, and its activity-defining condition of the entire system. VI Vernadsky believed that the impact of scientific thought and human labor have identified the transition to a new state of the biosphere — the noosphere (the sphere of reason.) Currently the world's population uses for its own use all the great part of the area of the planet and all the huge amounts of mineral resources.
Vernadsky's true greatness is found out just now. It is — in its most profound philosophical ideas, peering into the future, tightly affect the fate of the world's population.
He was born in St. Petersburg in 1863, just two years after the abolition of serfdom in Russia, in the family doctor of political economy, catchy representative of the Russian liberal intellectuals of the past century. After 5 years, the family moved to Kharkov Vernadsky, where the formation of the personality of Vernadsky worked his great-uncle — EM Korolenko, a retired officer who enjoys scientific and philosophical research. Most of all, he becomes interested in the tasks associated with the life of every person and of mankind as a whole. It's entirely possible that some thought EM Korolenko, some of the questions posed to them, preserved in the memory of Vernadsky, and consciously or unconsciously influenced by his scientific work.
Traditional Petersburg High School, where he studied with the third class Vernadsky was one of the best in Russia. There perfectly taught foreign languages, history, philosophy. In the coming Vernadsky without the help of others researched several European languages. He read books, more scientific, in fifteen languages, and some wrote their articles in French, in English and in German. The enthusiasm for the history and philosophy scholar retained for life.
Vernadsky then entered the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of the St. Petersburg Institute, where professors were in the middle of luminaries of Russian science: Mendeleev, Beketov, sections, Butler. But a greater impact on Vernadsky, of course, had Dokuchaev, who taught at the Institute of Mineralogy. Young scientist once participated in expeditions to study soils Nizhny Novgorod province under the control of Dokuchaeva. But research interests Vernadsky while not limited to mineralogy. He was engaged and headed for some of the results are also in geology, crystallography, and history.
At the same time, Vernadsky heartily became interested in the teachings of Tolstoy and shared many of his doubts. But Tolstoy did not believe in the fact that science is able to satisfy the desire to find a man "meaning of life" to come to terms with the inevitability of death, to prove to the highest moral framework. It is unlikely that such ideas were close to Vernadsky. Unlike Tolstoy, he worked all his life a belief in scientific knowledge and tried to find an answer to a lot of questions being based on logical analysis of the facts, reliable information about the world and man.
In 1885 Vernadsky was left guardian of the Mineralogical study of the Metropolitan Institute. Working at this place, a scientist travels a lot, working in the chemical and crystallographic laboratories performs geological expedition. In 1897 Vernadsky his doctoral thesis and became a doctor of the Metropolitan Institute. In 1906 he was elected a member of the Municipal Council of the Metropolitan Institute. Two years later, he made an extraordinary academician. On the initiative and under the chairmanship of Vernadsky in 1915, a commission to study the natural productive forces of the Russian Federation at the Academy. At the end of 1921 Vernadsky founded the Radium Institute in Moscow and was appointed its director. In 1926, he published his eminent work "Biosphere", then he writes a lot of research on natural waters, the circulation of substances and gases of the Earth, about gallakticheskoy dust geometry dilemma time in modern science. But the main issue for him is the biosphere — the living and geochemical activity of living matter.
Before they reach the deepest old age, Vernadsky died in Moscow in just a few months before the end of the stateliness of the victorious Russian war. He had to go through three revolutions in Russia and two world wars. But his eyelids dropped and more revolutionary discoveries in science.
But the most fundamental: for Vernadsky science was a means zaniya nature. He was not the kind of spices in a science or even a science. He brilliantly knew a good dozen sciences, but studied nature, which is far more difficult of all sciences combined. He pondered over, and natural objects, and of their relationships.
Like many naturalists who have achieved outstanding success in specific areas, Vernadsky came to his philosophical constructs in his declining years, seeing in them a natural extension of the basic principles underlying the basis of the universe. But even in the midst luminaries of science, he stands out not only the innovation and depth of thought, and their striking modernity.
