orthodox science (for the next one-way communication session earthlings with extraterrestrial civilizations)
From the newspapers
YEVPATORIYA — KASSIOPEYA
"Russia, Ukraine and the United States sent a message into space 90,000 inhabitants of the earth from 53 countries … The destination chosen star UMa-47 from the Big Dipper and the constellation of Cassiopeia, Orion, and cancer. According to astronomers UMa-47 is similar to our solar system and it may show life. "
With the development of Christianity, in which the Earth — the center of the world, and man — the creation of the Creator of the world, the idea of the possible existence in the cosmos other sentient beings, except man, persecuted the Church as heretical. The apogee of this persecution was the burning of the February 17, 1600 in Rome, in the area of Flowers, Giordano Bruno, who championed the idea of the plurality of inhabited worlds in our universe. Bruno was the first to surmise:
-the possible existence of nonanthropomorphic GFW (extraterrestrial life)
-the need for the existence of related forms nonanthropomorphic Mind EC (ETC).
He wrote: "We believe that the living beings of our species inhabited places are rare. However, not appropriate to assume that there is a part of the world without soul, life, feelings, and consequently, no living beings. Indeed, silly and absurd to think that it is not there may be other beings, other types of intelligence, rather than those that are available to our senses. "
Nevertheless, even now, 400 years after the death of Bruno, the official science on the question of the plurality of inhabited worlds and intelligent extraterrestrial life is on the orthodox position, rejecting speculation of Great Noblantsa.
Methodological concepts, attracted solutions for problems of ETI (Extraterrestrial Intelligence) — ie Search Programs CC (SETI) and Communication, Computer Center (CETI) — all based on the orthodox views of the world order, declaring, what we call the "":
-our world — the only one universe;
-the existence of other universes may be recognized only if they are practically unobservable to researchers of our world;
-space macrocosm of our universe may be only three-dimensional;
-space of our universe, most likely, is flat;
-extraterrestrial life forms (ACWF) in the universe can only protein;
-GFW base may be only water, and the substrate life can be only carbon,
-biochemically identical extraterrestrial life form the earth, and their search should be conducted only on the bodies, defined as "the world for people,"
-reasonable representatives of life can only be anthro-morphic;
-evolution of hypothetical VC should be repeated until the details the development of civilization on earth, including those that result from our extrapolations of historical processes;
-communication between distant VC should be done with the help of radio signals.
It is our firm belief in the orthodox ideas about the world order problem of the existence of extraterrestrial intelligence, its detection and establish contact with them is a challenge parascientific. To substantiate this view, consider the following reasons to work V.Kovshuna "On parascientific Problems ETI (Extraterrestrial Intelligence)."
Direct evidence of the existence of VC as objects of ETI problems were found. Indirect evidence (posts contactors, manifestations of abnormal phenomena such as UFOs, poltergeists, etc.) that do not fit into the framework of orthodox science, nobody yet not taken into account. Since there is no object Problems ETI, then there is no system of knowledge about the VC, and the assumption that alien life forms, disguised as scientific hypotheses, in fact, bordering on myth-making. Therefore, all the guesses and assumptions about the types of VC and the possible duration of the existence of each of them actually take us to the bosom of unrestricted speculation. Such a provision in the Challenge ETI compounded by the fact that even within the orthodox notions there is no agreement among experts of various fields of knowledge in matters of definition of the concepts of "life", "mind", "consciousness", "intelligence", "culture", "civilization" and etc.
Theory of extraterrestrial life (like the theory of extraterrestrial civilizations) currently does not exist, and that in the Challenge ETI issued for theorizing, there's just a guess and does not confirm the hypothesis. "The knowledge of ignorance" can be called such conjectures and hypotheses based on the concept of subjective probability, which is used in the "Drake equation" to assess the possibility of establishing contacts with CC. Drake probability formula prevalence of life and intelligence in the universe, "which includes work" the likelihood of life, "" the probability of occurrence of the mind "can not be considered correct. Essentially, at the use of such calculations is absolutely universal for the entire universe form of earthly life and civilization, up to detailed details. corresponding calculations of the probability of prevalence of life and intelligence in the universe using the formula Drake resemble medieval scholastics made by calculating the number of angels who can be accommodated at the tip of the needle.
