From Malyuta to Beria
Do not rule out the possibility that all of the executioners alike. But it was too certain details of the "Lives" Malyuta were repeated his bloody followers. Directly to aspects. As if in some stories acted naizloveschaya matrix murders and massacres.
Let's start with the fact that the first step was not oprichniny Malyuta will take against the then favorites Crucible — Viazemsky, father and son Basmanovs. Well, its origin was uncertain, while the tone in Oprichny army, surprisingly, asked the descendants of noble families.
More that Skuratov evenly extends to wheel plan only when in 1566 the Government decided to soften its policy oprichnina. Severe for the first time since the beginning of terror seeks to somehow reconcile with Oprichnina zemshchina. The purpose of his maneuver is clear: the Livonian War to seek greater costs, and therefore needed the support of the whole country. A change of course always entails a change of performers who have been particularly odious. Remember how the recession wave of Stalinist terror was replaced Yezhov like the least blood-stained Beria which even released from prison is a number of "enemies" of the plan. It is clear that at the time was approaching brand new big war.
It was at this time in royal favor and comes Gregory Lukic Skuratov-Belsky. Most likely, Malyuta — it seems to be a pagan name for the opponents that they are not sent his spell. Then it was decided often hide their baptismal Christian name and a reputation in the world under the most unusual. From time to time just to Mongolian. Our forefathers withdrawn himself from the evil eye. A true name even close from time to time recognized on the funeral service. Thus, even in the more enlightened in the XVII century time memorial services for the pet of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Hitrovo mourners learned that his real name — Job.
Skuratov were not well-born. They had insignificant estate on the border of Zvenigorod district. Yet this race was not a stranger to severe. In the deposit book Joseph of Volokolamsk monastery own contribution to the liking of Malyuta Stern supplied with signs such dedication — "Serfs on their own by Gregory on Malyuta Lukyanovich Skuratov." Some commentators do not exclude that Skuratov really were once slaves stately princes, but for his loyal service were granted nobility. In other words, to justify its exorbitant loyalty and willingness to fulfill at least some command.
In fact, the executioner's career begins not on the battlefield, and during the punitive expedition against the next "conspirators". The fact is that in fact had been established in the Kremlin komplot, which was headed by the head of the stables of the order — the most important structures of the then state apparatus — IP Fedorov. By the way, during the absence of the royal equerry specifically did the honorable role of locum tenens. So defeat "fedorovschiny" can be associated with the expulsion of Trotsky.
AN Novoskoltsev. "The guardsmen in the house of a disgraced nobleman."
The aim was to overthrow the komplota like Severe and transfer of the throne to another Ruricovich — Vladimir Staritsky. But the bidder got cold feet and told all those who in the sedition de sucked.
Clearly, in terms of the perpetrators of unbreakable tradition extended to the maximum. And in the land of the Kolomna Fedorov began revealing a rout in the style of "scorched earth". It is here that Malyuta own ferocity and shook the king himself, uzrevshih what a valuable frame formed under the shadow of old times teammates. Royal synodic testifies in Gubin Malyuta corner of his comrades escaped with 30 and 9 people. We must assume that these unfortunate not just killed, and tortured for a long time. In addition, under torture Malyuta still need to take it elicited from victims hidden away places with good. In Moscow, there was a whole class, as at the moment uttered would baryg who bought up all the loot henchmen. Among them were many Germans-publican. In the late 30-ies of XX century in the capital worked komissionka through which implemented seized from convicted for political articles.
Yes, blood Malyuta not afraid. When two years later in disgrace got Viskovity clerk, the head of the embassy of the order, the keeper of a large state press, called non-obsequious foreigners Chancellor, he particularly distinguished. The fact is that for Viskovitogo and a number of his fellow ministers were invented special punishment.
In practice, the stern smashed his own government. The analogy with the "Leningrad Affair" is imposed by itself. But Ascension Beria simply froze to death in a freight car in which he was driven to the conclusion. But for Viskovitogo Malyuta with his owner came up with an unusual punishment. Clerk who dared to throw in the face of the rigors of "Bloodsucker" — tied to the crossed logs, ordering oprichniki in turn cut off any part of his body.
Apparently, even the "kromeshniki" varied, and so the first came Malyuta adversary and cut off his ear. Retreat has been impossible. On the body Viskovitogo snapped up together, leaving the skeleton of it soon.
After the defeat of Tver kromeshniki continued carnage in Torzhok. Among other deal they had gathered and contained in a group of prisoners of the Crimean Tatars. And their yard ruler with guard went in person. And here it was revealed that the prisoners somehow found themselves in a cool gun. Or was it someone else's oversight, or someone really prepared provocation. In any case, the Tartars rushed to the henchmen — and the king who led them. In the skirmish Malyuta was injured, but the governor was not injured. A shed for the blood of his person rulers especially appreciated.
