"Probably, they shall fear the emergence of many real essay" — these words started once highly classified scientific work of Peter Karatygina "partisanship. Original experience of tactical research "(1924). Is not it more exciting and more than the actual one? — Voskriknet Karatygina a hypothetical opponent. What is the point to engage similar issues? Enough about the guerrillas, all the time … But, here P.Karatygin retorts, "no one will be surprised if tomorrow, next week, next month radio notify us of the first clashes of German Reds guerrillas and the occupiers, and with shelves Reichswehr .. . ".
To what extent can all be burning in the twenty-first century? In the 1920s, a guerrilla army circles there were a matter of the past, but come 1941, th … Worst-case scenarios is difficult, morally difficult to calculate. But history teaches us that a few times in a century, and even more often the organization of the partisan movement in Holy Russia became a matter of pressing. Is it just to keep in mind …
A nasty surprise
Marshal GK Zhukov wrote in his memoirs: "a complete surprise to the Germans was the war on the territory of the USSR, so to speak, on two fronts: on the one hand, against the regular troops of the Red Army, and the other — against organized guerrilla forces in the rear of the German troops."
Why do beliefs Zhukov organized guerrilla movement to the Nazis was a surprise? Historians remind: during the second world war partisans in France came 18 months after the end of the occupation in Greece — after 10 months in Poland — almost three years. And only the partisans in Yugoslavia intensely expressed for himself in July 1941, and it is almost three months after the accession of the German there a "new order." So Makar, at the time of the attack on the Soviet Union Axis powers anywhere with an organized guerrilla resistance is not met. Surprise it was also because the German administration must understand: the extensive training for guerrilla war in the Soviet Union has been frozen since 1935, and during the "Great Purge" of 1937-1938 — collapsed.
Yet partisan war in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union began at once.
Both natural and cooperated.
As if used at the gene level has been programmed.
If tomorrow the war
Indeed, preparing for guerrilla war was fought in the Russian Union since the late 1920s — and the band NKVD and the band of the Intelligence (Military Intelligence). The level of training, the scale indicates the historian Alexander Djukov in the book "is not true Viktor Suvorov": "By 1933, Ukraine has been prepared and conspired over 50 subversive groups numbering from 2 to 6 people any, there were more than 30 stakeholder groups of up to 12 people, more than 20 guerrilla groups for 20-50 people and more than 20 sabotage and reconnaissance groups of 6-8 people who can act and abroad. Belarus has prepared a six guerrilla groups, each numbering between 300 and 500 people … Each unit had its own headquarters in the head of unit, his deputy for political affairs, deputy chief of staff, intelligence chief and assistant chief of the detachment of supply, in addition, in the border campuses and at the railway nodes were taken and trained clandestine subversive groups … "
Disagreeing with the unfortunate "Suvorov", the creator indicates that the targeted repression "by the band" D "(a set of measures to prepare for guerrilla war) was not.
But what did happen?
Since the mid 30's in the Russian Union changed military doctrine. There was a brand new concept, which has now become expressed in the motto: "We will smash the enemy on its territory!"
With all of this in a society created a special atmosphere. Special. In what the government could survive.
When Suvorov (real Suvorov, Generalissimo) used to say that "the army bezvernoe teach that burned out sharpen iron", he knew that he had read. For the sin of apostasy from the faith n people received such mode of government, which is to replace the lost fear of God was able to instill fear of another characteristic.
All caches, databases, network illegal — it was liquidated. From libraries military units seized literature on guerrilla and sabotage topic: there is always featured the names Berzin, Yakir and other "unmasked enemies of the people" who engaged in "preparation for the laying of gangs and their weapons." Of experts in the "great purge" survived only a few 10-s man conspicuous part — of the number of participants civilian war in Spain, received there the experience of guerrilla actions. At the same time took into oblivion phrase "Soviet spy".
The more striking that the insurgency broke out in the first days of the war, came almost magic. A similar thing happened with military intelligence.
