This ship does not show on TV. Shooting shop Severodvinsk Sevmash, where he built, are prohibited. In an open print this ship fall in the main only hypothesis and conjectures. And it is logical for the question about the possibly best project of modern Russian military-industrial complex — head multipurpose nuclear submarine of the fourth generation «Severodvinsk».
Russian «competition» against the South American «totalitarianism»
Since entering into the sea in 1955 the world’s first American nuclear submarine (SSN) Nautilus nuclear submarine shipbuilding reincarnated as one of the important areas of acute technological rivalry between the USSR and the USA. Introduction of nuclear reactor submarines allowed so increase their combat potential that the PLA turned into genuine «masters of the seas» and emerged as one of the most important (and in our country — and primary) of the Navy. Equipment PLA ballistic missiles enabling them to solve puzzles and strategy. By dramatic fate established in both countries the creation of nuclear submarines have been in almost all reverse not only each other, and at least officially declared a political principles countries. In the U.S., Admiral Rickover Human, «the father of the South American nuclear fleet,» concentrated in his own hands an almost complete monopoly on all stages of the design of American submarines aggressively deciding what specific boat fleet needed, inhuman discarding any parallel projects and «flushing» competing proposals. Ways his reign zaglazno not named differently as «totalitarian» and «mafia». The result was a unified and harmonious development of the evolutionary line of American submarines, which is preserved to this day.
In the USSR, to the early 70’s there was a system of 3 design offices in underwater shipbuilding: Leningrad «Ruby» and «Malachite» and Gorky’s «Lapis» — which, on the one hand, specialized in designing different types of boats («Rubin «- missile ballistic and cruise missiles,» Malachite «- multi-purpose,» Lapis «and engaged in both, also underwater vehicles), but with all this, on the other hand, reflected in almost all the different schools of design solutions and practical in some cases were all sorts konkurentnst among themselves, offering appropriate options on many projects. It has become a prerequisite for the record «mnogotipya» PLA Navy of the USSR both classes of boats and their projects.
As a result, in the seventies in the Russian Union has created a full palette of projects most modern submarines of the third generation: «Ruby» has developed a nuclear ballistic missile boats (SSBN) Project 941 and cruise missile (SSGN) Project 949, «Malachite» — nuclear multipurpose boats Project 971, and «Lapis» — a variant with a titanium hull of Project 945. With the deployment of the construction of these ships over the next decade the Russian fleet for the first time got a boat approaching the stealth features (first — on the level of noise) to the South American. At the same time Russian designers made progress made it possible to not only catch up, but in the long term, and stay ahead of the Yankees. Because in 1977, when the construction of the first third-generation nuclear submarines was just beginning, the USSR had a wide front began to work on creating more sophisticated boats later, the fourth generation, which had become a genuine miracle weapon of the XXI century.
Lingering birth «Ash»
Initially, all three «hidden» CB got a job designing boats fourth generation of their own «profile» — «Rubin» did SSGN with promising «heavy» cruise missiles «Fireball», «Lapis» — a specialized anti-submarine submarines, and in » malachite «running head designer VN Pyalov developed SSNs Project 885 received cipher «Ash». But the difficulties of creation huge number of new weapons and equipment for these boats, all growing from one generation to the price of construction of new submarines, the revision of tactical units in the light of new requirements forced the military to take a truly revolutionary development for the Russian Navy solution — combine all three into one project, Multi abandoning combat and narrow specialization. As the base for the implementation was adopted specifically «malahitovsky» project 885 «Ash», which had to be equipped with additional tools to combat the extended range of combat tasks. So Makar, 885 project became the first Russian vsepolnotsenno multipurpose submarine warship capable of solving virtually any tasks facing our submarine fleet, including the aircraft carrier combat groups and possible enemy submarines.
Solution to a complex technical problems in the development of the latest generation multi-purpose ship has led to delays in project activities. As a result, the development over only fatal for the country in 1991, when the very promising possibility to build submarines in the defunct country was called into question. But the importance of this program to the Navy was so yavna that, despite all the difficulties, December 21, 1993 in Severodvinsk was laid in a festive atmosphere «Order No. 160» — the firstborn of Project 885, named the town where it is based. «Severodvinsk» was first incorporated in the Russian Federation warship.
But the criteria of the economic crisis and the financing gap and the Mariners boat builders had to wage a real fight for the survival of the project. Work on the «Severodvinsk» eventually turned into unfinished — if initially planned to bring the ship to the tests as early as 1996, at the moment this is only for the period referred to in 2005. On the construction of a series was not the question. Yet the highest willingness boats in the current time and a definite improvement in ship finance give grounds to impose the new Russian submarines will soon see all the same sea, and will be coming back and to the serial construction of Project 885.
Lifting Zahav Enigma
Under construction for a long time view of the new Russian submarine was the object of numerous guesses at home and abroad, creating sometimes very unusual fantasy. For the first time reliable computer images Project 885 were placed in 1998 in an article deputy head designer SPMBM «Malachite» AM Antonov in the journal «Gangut.» Since then, the press has been a lot of recent, although quite speculative and controversial disk imaging on individual technical design quality «Severodvinsk». Let’s try to separate the wheat from the chaff and give you a good idea of this step for the Russian Navy ship. It should be mentioned that most of the reasons mentioned below is tentative nature and is based solely on the reports of the press.
Project 885 in almost all inherited the traditional «corporate» style exterior contours «malahitovskih» boats — such as projects 671 and 971: perfectly streamlined «teardrop» body and «limousine» cutting enclosure. But the internal structure of the ship is to a large extent a departure from past traditions Russian submarine shipbuilding and brings «Severodvinsk» to the South American construction type submarines.