And at the heart of this innovation — the revival of the old idea of the centrality of man, his mind in the universe. The importance of it to our civilization for a long time underestimated. And the main reason for this, as paradoxically, was, apparently, in the very success of traditional science, culminating in the creation by Albert Einstein in 1916, the general theory of relativity,
Drunken unprecedented achievements, most scientists usually beheld in man only only professional contemplative nature, able to open her furtive and plenty to satisfy the thirst zaniya. A Vernadsky prophetically saw in the person of an experienced creator of nature, called to be, in the end, to take place at the helm of the evolution.
Vernadsky, for all his genius and indescribable performance took decades to kick a reliable bridge the gap that separates the science of history perpetrated by the people themselves. And this bridge was the main idea that the transition appeared on Earth biosphere to noosphere, in other words, the kingdom of the mind, not the local scene in the back of the boundless universe, and the logical and inevitable step in the development of matter, the step of natural history. "We are just beginning to realize the power of irresistible free scientific thought, the greatest creative forces of Homo sapiens, human free person known to us the greatest manifestation of its gallakticheskoy force, which the kingdom come," — inspired Vernadsky wrote.
The unity of the biosphere and human
The central theme of the doctrine of the noosphere is the unity of mankind and the biosphere. Vernadsky in his works reveals the roots of unity, the value of organization of the biosphere in the development of the world's population. This allows you to understand the place and role of the historical development of mankind in the evolution of the biosphere, the laws of its transition into the noosphere.
One of the main thoughts that lie at the basis of the theory of Vernadsky's noosphere, is that man is a living being self-sufficient living separately under its own laws, it can coexist inside the nature and is a part of it. This unity is justified, first, a multi-medium continuity and the man who tried to show how biogeochemist Vernadsky. The population of the earth itself is a natural phenomenon and it is natural that the impact of the biosphere impact not only on the living environment, and on the form of thought.
But not only affects the individual nature, there is also a back link. However, it is not superficial, reflecting the impact of humans on the natural environment, it is still deeper. This substantiates the fact that in the near future markedly activated planetary geological forces. "… We are bigger and brighter litsezreem in action around us geological forces. This coincided, almost to the case, with the penetration of scientific consciousness beliefs about the geological significance Homo sapiens, with the identification of a new state of the biosphere — the noosphere — and is a form of expression. It is related, of course, at first, with the specification of the natural scientific work and thought within the boundaries of the biosphere, where living matter plays a major role. " Thus, in the near future changes dramatically reflected the living creatures in the natural environment. Through this process of evolution into the realm of minerals. Dramatically changed the land, water and air. In other words, the evolution of species, she turned into a geological process, because in the process of evolution appeared brand new geological force. Vernadsky wrote: "The evolution of species goes into the evolution of the biosphere."
Here naturally imposes the conclusion that the geological force is actually not a reasonable man, and his mind, the idea of social scientific population. In the "Philosophical ideas naturalist" Vernadsky wrote: "We are just going through her colorful entry into the geological history of the planet. In the last millennium there is intense growth effects of the 1st species of living matter — the civilized world's population — to change the biosphere. Under the influence of scientific thought and human labor Biosphere crosses into a new state — the noosphere. "
We are observers and performers deep configuration of the biosphere. At the same time restructuring the idea of human research protection tool of organized labor hardly a natural process. The roots of this lie in the very nature and were laid millions of years ago during the natural process of evolution. "Man … is the inevitable manifestation of a huge natural process, naturally lasting for, at least, 2-billion years. "
Hence, by the way, we can conclude that the expression of the self-destruction of the world population, the crash of civilization are without good cause. It would be very little, surprisingly, if a scientific idea — a product of a natural geological process would be contrary to the process itself. We stand on the threshold of revolutionary configurations in the environment: the biosphere means of processing scientific idea goes into the new evolutionary state — the noosphere.