It is these "", above confess orthodox science. Derogation from any of these "commandments" in the problem of ETI would mean rejection of anthropocentrism as a form of geocentrism, that is, would mean "kosmizatsiyu" programs CETI and SETI, which further problem would lead to ETI parascience. And this is due only to the fact that the assumption of the existence of other worlds, other than accessible to our observations of the universe with the laws of physics, different from the laws of our universe, the possibility of non-protein (and even non-chemical!) Forms of extraterrestrial life of extravagant ways possible evolution of the computing center (and even the matter altogether!), etc. — all of these assumptions are still far from being generally accepted, that is, they have not yet become part of the knowledge of orthodox science.
And all this despite the fact that none of the above "," methodological approach to finding the ACWF and the EC (and in general — Extraterrestrial Once the mind), has been neither proved nor even logically justified.
In fairness, we emphasize that a galaxy of eminent scientists have long and hard against the orthodoxy of the position of science in the study of problems of ETI. Relativist arguments opposing the "" on the question of forms of Representatives hypothetical ACWF and LC are given in our book I.Kovshun, V.Kovshun "hypothetical forms of life outside the Earth" (Odessa, 1999). Let us recall them briefly.
"… Some authors have discussed the possibility of the existence of life as a manifestation of protoplasm, in which carbon is replaced by silicon, nitrogen and phosphorus (Rheingold, 1909). Such" beings could withstand higher temperatures. Others were living, based on the restoration, where the liquid medium would be ammonia (DB S. Heldeyn, Bernal). These "creatures" can live at much lower temperatures, when water is not liquid (ammonohimiya life). "
Eminent astrophysicist Sagan at a conference on CETI in Byurakan said the following.
"First of all it is necessary to find a phase in which there is a chemical interaction with the environment. Many believe that the solid phase prevents sufficient velocity reactions in living organisms, if they are not carried to the point of transition to the liquid phase. Then there is only liquid phase, which is, oddly enough, and we use it. Is this a "liquid-chauvinism"?
… If we argue that this fluid has a high cosmic abundance, the water — the only possible candidate. But if we consider all the cases or preferred "Water chauvinism"?
… I believe that the hypothesis of life on a cold star, originally proposed by Shapley, is not promising. But, maybe, this "planetary chauvinism"?
… In the literature, often claim that any atoms other than carbon, do not provide adequate complexity molecules, although it is a kind of "carbon chauvinism" as many other chemical systems simply have not been investigated. "
In the book, the Englishman V. Firsov "Life beyond the Earth" (section "Generalized Chemistry of Life", "Life at low temperatures", "Ammonium life", "carbon substitutes", "silicon instead of carbon," "Life at high temperatures") considered the possible existence of non-carbon organic compounds, which could be based psevdoorganicheskaya life different ACWF.
In astrophysical models of world order, rejected by mainstream science, interwoven abstract constructions of mathematicians with the most daring conjectures of physicists and philosophers. They are contrasted:
-flat space of Newton — curved space Lobachevsky and Riemann, Veronese and Gilbert, which thus can be one-sided like "Mobius strip" or "Klein bottle";
-the real world of real values — the values of the imaginary world (by Yu.Chugaevskomu);
-the universe sub-light speeds (Bradiversumu) — the universe of superluminal velocities (Tahiversum) native to us with the usual World time — multiple worlds with a closed time with either one-to-reverse flow of time;
-our Universum — terrible polyverses of splits, branching, bubbling universes that while more and shrink, expand, explode or pulsate, and between all these Shadow universes, parallel worlds are possible contacts through these "channels" as, say, elementary particles (by Markov).