In short, Skuratov with the battle took his place beside the king, affecting not only on compelling solutions, but even on family matters severe. So, when the governor decided to once again marry, Skuratov intensely lobbied Martha Sobakin Held from oprichnik related. Moreover, there is evidence that one of the beauties brought that Malyuta considered a rival own protege, was just on the physical level persists, coupled with the pope. And even when Martha apparently fell ill seriously, Malyuta assured of its own patron not to delay marriage. And at the feast he and his son-in Godunov were buddies wife. Moreover, even after the subsequent death of girls do not shake the position of Gregory Lukic — he remained a major winner severe. How, in general, was with him "analog" of the last century.
Interethnic prepyadstviya inevitable in a multinational environment. At the moment it is — the number one topic. By the way, Stalin decided such nodules in the style of Macedon, cut the G
ordian knot — many people simply have been sent out of sight in the steppes of Kazakhstan. Few, meanwhile, know that for the first time with "Caucasian expansion" capital faced just in the XVI century, when the capital of countless relatives came second wife of Ivan — Kabardinki, which became after the baptism of Maria Temrjukovna.
In Moscow pulled carts with numerous relatives newfound queen. Kabardians leg and willingly sided with Oprichnina as first violin in a black fraternity brother started playing Mary — Saltankul, in baptism Mike Cherkasky.
Print Misha Temryukovicha Cherkasky with his image.
Only the extant official data, in 1563, arriving in Moscow 2000 Caucasians in September and October 1564 — 3,000 more. And that's just the guys! Historians believe that at that time in the capital were already hundreds of Kabardinian yards. In general, if all the eastern people call only the Tatars. And some colleagues believe that Oprichnina and its abuses and brutality almost everything was the result of a direct rivalry of old times Russian boyar families and intruders from the Caucasus. Not surprisingly, many oprichnina raids directly resembled the invasion of hordes. Moreover, there is a perception that the general Kabardians had hoped to seize power in the country, becoming the latest elite, as before they succeeded in Egypt.
Either way, but it was the first wave of oprichnina. Then came the price paid is through the ages — for red-tape-monger that wreak havoc in 1937.
New people, led by Malyuta engaged in the redistribution of influence and sympathy harsh. In 1571, Michael Saltynkul was executed. And it was at the head of the advanced regiment troops out against the horde of the Crimean Khan, bursting to Moscow. And the brother-in-law executed last Crucible was apparently the case. And the charges in his dealings with the enemy were under the soil. After all, his father Temruk already defected to the Khan. But by that time, and folds Kabardinians were defeated by Muscovites have long been irritated defiant behavior intruders.
But, apparently, Misha Cherkassky was like not to demolish the head. Already guardsmen "second wave" were sacrificed to restore harmony in the country. And so the Prince Vasili was drowned Temkin, Peter puppies hanged on the gate, Gregory Dirty killed. I do not rule out that he Malyuta could fall out of favor for the upcoming state of reconciliation, despite all his influence on the king. And apparently out of harm Stern sends it to Livonia. Severe hopes that the passions surrounding the canceled oprichniny with its bloody consequences dust settles evenly.
Oh, and ruined possessions regain Zemstvoists-owners of old times. But here the story Malyuta breaks.
On the territory of Estonia today he killed in the assault malehankih krepostitsy the Swedish garrison. Yes, Malyuta was Sharkunov parquet, and then all of a soldier caste, was able to have a sword and knew that in Russia the soldiers who had fled from the battle, shameful dress up in women's dress. As one writer put it, his death soldier redeems all his misdeeds. Maybe so …
There is a theory that, if not quixotic death of Stalin, was also a brand new series of cleaning his "henchmen" at the mill, he would ground the Marshal Lawrence Beria. Preparing an excellent change of municipal decorations. But the death of the leader at the time of delayed death executioner.
Beria, as you know, has fallen victim to the struggle for the redistribution of the Stalinist legacy imperative. Figure who held in his hands the levers machine damage, and even compromising on almost all associates allowed to spray without hesitation.
Sudden death Malyuta, at least, has kept not only its highest reputation in the court, but the special status of its nominees — Bielski and princes, first, Boris Godunov. But if Malyuta fell out of favor, then, of course, a lot of heads flew to follow.
And his inner circle began a stubborn struggle for power, including the impact of the piece Skuratova. Especially since Ivan the Terrible decrepit sharply last 18 months of their lives, and almost did not run the state's real. The municipal seal was in other hands acumen.
And Stalin, they say, has entrusted the rubber facsimile ZHore Malenkov … But this is a completely different story. Although the analogy between with 2 modes separated by several centuries, so clear, that at times you wonder. And Skuratov-Belsky, and Beria — it's just frames, allowing to grasp the nature of affairs has long past days and the deepest traditions of antiquity.
But the images of villains live firmly in the national memory as a warning.