Populating all corners of our planet, with an emphasis on state-organized scientific idea and its offspring, technology, man has made in the biosphere latest biogenic force that supports the reproduction and the impending settlement of various parts of the biosphere. Thus together with the expansion of the area of residence, the population of the earth begins to present itself more cohesive mass, because developing means of communication — the means of thought transference Kuta entire globe. "This process — the complete settlement of the biosphere man — justified the course of the history of scientific thought, is inseparably connected with the rate relations with the successes of technology movement, with the possibility of instantaneous transmission of thought, its simultaneous discussion everywhere on the planet."
With all of this man for the first time really realized that he inhabitant of the planet, and can and should think and act in a new nuance, not only in the nuance of individual, family or genus of countries or their unions, and in the planetary nuance. He, like all living things, can think and act in the planetary nuance exclusively in the area of life — in the biosphere, in particular the Earth's environment, with which it is inseparably linked logically and step from which he can not. Its existence is its function. He carries it with him everywhere. And he did inevitably, naturally, without annoying changes. It seems that the first time we are in the criteria of one of the geological history of the process, immediately engulfed the entire planetoid. XX century is characterized by the fact that any event that happens on the planet are linked together. And every day or social, scientific and cultural cohesion of the world population is reinforced and deepened. "The increase universality, solidarity is all humane societies without annoying grows and becomes noticeable in a few years, almost every year."
The result of all the above configurations in the biosphere of the planet gave the excuse the French geologist Teilhard de Chardin conclude that biosphere in real time is rapidly geologists cally goes into the new state — the noosphere, in other words, a state in which human reason and guided them to work is the latest powerful geological force. This coincided, apparently not the case with the moment when the man colonized the entire planetoid, the entire population of the earth economically united together and scientific idea of the world population joined together, thanks to advances in communications technology.
1. Man, as he observed in nature, as well as all live organisms, like every living substance, there is a certain function of the biosphere, in particular its space-time;
2. The man in all its manifestations, is part of the biosphere;
3. Breakthrough scientific thought developed over the past evolution of the biosphere and has roots. Noosphere — is the biosphere, recycled scientific idea, prepare all passed the planet, not a short-term and passing geological phenomenon.
Vernadsky once observed that "civilization" cul
ture of mankind "- as it is a form of organization of the latest geological forces created in the biosphere — can not be interrupted and destroyed, because it has a great natural phenomenon, historically responsible, more precisely, geologists cally the current organization of the biosphere. Forming noosphere, she communicates with all the roots of this earthly shell, which earlier in the history of the world's population, or as much as a comparable measure was not. "
Nearly all of what Vernadsky wrote, becomes the property of the current day or. Modern and understandable to us his thoughts about the integrity of the indivisibility of civilization, the unity of mankind and the biosphere. The turning point in the history of mankind, as they say now, scientists, politicians, journalists, was seen Vernadsky.
Vernadsky beheld the inevitability of the noosphere, producing both an evolution of the biosphere and the historical development of mankind. From the perspective of the noosphere approach are seen in a different and modern pain points of world civilization. Barbaric treatment of the biosphere, the threat of global ecological catastrophe, the creation of weapons of mass destruction — all this must have transient value. The question of a radical turn to the origins of life, to the organization of the biosphere in modern conditions must sound like a tocsin, the call to, to think and act in the biosphere — the planetary nuance.
The transition of the biosphere into the noosphere: the forecast and reality
Vernadsky, analyzing the geological history of the Earth, argues that there is a transition to a new state of the biosphere — the noosphere under the influence of the latest geological force, the scientific thought of the world population. But in the writings of Vernadsky's not complete and consistent interpretation of the real essence of the noosphere as the reincarnation of the biosphere. In some cases, he wrote about the noosphere later time (it has not yet occurred) in other real (we get it), and from time to time linked the formation of the noosphere with the emergence of Homo sapiens, or with the advent of industrial production. Need to see that when, as a mineralogist Vernadsky wrote about the geological activity of man, he did not use the term "noosphere" and even a "biosphere". On the formation of the noosphere on Earth, he wrote more carefully in the unfinished work "The scientific idea as a planetary phenomenon", but more from the standpoint of the history of science.