It is worth remembering that in 1930 all the management Russian military intelligence (IV Office of the Staff of the Red Army, and later — the Intelligence Office of the Commissariat of Defense) have been removed. Historian GRU states, "In the era of the Intelligence majors … 11 majors held positions chiefs and deputy chiefs of departments, 9 majors — Chiefs offices. We can assume that after two years of repression experienced skilled management of military intelligence was one hundred percent destroyed … The agent illicit network, which is the basis of intelligence, almost all eliminated … One could talk about the complete defeat of the military intelligence, if not impracticable happened. Majors in two years with a little work it was to do something for years and years of effort have not been able to reach the major-general. During the second World War, Russian military intelligence for the right number of strongest in the middle of all the intelligence agencies of the world. " During the war, all the sympathy of European intellectuals were on the side of.
On the war neznamenitoy
In the spring of 1940 there was a meeting in Moscow of the Head of the Military Council, dedicated to the analysis of the Finnish campaign. The meeting was Stalin. Colonel Haji Umar Mansurov, the chief of the Intelligence Division of sabotage, in his speech raised the question "about the development of specific parts of our army in the districts." "These pieces — Mansurov said — I should just call it sabotage and guerrilla groups, because they (the Finns), this method worked. The experience we have in this area is. "
But Stalin thought of something else. In his speech on the last day of the meeting, on 17 April, he said, summing up, said perceptible thing, pointing to the chief, in his opinion, the defects of the Finnish army, "She created and brought up not coming, and for the defense, and the defense is not active and passive … I can not call this a modern army. What it can do and what some comrades were jealous? On the small speech on the environment from entering the rear, to the debris … All these blockages can be reduced to tricks. Focus — not a bad thing — cunning, resourcefulness and so on. But the focus on live unreal. Once fooled — went to the rear, the second time fooled, and the third time will not be fooled. Army can not take it out on some tricks, it must be true army. If she has not, it is defective … "Stalin, of course, concerned with questions of creation of a modern army," a serious artillery "," good air ".
Noteworthy that Vyborg, the main element of the Finnish "Mannerheim Line", was taken specifically "focus". Dashing jump on the ice of the 70th Infantry Division in the rear of V
yborg fortified decided the whole thing, which led to a victorious end to the war. Particularly so, in the same "focus" in his time, and the troops of Peter I, after going on the ice, has seized this fortified city.
Overpowered talent, intelligence, ability. "Focus."
And before that, so, "focus", defeated Alexander Nevsky. And later — Suvorov …
When Zhukov wrote about the possibility of Russian military leaders trained (they "are constantly trained stubbornly difficult generalship and became his true masters"), he was referring to and Stalin.
But in 1940, the experience of the majestic Russian name has not yet come to rely on.
Fatherland had to drink the cup to the chosen end.
Work on the bugs
And now fallen upon us a great war. Those Finns cheerfully singing, "Go to the Urals, go to the Urals … go there and Stalin and their henchmen."
Seven days after the start of the war in the Directive of 29 June 1941 was, namely, the point will soon sounded in Stalin's radio address on July 3: "In the areas occupied by the enemy to create guerrilla units, mounted and on foot, to create a subversive groups to combat the enemy troops, to foment guerrilla warfare everywhere, to blow up bridges and roads, damage telephone and telegraph lines, set fire to forests, stores, transports. In the occupied areas to create intolerable conditions for the enemy and all his accomplices, to pursue and destroy them at every step, to thwart all their activities. "
In fact, it was the beginning of correcting an error made in 1930, when all production to the guerrilla war was stopped.
Subsequent directive of 18 July, has clarified: "Guerrilla groups and underground groups should be provided with the instrument, ammunition, vehicles and valuables, why should advance in secure facilities are buried and hidden away the necessary resources."
Germans was not discouraged. The Chief of Staff of the Supreme Command of Franz Halder took the theme of "a pencil": "We need to wait and see whether there will be success-treatment of Stalin, in which he called on all workers to the people's war against us. This will determine what measures and means to compact the vast industrial areas that we have to take. " In other words, the success of the case, he did not hesitate. Hitler used the same as if even with enthusiasm: "Russian at the present time given the order to guerrilla warfare in our rear. This guerrilla war has its advantages: it gives us the opportunity to destroy everything that rises up against us. " Soon German soldiers will have the right to shoot anyone who appears near the location of their garrisons within the line of sight.