All previous Russian nuclear boats had double-hulled design — strong body was inside the outer hull, and Interbody space located ballast tanks. This causes the first requirements of the Navy have in store significant buoyancy (the difference between the surface and underwater displacement boats) to provide the best survivability and surface flooding PLA.
But this solution reduced the stealth boat as light body plays the role of a kind of a big cavity and increases the low frequency noise of the boat — because all South American boats from the second generation were single hull, with the placement of the ballast tanks inside the body strong. As assumed in the project
885 used mixed compromise double-hulled single-system design, when light body «covers» only a part of a strong submarine hull.
Another fundamental decision was the introduction to «Severodvinsk» sonar system of the latest generation «Irtysh», which is considered an important part of sonar «Amphora» with a large spherical antenna, which occupies the entire bow of the boat. This allows you to position the antenna on a huge number of highly sensitive hydrophones and provide a lower level of interference in their work. Because torpedo tubes (according to various sources, there are eight or 10 533 mm) moved from their usual place in the nose on the board in the middle of the boat and positioned at an angle to the center line of the ship. There is also a torpedo and ammunition. A similar solution for more than 40 years used in the U.S., but in the Russian Navy, it was rejected for a long time, since such an arrangement limits the speed torpedo boats in the production of torpedo firing a maximum of 15-17 knots. At the moment, eventually acknowledged that under the terms of stealth shooting at a high speed course still feasible.
Not counting the «Amphora» brand new boat will have a classic for all modern submarines developed conformal airborne sonar antenna, also the low-frequency passive towed sonar antenna — a kind of hose mnogosotmetrovy dotted hydrophones discharged outside through the highest part of the vertical rudder. The ship will also receive funds nonacoustic lighting underwater situation, new communication and navigation systems, and integrated automatic system of command and control and comprehensive system for managing all technical means ship.
«Severodvinsk» must be fundamentally resettled newest nuclear-powered 4th generation performed by monobloc integration scheme with pressurized water reactor system and circulating the primary coolant in a single package, which significantly increases its reliability. In this nuclear facility applies the highest level of natural circulation of coolant, allowing the boat to develop the huge thermal reactor power and low-noise high-speed move (maybe up to 20-25 knots) without using the main source of noise in modern submarines — pumps for circulation of coolant . Another fundamental innovation will be, perhaps, the use of electric propulsion at low noise go — in other words, the turbine will not twist clattering turbozubchaty unit with gear speed reducer and the generator driving the electric motor is quiet. In the end, is expected to propel the PLA would be no «Thrash water» propeller, water-jet and low noise, the construction of which, apparently, was worked out on the Black Sea diesel «Varshavyanka» B-871 877V project. In order to reduce noise most SSNs of Project 885 bases all its devices will be equipped so called system of active lowering the noise floor for the first time applied, according to the West, nuclear boats «Boar» and «Cheetah» modernized Project 971. All this combined apparently, will make «Severodvinsk» most low-noise submarines in the world, allowing for the first time eclipse on acoustic stealth South American boats fourth generation types Seawolf and Virginia.
Armed and very unsafe
Overwater normal displacement PLA project «Ash» estimated figures from various sources from 8600 to 9500 m, the length of about 120 m, width 15 m, draft 10 m All other details are even more indicative.
Instead of arming understood almost everything. Since «Severodvinsk» connects voedinyzhdy inside elements SSGN, multipurpose and anti-PLA, it carries extremely powerful set of weapons that can actually solve puzzles struggle with what even modern surface ships and submarines. In sturdy hull are eight universal vertical launchers (CPG), each of which includes three mines (of 24) for the start of the transport and launch container cruise missiles for various purposes. It is believed that the main instrument located in these CPG, will be the new supersonic anti-ship missiles 3M55 «Onyx» (better known under the pseudonym «Yakhont») development NGOs Engineering with firing range of 120 km on low-altitude profile of up to 350 km during the flight of the rocket at an altitude 18 km. Range launch these missiles less than the famous «granite», which are armed with huge SSGN Project 949A, but size and even smaller, and the lowest firing range «Onyx» makes «Severodvinsk» less dependent on external targeting (aircraft or of cosmic), allowing by its own secretive quietness close with the enemy and make rocket salvo from its own targeting on its own massive sonar system. Volley same 24 supersonic anti-ship missiles is a severe hazard even for American aircraft carrier connections with their advanced air defense system.
In addition, CPG and torpedo tubes allow the use of the South American and Russian counterparts Tomahawk — cruise missiles, made in Yekaterinburg NGOs «Innovator»: strategic 3M10 «Granat» with a nuclear warhead (with a range up to 3000 km) and operational-tactical 3M14 «Movement «with ordinary (with a range of more than 500 km), giving the boat project 885 opportunity to apply massive precision strikes against ground targets. Through torpedo tubes can be used, and other «novatorovskie» missiles — supersonic anti-3M54 «Turquoise» and antisubmarine 91R also lay mines. As expected, in contrast to the Russian boats are filled with lots of different types of torpedoes, 885 on the project will apply a single type of promising 533-mm torpedo known currently open symbol UGST (universal deep homing torpedo), created to engage both surface and underwater targets and combined curb guidance system — as a by-wire and passive and active acoustic homing, homing and swirl on enemy ships.
For self-defense «Severodvinsk» will be installed a special device for shooting various traps and diverting, too, can be — active anti-torpedo defense system capable of engaging the enemy torpedo special compact antitorpedami.
While severe «Ash» Project 885 is on the stocks, but has already earned the highest ratings as the best in Russia and abroad. In his own book just published «Cold War Submarines» Leading South American naval analyst Norman Polmar so concludes the chapter on recent projects submarines USA and the USSR: «Plenty of evidence in favor of the Russian submarines fourth generation have gained level equal or superior in quality to most level of their American competitors. «