So, what did the noosphere: utopia or a real strategy for survival? Proceedings of the Vernadsky allow a more informed answer to this question, as they identified a number of specific conditions necessary for the formation and existence of the noosphere. We list these conditions:
1. Check the person across the planet.
2. The dramatic transformation of communication and exchange between countries.
3. The strengthening of ties, including political, between all the countries of the earth.
4. Home geological role of human domination over other geological processes in the biosphere.
5. Expanding the limits of the biosphere and out into space.
6. The discovery of new sources of energy.
7. Equality of people of all races and religions.
8. Enhancing the role of the masses in matters of external and internal policy.
9. Freedom of thought and scientific inquiry from the pressure of religious, philosophical and political constructions and creation of a municipal structure criterion, suitable for a free scientific thought.
10.Obmyslennaya system of public education and the rise of the welfare of workers. Creating a real ability to prevent malnutrition and hunger, poverty and disease are very ease.
11.Razumnoe transformation of primary nature of the Earth in order to make it capable of meeting all real, aesthetic, and spiritual needs of the growing population numerically.
12.Isklyuchenie wars from the life of society.
Let us see how these conditions are produced in the world today and let us more closely on some of them.
1. Check the person across the planet. This condition is satisfied. On Earth, there is no place where no one had gone to the human foot. He founded even in Antarctica.
2. The dramatic transformation of communication and exchange between countries. This condition can also be regarded as fulfilled. With the help of radio and television, we instantly know about the events in at least some part of the world. Means of communication is constantly being improved, accelerated, there are such abilities, which not so long ago it was hard to dream. And here we can not but recall the prophetic words of Vernadsky: "This process — the complete settlement of the biosphere man — justified the course of the history of scientific thought, is inseparably connected with the rate relations with the successes of technology movement, with the possibility of instantaneous transmission of thought, its simultaneous discussion on the planet." Until nedavneshnego limited time telecommunications telegraph, telephone, radio and television, which he wrote more Vernadsky. It was possible to transfer data from 1 computer to another using a modem connected to the telephone band, paper documents transmitted by fax machines. Exclusively in recent years the development of the global telecommunications network Internet has given a true revolution in the beginning of human civilization, which comes at the moment in the era of disk imaging. In 1968, the U.S. Department of Defense attended to link the vast amounts of their own computers in an ad hoc network, which was to promote research in the military-industrial sector. Initially, this network were required resistance to partial damage: no matter what part of the network can be lost at any moment. And these criteria are always supposed to be likely to communicate between the computer and the computer disk imaging receiver (destination station). Development of the project itself and the network has been entrusted to him the embodiment of ARPA — Advanced Research Projects Agency — Office of the advanced research work of the Ministry of Defence. After 5 years of hard work, such a network was created and received the title of ARPAnet. During the first 10 years of the development of computer networks went unnoticed — their services have been used only by experts at computing and military equipment. But with the development of local networks of computers within the boundaries of any one organization, there was a need to link together local networks of organizations. Samples taken at times to use for this already existing network ARPAnet, but the officials of the Ministry of Defence were against it. Life sought rapid decisions because of the base of the future network of networks Internet structure has been taken already existing network ARPAnet. In 1973, it cooperated first international connection — connected to the network the United Kingdom and Norway. But the prerequisite for the start of the explosive growth of the Internet in the late 80's efforts were NSF (National Science Foundation — U.S. National Science Foundation), and other academic organizations and research foundations around the world to connect to the network of scientific institutions. Growth and development of the Internet, improved computing and communication technology is presently just as is the reproduction and evolution of living organisms. At this time directed attention Vernadsky: "With a speed comparable to the speed of propagation, expressed in geometric progression of time, created this way in the biosphere, a growing number of great new for her inert natural bodies and huge new natural phenomena.". "… Progress of thought, for example, in the development of machines as long seen to go very similar multiplication of organisms.". If you have previously used the network only researchers in the field of computer science, municipal employees and co
ntractors, but now virtually any interested person can get access to it. And here we have the dream of litsezreem Vernadsky on a suitable medium for the development of scientific research, popularization of scientific knowledge about the international nature of science. Indeed, if people previously shared borders and long distances, but now, maybe, just the language barrier. "Every scientific fact, every scientific observation — wrote Vernadsky — wherever and whoever they were made, comes in a single scientific apparatus, it is classified and reduced to a single form, immediately become the common property of criticism, reflection and research. ". But if the earlier order, that was published in scientific work to the scientific idea became known to the world, we needed a few years, then for the moment at least some scientist who has access to the Internet, can submit their own work, for example in the form of so-called WWW Pages (World-Wide Web — «World Wide Web") to review the network to all users, not only the text of the article and pictures (on paper), and moving illustrations, and from time to time and sound. At present the network Internet — it's a world society about 30 thousand of computer networks that communicate among themselves. Internet population is already nearly 30 million users and about 10 million computers, with the number of nodes is multiplied every 18 months. Vernadsky wrote: "Soon it will be possible to make prominent for all actions that occur over thousands of kilometers." One can assume that this prophecy was realized Vernadsky.