Then were formed first partisan regiments. Historian A. Plants reported: "In the Leningrad region in late June and in July 1941 was formed and airlifted to the occupied area 6 partisan regiments, 30 units and groups of a total of about 4,800 people. In Kiev in July and August 1941 of operatives and party-Soviet active western regions of Ukraine were formed and deployed to the rear of the enemy's two guerrilla regiment total of 2296 people … make a raid in the rear of the enemy, partisan regiments destroyed garrisons and military warehouses Nazis blew their communication. In the unequal combat regiments suffered heavy losses in November and December 1941, ended its existence. The survivors joined the local guerrilla units and underground organizations … "
Immediately appeared spontaneously and "unorganized" guerrillas.
Sometimes, guerrillas, not knowing puzzles neighbors interfere each other, tearing cooked surgery.
Headquarters of the partisan edge
70 years ago, in 1942, to the beginning of the summer of the second year of the war there was a need to bring together management and coordination of guerrilla groups. At the Headquarters of the Supreme Commander was created by the Central Headquarters of the Partisan movement. It was an attempt to create a real edge in the rear of the enemy … Headquarters headed by the head of the Communist Party of Belarus, PK Ponomarenko.
Zhukov characterizes it this way: "Panteleimon Kondratyevich I knew very long time. Hard communist, he justified the confidence of the party and became a true organizer of avengers. "
Commander in Chief of the guerrilla movement (from September 1942 to May 1943) was a Marshal Kliment Voroshilov. Later that his position was abolished.
For specific management units in the military councils of the fronts were made its headquarters guerrilla movement, under the Central Staff. The entire structure was created from the weaving of three massive lines — the party, the NKVD and the Intelligence.
The scale of traffic on July 1, 1942, according to Ponomarenko, was like that. The central and front-line staffs obeyed 608 guerrilla groups — 81 Thousand 546 people. In addition there was information about another 1,626-minute actions of the detachment, numbering over 40 thousand people.
Then were formed Central School organizers guerrilla groups and a special radio school. These schools were created and fronts.
Removed from special depositories of theorists and practitioners of guerrilla wars of the past. At the same P. Karatygina read with some surprise:
"In August of 1918 in Chernigov province revolt against the Germans and the hetman. Reddish Cossacks immediately ran over to the neutral zone near the city of Novgorod-Seversky, and led a guerrilla war against the Germans, during which, acting more nights than once destroyed the whole battalions of Germans. Uniformly grown and made themselves around a few guerrilla infantry regiments. Of the infantry regiments in October 1918 formed the 1st Ukrainian Insurgent Division, commanded by Scors … "
The main task faced by the Central Staff, was "the destruction of the enemy lines of communication (the undermining of bridges, damaging railway routes, the device derailing trains, attacked cars and horse-drawn carts of the enemy), the destruction of communication lines (telephone, telegraph, radio), liquidation warehouses — weapons, ammunition, fuel and food, the attack on the army headquarters and other institutions in the enemy's rear, the real destruction of the enemy on the ground, of keeping the parts of the Red Army on the location, size and movements of the enemy. "
Indeed, the ground beneath their feet was burning enemy, indeed, fear was for the Germans in the trains pass through the guerrilla zones …
Assistant P.K Ponomarenko by sabotage and Deputy Chief of Staff of the Ukrainian was Prof. saboteur, the inventor of many types of special-purpose mines, which had a successful experience of guerrilla warfare in Spain, Colonel Ilya G. Starinov. Later, it will be called the "god of sabotage," and even later — the "grandfather of the Russian special forces" …
Naikrupneyshy theorist and practitioner, he proceeded from the premise that "partisan speech is not revenge, but hostilities" and proposed "to create on every front by a commando brigade and extensively prepare aces saboteurs" to "cut the fascist creeps viper in two, separating it head — advanced part of the tail — sources of supply. " Guerrilla and commando brigades on his plan had to be supplied centrally, as well as the rest of the standing army.
