Military-industrial complexes of the leading countries of the planet are an important part of the modern world industrial and scientific-industrial sector. Total global turnover of products purely military mission in 2009 can be estimated at about 400 billion dollars. With all this activity in the defense company dominates the domestic order.
WORKING FOR Own
Despite the extensive attention to the export of arms, the total global volume of inter-state supplies of military products and associated services in 2009 can be estimated at about 60 billion dollars (excluding supply of second-hand models of arms and military equipment). So Makar, exports account for less than 15% of sales of the world defense industry. In other words, the export of weapons is frankly a minor in comparison with the work of the global defense industry to the national government and the national armed forces.
This event is logical when you consider that the chief military manufacturer in the world is the United States of America.
The last decade has been a period of frisky increase in military spending in the world. The total military expenditure of all States increased from 707 million dollars in 2001 to about 1.531 trillion dollars in 2008, but then followed the global economic crisis has slowed down this growth. The main contribution to this figure brought the United States leading the war in Iraq and Afghanistan, and the whole "global war on terror," Our homeland, China, and India, as a third world country.
Military expenditure of the United States made in the 2009 fiscal year, 712 billion dollars (including the 515.4 billion dollars — "formal" military budget). This is the total amount of 46.5% of global military spending. In the same fiscal year in direct appropriations for the U.S. military purchases totaled 140 billion dollars. Still about 40 billion dollars meant to pay for the costs of research and development. Added to this is the purchase for the benefit of other U.S. law enforcement agencies. In addition, about 23 billion dollars is the amount of U.S. military exports (excluding production at factories owned by South American companies in other countries). So makarom than half of global military spending on U.S. accounts for about half of total world military production.
On the role of the South American military-industrial complex can be seen in the list of 100 leading defense companies in the world (see table).
In the ranking of the top 20 global defense companies are the 15 South American and only 5 — European formally, while in reality most of the sales nominally British BAE Systems are in the U.S.. By the way, naikrupneyshaya Sales Russian defense company — Concern PVO "Almaz-Antey" is in the world ranking 22th place.
Very large customers are the armed forces and other majestic powers. Thus, the defense procurement budget in England in 2009 (without R & D) was about 11.7 billion pounds (18 billion dollars), France — 17 billion euro, Germany — € 7 billion, the Land of the Rising Sun — 9,000,000,000 dollars. Our homeland in 2009-2010, the cost of procurement for the Ministry of Defense estimated at 370 billion rubles (12 billion dollars) a year, but in 2013, the Russian procurement budget is projected at 690 billion rubles (about 23 billion dollars). India in 2009 izderzhala on military purchases of 10 billion dollars, and in 2010 will spend 12 billion dollars. In the end, the procurement budget of China as early as possible in 2009 to evaluate a minimum of about 25 billion dollars and is expected to increase in the coming meaningful.
And if you compare …
With all of this the role of world defense industry should not exaggerate. 400 billion dollars look colossal sum, but it disappears against the background of the characteristics of civilian industries, first trade, oil and gas, banking and insurance, automotive, telecommunications and information technology. Suffice it to say that the turnover naikrupneyshgo South American retail retailer Wall-Mart (naikrupneyshey of the world) — in other words, a network of hypermarkets — in 2009 amounted to 408 billion dollars, in other words, was comparable with the figures that characterize the work of the world's military industry.
These large international oil and gas companies like Royal Dutch Shell, Exxon Mobil and BP, in 2009, had a realization at the level of 250-280 billion dollars every. Japanese Toyota — 204 billion dollars. Russian "Gazprom" (50th company in the world ranking) — 94 billion dollars.
In 2009, 42 of the world's companies have more than 100 billions of dollars Any and among these there was not a defense. Boeing in 2009 had sales in 68 billion dollars (91 th in the world), but less than half of them came from the military — 32 billion dollars. Naikrupneyshy a military contractor of the world — the company Lockheed Martin with its 45 billion dollars (42 billion of which were military) is only 159th place among global companies — at PepsiCo, Reno, bank UBS, the Germanic railways and Chinese automaker Dongfeng.
So Makar, the military business in the current time is not extremely profitable and so much economic and political weight in the global economy. Manufacturers and dealers have long been a tool not major global business tycoons, and the weight and impact of public defense industry in advanced countries is very limited. Global trade is a tool for all its political sensitivity — this is not a sale or consumption of oil products, and much more narrow and economically unimportant sector of world trade. For example, the global market of contemporary art (only modern!) Is currently estimated at 18 billion dollars a year.
OBJECTIVE — DIVERSIFICATION
At the current time the leading place in the middle of defense companies in the world occupy the multi-association, the dominant role in the activities which play aerospace and electrical industries. The larger South American (and as it should, and the world's) defense company BAE Systems also rose from aircraft manufacturers. So Makar, aerospace and electrical industry is currently dominated by the defense industry in the world, and air weapons systems are more expensive of all types of military equipment.
Considering the leading defense company in the world (from the same top twenty), you can select the appropriate follow their main features:
— they are structurally diversified holdings;
— base their work is aerospace, missile and electrical industry;
— they are intensively seeking to diversify and increase in the specific bit of a civilian sector in its activities;
— they are made in the last two decades as a result of active consolidation and acquisition of other companies;
— for military sales they depend first on the domestic market.
Speaking about the diversification of large defense companies, it is necessary to emphasize the following two pitfalls: the development of different branches of military production (aviation, electronics, missiles, land vehicles, from time to time, shipbuilding), diversification between civilians and military industries. Specifically, the narrow and in a certain sort of "small scale" military production and are a major incentive to diversify and expand the role of
the sector in civilian clothes.
The ability of co-operation with the same oil and gas or telecommunications sector are promising prospects, compared with a purely military establishment which looks ahead disadvantageous. For example, the management of the same Lockheed Martin plans to give voice to the fundamental (or faster dreams) adjusting the structure of its own military and civilian sales of up to a ratio of 50 to 50 (currently on the civilian sector companies account for less than 7% of sales).
So Makar, the goal of many giants of the global defense industry — companies become more civilians than soldiers. For the main facilities are made in the civilian sectors, not in the military.
Despite the huge U.S. military spending and looking convincing defense budgets of other Western countries, long-term prospects of the Western defense companies seem to be not so much optimistic. The United States is the inevitable cuts in military spending in order to reduce its own bloated budget deficit. Given the need for cuts in the military budget of the Pentagon was obliged to abandon the implementation of a number of promising programs. There is quite an ambitious program from mentioning the creation of promising ground combat equipment FCS.
In Western Europe, there is a trend reductions in military spending has been observed for a long time, but in the last few years has accelerated. New England limited government plans to reduce the military procurement budget from 11.7 billion to 9 billion pounds by 2014. France cuts appropriations for military purchases in 2011 to 1 billion euros. Germany started the next cycle is very meaningful reductions in the Bundeswehr and military spending. In the land of the rising sun lasts a continuous trend of reductions in military spending since 2001.
These trends with regard to the domestic markets of defense products in the West, combined with ever-increasing cost of military R & D, making them difficult to maintain defense companies, forcing the last deal as sourcing expand sales of arms, military equipment, equipment for their equipment (but the global market volume of arms exports limited) and the diversification of production due to increase in bit of civilian products. In the end, almost a crucial resource for the development of military-industrial complex in the West is the merger of defense companies to the creation of integrated and diversified holding companies that are capable of more effective action by government contracting markets and accumulate resources to fund promising research and development, which determines the competitiveness of the market.