The problem of orphans again recently stirred up our society since the enactment of Dima Yakovlev and new cases of death of adopted children from Russia to the United States. In this regard, I would like to tell the readers of the portal "Made us" on the Kuban experience solutions to this complex problem.
Kuban for this problem psychologically difficult, as I think, in general, and Russia. Kuban society has always been conservative and patriarchal. Orphanhood perceived as something wrong and if the child is an orphan, that the education of his relatives and neighbors were taken. Therefore, until 1991. in the Krasnodar region was only 4 children at home (in a region with a population of 5 million people (!)). But, unfortunately, in the 90s in the Kuban occurred psychological scrapped (as in the rest of Russia): the beginning of the 2000s, the number of orphanages has increased to 40, in the same proportion has increased and the number of orphans …
Now the situation is changing, and is very strong. It all started in 2005, has far., When a law was passed in Krasnodar Krai of 15 July 2005. Number 890-CP "On the form of foster care and living arrangement in the Krasnodar Territory (of patronage)" and the corresponding program for the development of foster families. Since then, originates the development of foster families in the Kuban.
How does this happen? If the family meets certain requirements and is eager to take part in the upbringing of the child, then she can take it to be raised without adoption. During that teachers would receive appropriate wages and salaries of per pupil. You can take the education of not more than 3 orphans.
Start the program in 2005. took place is not easy. First foster families had only two. The turning point came in 2007., By this time, public awareness of the program has reached the desired level, a system of selection, training and support of foster families. In each district of the region was opened a school for foster parents.
What it looks like, for example, in the area of Tikhoretsky you can read here:
At the session of the Legislative Assembly of Krasnodar Region, which opened today, 30 January, at the Kuban capital, Governor Alexander Tkachev said "the law of Dima Yakovlev 'and children's homes in the region, reports from the scene reporter"FederalPress.Yug. "
Alexander Tkachev said that in 2004-2005, 40 were working in the Kuban region's homes, today there are 22. "Because the children apart, all behind them" — said the governor. For example, if eight years ago, the province was 22,000 orphans today 8000 — "substantially higher than the average age of people with disabilities." Alexander noted that a number of the Kuban families for medical reasons can not have children, the deputy Grigory Penzhoyan — Krasnodar head physician of the city hospital number 2, suggested that, on average, these families about 6%.
"In 2012, only 13 children left for abroad. And for this to go on about a bunch of people I do not think Russian patriots? We will be giving away their gene pool in the world? "- Summed up the governor.
I've been thinking how best to tell you about this program, and then I remembered an article I read back in 2007. in the regional newspaper "The first of September." Better than she probably could not tell.
I quote it in full, once again, the very article of August 6, 2007.:
Kuban residents line up for orphans ("First of September", 06.08.2007.)
Krasnodar region is on the verge of mass closing orphanages. The region — boom adoption. The number of orphans, who were taken to be raised in foster and adoptive families, is growing exponentially. It is not a miracle and not a mass psychosis. This is a natural result of the competent social policy — unfortunately, only in a particular region. We used to think that the people of Russia do not like to bring up other people's children. It's part of our mentality. Kuban experience proves that with the mentality we have everything in order. If you create the conditions for people, Russia can get rid of the treasury of childhood in a few years, and even save you on this one.
"Where did enuresis?"
On the table, a psychologist Natalia Novikova two piles of children's drawings. Theme is the same: my house. Standard psychological test. One by one, Natalia P. gets a handful of leaves from the first — are all houses behind high walls, windows, no one in sight, even the trees do not grow. The drawings of a handful of other fences not, people walking in the yard, there are bicycles, smiling dogs, are seen in the windows of the tables behind them are people at the table — food. A huge number of parts, arrows giving explanations. Even if the child is not able to draw a swan on a tea cup, he simply says: "Here is drawn swan. Inside — tea with raspberries." If, instead of an old man turned young, the arrow points out: "This is my grandfather. He beekeeper." "And this car — says another artist. — Called the" Fira ".
— The authors figures are the same children — says psychologist Novikov. — The only difference in dates. The first results are a handful of dough made the day before their resettlement in foster family. In the second — the third day of life in the new environment. The results are obvious.
As we speak, the room chocolate butterfly flutters. It flies to several times and every time we sit down at the top figure of the second bunch.