3. The strengthening of ties, including political, between all the countries of the earth. This condition can be considered if not met, then the running. Formed after the second world war, the United Nations (UN) was even more stable and effective than the League of Nations, which existed in Geneva from 1919 to 1946
4. Home geological role of human domination over other geological processes in the biosphere. This condition can also be regarded as fulfilled, although the dominance of particular geological role of man in some kinds of cases has led to severe environmental consequences. The volume of rock extracted from the depths of the earth all the mines and quarries of the world at the moment is almost twice the average volume of lava and ash, submitted annually by all the volcanoes of the earth.
5. Expanding the limits of the biosphere and out into space. In the last few decades of the Vernadsky did not consider the boundaries of the biosphere unchanged. He emphasized the expansion of the past as a result of out of living matter on dry land, the occurrence of tall vegetation, flying insects, and later flying reptiles and birds. During the transition of the biosphere into the noosphere border should be expanded, and the person has to go into space. These prophecies were realized.
6. The discovery of new sources of energy. Condition is satisfied, but, unfortunately, with disastrous consequences. Nuclear power has long been mastered and in peace, and the military. The population of the earth (and more precisely the policy) obviously is not ready to restrict peaceful purposes, in fact — atomic (nuclear) force came into our first century as a military deterrent and a means of opposing nuclear powers. The use of nuclear energy is deeply troubled Vernadsky even half a century back. In the introduction to his book "Essays and Speeches" he wrote prophetically: "time is not far when people will get their hands on nuclear energy, such source of power that will enable him to build his life as he will want to … Will people use this power to bring it to the good, and not to self-destruct? Doros he ability to use the power that inevitably has to give him a science? '. Large nuclear capability is supported by a sense of mutual fear and zeal of one of the parties to the shifting of privileges. The power of a new energy source was unclear, he fell out of time and ended up in the wrong hands. For the development of international cooperation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy in 1957, created the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which united in 1981 to 111 countries.
7. Equality of people of all races and religions. This condition, if not achieved, then, in any case, is achieved. Decisive step to establish the equality of people of different races and creeds was the destruction at the end of the last century, the colonial empires.
8. Enhancing the role of the masses in matters of external and internal policy. This condition is observed in all countries with a parliamentary form of government.
9. Freedom of thought and scientific inquiry from the pressure of religious, philosophical and political constructions and creation of a municipal structure criterion, suitable for a free scientific thought. Hard to read about this condition in the country, where there is not the case for a long time science was under tremendous oppression of certain philosophical and political constructions. At the moment, the science of such pressures is free, but due to the difficult economic situation in the Russian science, many scientists are required to earn a living for themselves unscientific work, others go abroad. To maintain the Russian science made international funds. In the developed and even developing countries that we litsezreem the case of India, the municipal public order and make the most favored for a free scientific thought.