Some science fiction writers (among whom were scientists from around the world — Azimov, A.Klark, F.Hojl, etc.) "built" worlds, dramatically different from ours. In science fiction have appeared describing the infinite, but limited or finite but unbounded, and so on worlds with different metrics and the curvature of space, "parallel universes" that co-exist at every point of our universe of universes with different numbers of dimensions and even universes nested one inside the other, like dolls. And the problem is discussed in the philosophy of the nature of time is reflected in fiction, "build" the worlds over time, reverse the flow of our time, or with respect to stiff us time, which "flows" perpendicular to our time. (!) All these worlds fiction "settled" extravagant creatures with the most unimaginable reality in our properties. And if the individual writers living creatures inhabit only Earth-like planets, many believe that the arena of life can be any planet, stellar interiors, the interstellar medium, and even the absolute vacuum filled with virtual (unobservable) elementary particles.
If all of this to allow more non-traditional (even better to say — heretical) views of biologists, computer scientists, philosophers about the nature of "life" and the acceptable physical and chemical "carriers" of life, then there are bordering on the fantastic hypotheses about the forms of life and intelligence beyond Earth. We emphasize that these hypotheses are confounded any building orthodoxy, which, if they allow the possibility of extraterrestrial life, it is only on the basis of water and protein (protein-water chauvinism) and reasonable inhabitants of the cosmos they can only imagine the anthropomorphic creatures.
So, we have announced with fanfare once you send a message of their existence, "the brothers on reason" in the distant Universe, however, did not highlight that for 40 years in vain looking for such messages addressed to us. Space stubbornly silent?
Maybe we are alone in the universe?
Maybe life really sort of fluctuation in the cosmic being, a cancerous tumor on the body of matter, "the burnt scrambled eggs," as Lem?
Recall the Count Tolstoy: You — randomly rallied lump of matter. Preet lump, and contend it is called life … You yourself — only desire life. "
Or here's another. Maybe life on this miserable earth — only the result of decay, decomposition. All around and we ourselves — only the symptoms of damage, izedayuschey bad fruit. The meaning of the universe defies the efforts of our brain. We may have germs, embryos star in a chaotic nightmare "- wrote Jean Rae, adventurer and smuggler and the classic" black fiction. "
"Maybe life is a disease of matter and mind — a disease of life?" Is asked of the Strugatsky brothers? "You are afraid of the word" disease "… But is typhoid fever is not life-long abdominal sticks two microns, for which the universe is the human intestine? Gut health is death sticks typhoid … Health — death … Disease and Treatment is a kind of Darwinian struggle for existence. Want to trust only if the person and the illness of the universe, then that is her long, incurable disease "- adds sovremennіy writer F.Gorenshteyn.
Or, Space swarming with "brothers in mind," and their appearance is quite anthropomorphic? But why are they silent?
Maybe we compared to them are on the lowest level of development, and they simply do not notice us? "Teaches you how we, the civilized would if they could, pigs, geese and cows? Could we have imagined to establish diplomatic relations with the chicken?" — Ch.Fort wrote the world's first UFO.
Or "Brothers in Mind" nonanthropomorphic so that we can interest only to them, say, gastronomic, not an astronomical point of view? Or they may be interested in safari on the people's sake, let's say, replenishment of extraterrestrial zoos or harems?
Life as a property of highly organized matter, perhaps, turned to us, the inhabitants of the Earth, one of its Face, the one that is determined by the mode of existence of protein bodies.
Other Faces of Life, we expect to see in the far reaches of space. What did they prove? Who will meet us there, beyond Earth? The bloodthirsty maniacs crazy community in the form of insects or monsters? Or stones and mold peacefully philosophizing about the problems of the universe? Civilization alive and sentient planets, stars and even galaxies? Or do we meet like themselves brothers in mind?
This science has no answer. There are only guesses unorthodox scientists and science fiction writers.
Based on the book I.Kovshuna, V.Kovshuna "hypothetical forms of life beyond the Earth." Odessa, 1999.