What happened in the village of Novoleushkovskoy last winter, the employees of the local correctional boarding school is now called the "mass epidemic of patronage."
— A year ago, we think did not think that would happen — the director of the orphanage Novoleushkovskogo Tatiana Kurasova. — It all started with an emergency. Our institution for many years tried to gasify, but each time failed: isolated until the required amount, the price had time to grow so much that it was not enough. And then, finally, given enough, but we had a tender, yet this and that — it was autumn. What to do? If you wait for spring — the prices could rise again and again, money is not enough. And without relocation to carry out work on gasification impossible. As a gesture of despair, I gathered the team and suggested, "Maybe we take the children to their families? Total of two months." I thought no one would agree. It turned out I knew quite a team.
Within days, all 206 students were boarding Novoleushkovskogo in foster care. And the director responded to the call of not only her subordinates: of the 52 families who have taken to his home on leave orphans, 17 did not have any relation to the institution. A month later, it became clear that many will want to leave the kids for good. Gasification works were delayed, and each day of delay only increased the number of such families. When it was delivered, the Cossacks return
ed to the orphanage, only 37 pupils.
— We never thought that this case would be so contagious — the director Kurasova that expression, as if she were a scientist who has just made a revolutionary discovery. — "The virus patronage" at the speed of the plague. One family takes a child to grow up and get accustomed to it five more. See that nothing bad will happen, that children as children, the neighbors in the new circumstances flourished — and that's five more families flee to us: "And we are worse?" Today, even for the return of children is already on the queue. In the near future in a boarding school, only five remain.
— And those who returned for the last six months have changed even at the level of physiology — entered into the conversation on educational work of the deputy Olga Sulima. — They became more exercise. They disappeared enuresis. At first we could not understand — how so? And then I realized: the kids just trying to look better. They are afraid that they will not take to the new family. You know, what we now have the most difficult time in the orphanage? 17 hours. This is when for "domashnik" come foster parents. Those who have to stay — cry. We tried to explain to them that this is the moment that they are no worse than that for them too soon will come Mom and Dad. And best of all — that we're not fooling them.
— That's fine, but I can not understand why you so want to be unemployed?
— To be honest, at first we really panicked about it, — says the director. — Called in Krasnodar, in the Department of Education: "We've got all the children were separated, what do we do?" But we are comforted. Yesterday came Head of Child Protection Department of Education and brought order to establish on the basis of the former boarding the escort service of foster families. It will be a bit of a normal high school, which will also provide free consulting services to first-time parents. About a third of the staff still had to lay off, but it was painless.
— They now also foster parents. And it is even more profitable than working caregiver.
"An adopted child is half the price of orphanages"
Chief of Child Protection, which brought in Novoleushkovskuyu order on realigning boarding name is Tatiana Sinyugina. While we were talking to her, to her office three times came new parents together with their pupils, and boasted of success.
— Tatiana, tell me how much you have to pay people to have left orphanages likely to exist?
— In the Krasnodar Territory foster family, depending on the age of the child, is from 8 to 10 thousand rubles a month for each ward. Two years ago, these rules have been laid down at the level of the regional legislation, and since they are financed from the regional budget. Do you know how much we had foster care three years ago? Two. And thirteen reception. And just a year and a half has been a real breakthrough. And it's not only benefits, but also the most powerful propaganda. Our posters are hanging in clinics, pharmacies, schools, kindergartens. On local television are special programs. As a result, now the Kuban has 140 foster families and 300 foster care. A total of 931 children are being brought up. And the number of applications is growing every day. Last year, we were approached by 138 potential parents, this year — almost 300. Refunds virtually none. The majority of those wishing to take the education of the child said: "We were brewing for a long time, and there saw the poster and realized it was time." That is in the country are enough people who are mentally prepared to patronage. It is only necessary to mobilize them. To create conditions for them.
— You say: 8-10 thousand rubles for each child. And how much it costs the budget the same child, if it is in an orphanage?
— Depending on the state of health — in the 14-17 thousand rubles. That is two times more. In this educational effect in the family is incomparable even with the best boarding. But we do not have such a problem — close all the children's home. Our task — to create the best environment for children.
— Another natural question: do you have any suspicion that the patronage for the people has become a form of business?