For reference, he took the experience in 1812, the experience of Denis Davydov, who was able to convince Bagration first, and then the efficacy of Kutuzov guerrilla war. Starinov quoted by heart language Denis Davydov, "Guerrilla warfare is not of a very fractional, no major companies are not engaged in for the burning of the 1 st or 2-barns with
out dislocating pickets and direct application of the main forces of the enemy strikes. Embraces it and crosses all stretch of ways, from the rear of the army unpleasant to the point of land, which is determined by supply its troops, sustenance and charges through it, barred for the source of its strength and existence, it puts its own military strikes exhausted, hungry, disarmed and stripped of saving bonds of subordination .'s guerrilla war in the full sense of the word. "
This idea, the idea of the creation of partisan brigades of special forces Ponomarenko issued "in accordance with the moment", and told to Stalin. The idea was not implemented.
But the task to cut the "vermin" command posed: "Immediately begin the most severe blows to the enemy's communications, putting his own task is not to miss any of the 1st train with manpower, equipment and ammunition to the enemy front band by organizing periodic crashes, explosions and fires, strikes everywhere and without annoying throughout the depth of the enemy's rear, spreading their forces along major highways and railway lines … "
With all this vsepolnotsennym front, on the views of Starinova, the guerrilla movement and was gone. In political control during the war did not happen a clear idea of a unified strategy of guerrilla warfare. This affects the supply. Looking at the documents of the time, involuntarily pay attention that the Central broadband constantly have to beg for planes to deliver supplies and weapons.
The issue with supply, "from the moment", sometimes offered (August 1942) to solve this: "Guerrilla groups should have and that is all there ability to provide for themselves through the enemy. The guerrillas if they are not in sufficient quantities guns, ammunition and other equipment should get it all in action. Only the inactive units will need experience, but hardly advisable to engage in a centralized manner supply these units … "
According to the views of Starinova, such an approach testified misunderstanding the essence of guerrilla actions. Forcible removal of goods from the population led to aggressive towards them public. With all this fighting and persecution exhausted troops, deprived of support, died.
Is not an isolated case, similar to when a member of the Military Council in the Caucasus, Lazar Kaganovich, a request to allocate aircraft to deliver food Crimean partisans Starinov replied: "What are these guerrillas that they can not feed themselves."
The fate of the Crimean partisans, the Germans have been driven into the mountains, tragic, and among them were children.
IG Starinov (1900-2000) lived a great life, has written several books, the importance of which, it seems, does not decrease with age. The colonel claimed that if our troops are caught in the 41st in the environment that has the ability to guerrilla warfare, they did not give up a prisoner, and this "would lead to a catastrophe of Nazi Germany in 1942." He repeated that "the art of guerrilla warfare — a severe science." Cases with Ponomarenko it did not work: he was "curious, bodrenkim but poorly versed in the affairs of, for example, going for a week to teach the guerrillas, not loved, when he contradicted. He was very arrogant … ".
Starinov at different times on different occasions been a couple of times by shooting a couple of times he was introduced to the title of Hero of the Russian Union, he held general's office, was friends with the marshals, but he was a colonel. I remember at Denis Davydov also had problems: assigning the rank of general announced mistake, he again became a colonel. And with Starinova this is a case where the title can be written with a letter.
The colonel is observation comparing the wars in Korea and 1950 in Vietnam 1970.
In Korea, about 170 thousand North Korean soldiers were taken prisoner by the Yankees. "And all this is so — says Starinov — that the Korean troops have been trained by our advisers, who did not understand the role and significance of guerrilla warfare in modern warfare." And in Vietnam, "the South Vietnamese guerrillas, prepared Chinese spices, made for the U.S. military intolerable conditions. Without engaging them in combat, killed 70% of equipment and 30% of the manpower, forcing the invaders to shame take a hike. " We have Starinova judgments about the war in Afghanistan. And his remark about the first Chechen campaign seems to have been taken into account during the second …
"The development of equipment does not exclude partisan, and only gives in his hands more perfect weapon — says in conclusion P. Karatygin own work. — So, let's think again about the "partisans" and do not be in a hurry to take them to the archives of previous struggles. " It was the 1924 year. Before the great war was 17 years old.
So at this point, when the foreign policy situation is seriously aggravated the experience of 1941, as well as outstanding professional experience of guerrilla warfare — such as DV Davydov, NS Golitsyn, MV Frunze, PA Karatygin IG Ancient, SA Kovpaka GM Linkov … — should not be forgotten.
New types of special weapons, improved means of communication, but the forefathers left us saying "Prepare sleighs in summer, and in winter the truck," anyway, burning, and now has been given at all times.