10.Obmyslennaya system of public education and the rise of the welfare of workers. Creating a real ability to prevent malnutrition and hunger, poverty and disease are very ease. About this condition is difficult to judge impartially, being a large country, which stands on the verge of hunger and poverty, as they write about all the newspapers. Vernadsky but warned that the process of transition of the biosphere into the noosphere can not occur uniformly and unidirectionally, that in this way the temporary retreat inevitable. And the situation prevailing at present in our country, can be viewed as a temporary phenomenon and transient.
11.Razumnoe transformation of primary nature of the Earth in order to make it capable of meeting all real, aesthetic, and spiritual needs of the growing population numerically. This condition, especially in our country, can not be met, but the first steps towards a rational transformation of nature in the second half of the XX century, of course, have been initiated. In the modern period is the integration of science-based environmental thought. The entire system of scientific knowledge provides the foundation for environmental problems. This is also read Vernadsky, trying to make a unified science of the biosphere. Greening the Western consciousness occurred since the 70s, creating the conditions for the emergence of ekofilnoy civilization.
At the moment, an extremist form of the green movement there was not suitable, since earned a municipal regulation mechanisms of environmental problems. In the Soviet Union until the 80s it was believed that the socialist economic management prevents the danger of ecological crisis. During perestroika dispelled this myth, have activated the Green movement. But in modern times, political administration reoriented in the main solution to the economic problems, environmental problems have receded into the background. On a global scale to address environmental problems in the criteria of population growth of the planet requires the ability to solve global problems that the criteria for the sovereignty of different countries seems incomprehensible.
12.Isklyuchenie wars from the life of society. This condition Vernadsky considered very fundamental for the creation and existence of the noosphere. But it does not hold, and it's unclear whether it may be fulfilled. The international community is trying to prevent World War II, although local wars still far too many lives.
So Makar, we litsezreem that there were all th
ose specific features, all or nearly all of the conditions that were mentioned by VI Vernadsky, in order to distinguish the noosphere from the pre-existing state of the biosphere. Gradual process of its formation, and probably never will be exactly specify the year or even a decade from which the transition of the biosphere into the noosphere can be considered complete. But, of course, views on the matter may be different.
Vernadsky himself, noting unnecessary, devastating economic consequences of man on earth, considered by some of their costs. He believed in human reason, humanism scientific activity, the triumph of goodness and beauty. Something he brilliantly foresaw, in something, maybe he was wrong. Noosphere should be taken as a sign of faith as a reasonable standard of human intervention in the biosphere processes under the influence of scientific achievements. Need to believe in it, lay on her coming, decide appropriate action.
Vernadsky's ideas well ahead of the time in which he worked. This applies fully to the teachings of the biosphere and its transition into the noosphere. Only at this point in the criteria of extraordinary aggravation of global problems of our time, become clear prophetic words Vernadsky on the need to think and act in the planetary — Biosphere — nuance. Only at this point are crumbling illusion of technocracy, the conquest of nature, and it turns out the essential unity of mankind and the biosphere. The fate of our planet and the fate of the world's population — is a common destiny.
The formation of the noosphere step Vernadsky connects to the action of many factors: the unity of the biosphere and the population of the earth, the unity of the human race, the planetary disposition of human activity and it is commensurate with the geological processes and the development of democratic forms of human dorms and the desire for peace of the peoples of the planet, unusual flowering ("explosion") science and technology. Generalizing these phenomena, placing in indissoluble connection with the subsequent evolution of the biosphere development of the world's population, Vernadsky, and introduces the concept of the noosphere.
It should be understood that the task of creation of the noosphere — is the current day or task. Its decision is due to the combined efforts of the world's population, with the approval of the new values of cooperation and communication of all the peoples of the world. In our country, the idea of the noosphere organically linked with the revolutionary socialist reorganization of society. Democracy, democratic principles of public life, the rebirth of culture, science, and national life, a fundamental review of departmental approach to environmental management, and so on — all of this is the terms of the noosphere.
Aspirations for the future, so Makarov — corresponding feature noosphere doctrine, which in modern criteria should be developed with all its sides.