— Well, first of 8-10 thousand rubles for the current economic state of the region are not that much money. If a person is not to bring up another man's child, he can earn them a simpler way. And, in addition, we have created a very strong system of random people dropping out. In order to become a foster parent, a person must not have housing and financial problems as well — health problems, including diseases such as alcoholism and drug addiction. In addition, in all areas of the region we are working with the NGO "second mother" opened schools foster parents. There they are lecturing doctors, psychologists, lawyers, teachers, and most importantly — foster parents who already have experience in education orphanage children. In these schools, many people get rid of illusions.
— For example?
— For most people, a child from the orphanage — it's either a poor orphan that needs to be ironed on the back and kiss on the forehead, or — a potential criminal. And in fact, it — and is not different.
— Do you have a feeling that the pace of the province will soon be able to get rid of a legacy from the Soviet system of treasury childhood?
— Why do you think that this legacy of the USSR? Do you know how many orphanages in the Kuban was 20 years ago? Four. And now — forty. So today we do not suffer the consequences of the Soviet and post-Soviet era.
"And we have yogurt in the pans cook!"
I am visiting family Mammadovs. His wife Tanya — Russian, husband Fizuli — Azerbaijani. His two they already grown, and how many in this age, suddenly found themselves alone.
— Usually people in this stage of life of animals in factory house. But why give your pet care, if you can give it to the people — the phrase I heard today several times in different foster families. I hear it and from Tatiana Mamedov.
Come running to the kitchen three children ten years and race are pressed against the "mother." Throughout the hour, as we speak, they do not depart from it even a step — just like the security guard outside the oligarch. They know what it is they are not my own, but love her like a mammoth elephant of the famous cartoon.
All three most recently hate women in red. This is because a couple of months ago, the family went Mammadovs in full force to Moscow on a popular talk show, and there they pecked one woman, dressed in a red dress. The lady in red was sure that Tatiana and Fizuli have adopted children a disservice. What they do not understand, what got engaged. What brought her two and that's enough. And the lady in the audience found enough like-minded people. Together, they have created an atmosphere in the studio, as if parents do not Mamedovs heroes, perverts and murderers old ladies. All three boys are still clench their teeth when they recall the wrong gear.
I know one of them a few years ago went to a boarding Novoleushkovsky "Mowgli syndrome". When he was deprived of the rights of parents, the child was 8 years old. He could not speak, crawling on all fours, and at the sight of people into a corner, covered his head with his hands and moaned. In his own home he had to feed on carrion dog, sleeping on the ground, and his father is drinking heavily in order to maintain discipline instilled in his son that all adults except him — beasts and villains.
I look at Sergei, Kohl, Volodya and trying to figure out which of them it was. On the wolf is not like any one. All three normal person, everything is open smiling excitedly talk about the past experiences and not
the least bit shy when it comes to them. If someone begins to "dry out" chorus it immediately precipitated, "Well, praise yourself, darling!"
— Relationship guys at once went wrong — recognized Tatiana. — At first, Sergei dominated and suppressed all. But now they have got used to each other and all at the same time — like the three musketeers. We also loved the TV — yes, guys? And now that we care most about?
Now I understand why Mammadovs clock hanging on the street. With the hours children share one bike at all.
— And the work we probably do not like? — I ask the guys. They are terribly offended. Kohl's even almost crying — he turns out to be the boy, who went to boarding school with "Mowgli syndrome".
— What is not, that is not — is comforting children Tatiana. — The work they are each other's hands beat. Someone something happened — the other also wants to try. The method of Tom Sawyer works without a glitch. Gradually improving the division of labor. Kohl's, for example, loves to rub turkeys zucchini. And Vova — feed mix. Serge partial to the vegetable garden. We used potatoes for some reason had not been born three years, and this spring Fizuli says Sergei, "Come on, help me plant the potatoes." And this year we are potatoes. Fizuli says, "Children's arm — the holy hand." But most of all we like to go shopping. You should have seen their faces when they pay for purchases. So much pride in adults does not happen, even when they are awarded with orders and medals. And once we have sent Vova for kefir, and he amused the whole store. For a long time I was searching for the right product on the shelves, asked for help from the saleswoman, she brought him a liter pack, and he rolled his eyes: "It's strange! And we have not packaged yogurt is growing. We have it in a large pot boil."
— Where is my beauty! — Suddenly sounds in the hallway. This is not your husband. Fizuli now deep in the harvest home and almost never happens. It came Misha — the fourth child, who Mammadov took the family two weeks ago. Misha covered in bruises, but he looked absolutely happy. He returned with his first bike ride in life. Prior to that, he never rode it and few people thought that he would ever be possible. Misha has the whole package of disease which you can think of — from a congenital defect of the hip joint to a light heart disease.
— More than three children in one hand foster parents do not give, — says Tatiana — so to take Misha, we adopted Kohl. When Fizuli in the first days of our new son was carrying in her arms after a bath, he just shook his head, "Well, just half a person!" Misha and now not so much weight, but it looks hearty and immediately joins the conversation.
— Aunt Olga, — he asks the deputy director on educational work of the orphanage, which was visited Mammadovs with me. — A fall I will not have to go back to the orphanage?
— Well, if you will keep yourself very badly, you can, and have — is responsible Aunt Olga. — And if you're a stiff upper lip — that live and live. You yourself, then choose that?
Mike breaks into a smile:
— I choose to "live and live."
"The parish book — a cheat sheet for Adoption"
— Brothers and sisters! Today we came to the shelter four more unbaptized babies. Who wants to be their godparents, come up to me after the service.
These words of his father, Alexander, rector of the Church of the Nativity, which is located on the outskirts of Krasnodar, says after the liturgy is not the first time. In front of me next to the icon Seraphim is the bald guy, he sits on the ear butterfly. Hearing the words of the priest, he turns his face to his wife, she said something to him, he nods. Butterfly fluttered for a moment and sat down again in his ear. Ten minutes later the three of them will come to his father, Alexander — a bald man, his wife and a butterfly.
— A year ago, we came up with a simple idea — said the rector. — Finding the orphans who live in our shelter, spiritual relatives. Our experience shows that if the godparents are aware of their responsibility before God for the souls of his spiritual children, sooner or later they will take them to their families. In this way, we have already found the parents of five children. And the number of applicants is increasing.
The know-how of the father of Alexander already has adopted a director Berezanskaya boarding school Tamara Serashtan.
— We raised the parish books and began to search godfathers and godmothers of our pupils — said Tamara Fedorovna. — 12 people have asked us not call, and 8 took the children to their families.
Most of all, lucky girl Nastya from Medvedovsky orphanage. It took a few years ago to his family Governor Alexander Tkachev. Since then, the Krasnodar region in terms of life beat out the top five regions of Russia. Olympics again won. Perhaps, after all rights of Fizuli Mammadov: a child's hand — holy.
BACKGROUND Where dismantled as children?
In Staraya Russa …
Director of the orphanage "Hope" in Staraya Russa Leonid Kirilov, a former police officer, one of the best field operatives, offered to colleagues at the time of repair of the building disassemble students to their homes. When the repairs were finished, some children did not want to let go back, others have returned to the orphanage with tears … Since then, the orphanage is almost always empty.
Kirillov annually receives "recharge" — 30 people raises and also "distributes" for families. For more than 300 orphans living in foster, foster care and guardianship. Financial benefit from this no. About 1200 rubles a year on clothes allocated by the state. …and Samara
In the Samara region has recently eliminated three children's homes. Today in 1896 the Samara adoptive families about 2800 children (409 transferred to the adoptive family this year.) A total of more than 85% of children without parental care in foster families.
Who in Russia's many children? Most adoptive family with many children Russia — the rector of Holy Trinity monastery, Fr Nicholas and his wife Galina Stremsky mother, who live in the Orenburg region. On their education — 60 foster children. The boys are trained in the orthodox school named after St.. Sergius of Radonezh, created at the monastery. The family of former locksmith "Uralmasha" Benjamin Makarova brought 80 boys orphaned each one of them by the age of 18 is required to serve in the Navy — it's a tradition. Many of his sons have received numerous awards, including the military. Recently, the Russian Children's Fund handed Makarova at the headquarters of the Russian Airborne Forces Order of the Holy Prince Dmitry "For mercy."
The family Cojuza Secretary of State of Russia and Belarus Pavel Borodin — five children, whom he and his wife are not divided into "us" and "adopted." Borodins watch over the children's home and two family: this summer, for example, 124 children older than they were taken to the south, and the kids left for a vacation in the suburbs.