Cannon in 2100?

Weapons in 2100?Until now, the discussion does not stop sensational announcements about plans Russian Ministry of Defence. The fact is that not so long ago, at a meeting of the Government of the Minister of Defense Anatoly Serdyukov misspoke about the design of some utilities that provides for the development of tools for the "new physical principles." Official further comment was forthcoming, but the news has become a popular destination and discussed. Naturally, any new technology is always entice attention, besides the same "new physical principles" of the efforts of some people became negligent term for the disastrous pseudo-scientific advance hare-brained schemes. Yet, none of the armies of the world would not refuse from a fundamentally new weapons systems that exceed or supplement available. Because in almost all countries have long come work in such areas are just a couple of years back were considered the lot of science fiction.

Serdyukov read about the development of a number of fundamentally new tool, "beam, geophysical, wave, genetic, psychophysical and so on." It all looks pretty mind-blowing. But often this fantastic day or tomorrow is commonplace. Let's try to discern and analyze the principles, prospects and challenges of naming weapons above long term.

The ray gun

This category may include a wide range of funds liquidation. Namely, the beam can be considered an instrument, even a mirror of Archimedes, which according to legend, he repelled the attack of the Roman fleet. As a more modern representatives of this class, you can recall the lasers and directed microwave emitters. Both of these technologies are widely used in industry and everyday life, but to date the introduction of martial case has not yet reached. The number of experienced military laser systems can be counted on the fingers of one hand (Russian "Sanguine", "Compression", the A-60 aircraft and South American type system of YAL), a microwave, and even less. But both areas are not heavily used as the primary means of striking. For example, lasers are used for guidance of guided munitions, and microwave radiation — in the detection systems. At the same time, all this is "adjuvants."

Yet, lasers and microwave radiators can be used as the striking means. Their main advantage lies in the extreme simplicity of the guidance: radiation is deflected like a bullet and can "beat" a greater distance. With this beam weapon requires little more than common guidance system, and in addition, there is a possibility of transfer targets huge energy than when using conventional kinetic weapons. But each is a plus minus. The main problem of all emitters that could be put into service, is in the diet. Light or microwave transmitter consumes so much energy that it has to allocate a special generators. It is unlikely that it will please potential users. In addition, at least some of the radiation can escape. From radio waves protects notorious Faraday cell, and protection from lasers have long known — smoke screens and massive spotlight respective emission spectrum. It turns out that the creation of the highest costs of fighting the emitters can "compensate" the enemy even a cheap way. Because the battlefield until such technology is nothing to do, as well as in the budgets for the purchase of weapons. But in a study of this trend is to invest, because the study of light or microwaves will have non-military "dividends".

The geophysical instrument

Another vundervaffe today. From time to time there are reports on its development and even application. But in fact it turns out they are all rumors. Moreover, today there is no reliable information regarding at least research in this area. On the one hand, it may be a secret, but on the other, the apparent lack of enthusiasm for the little promise. But the dictionary definition for geophysical instruments has long been there. It is the means by which a person can act on inanimate nature such makarom that will begin on the target areas of natural disasters. From this we can deduce some semblance of systematization and share geophysical tool for lithospheric, hydrosphere, atmosphere and climate.

Evidence of the existence of systems that can influence the geophysical state of the planet and cause a catastrophe not, that still does not prevent some citizens say the turnaround. So, for example, is often said that the South American station ionospheric HAARP (available in Alaska) is essentially a means of influence on the atmosphere and natural phenomena. In this theory komplota also portrayed in the statement that the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 or the heat wave in Russia of 2010, there were exactly the fault of the complex HAARP. Conclusive evidence or rebuttal of this, of course, not. Curiously, the rumors about the application of HAARP as geophysical instruments vserasprostraneny most of the post-Soviet space. In turn, the United States and Canada say similar things about the Russian complex "Sura", located in the Voronezh region.

Of course, at the theoretical level, the person can arbitrarily to influence the course of certain processes in the atmosphere or hydrosphere. In practice, it will claim higher energies, which have the world's population yet. So, while the complexes HAARP and "Sura" in the sky can be created the aurora borealis. But after the cessation of radiation, it is quite rapidly lost. To effect a long conservation, as well as suitable for transmission of energy through the atmosphere, required thicker transmitters and generators. The same is true with other subspecies of geophysical instruments.

There is, however, another method of creation of geophysical (hydrosphere or lithosphere) tools. On the face of it is simple: in a suitable point on the bottom of the ocean or the Earth's crust is installed nuclear or nuclear warhead respective capacities. The point of the installation is to be found in such a way, that the undermining of ammunition has led to a high-powered tsunami or earthquake. Such projects have long been boggling the minds of scientists, military and politicians. Still, one press of a button and the enemy has a much more fundamental problem, if the war with your country. Well, an earthquake on the background of your confrontation will only look just a fluke. Hot head stops the practical implementation of the idea. Find points of bookmarks nukes deal not fast and complex, besides accurately calculate the consequences to this day does not seem likely and the effect of the explosion can not live up to expectations and did not recoup the costs of the project. The usual sprinkling of enemy terrain atomic bombs would be much easier and cheaper.

Gene gun

This category of "weapons of the future" involves the attack of the enemy is not, but its genome. In most cases, damage the genetic code serves the enemy with the help of specially bred in the laboratory criteria for viruses or bacteria, in some measure gene in common with a biological weapon. Step gene guns is that the gene commanders enemy fighter or introduced nucleotide sequence is specifically made, leading to incorrect functioning of the body. Namely, in a similar way in theory can cause a severe violation of human health or even complete elimination of its failure.

Despite the apparent effectiveness, the gene gun maloprimenimo against the armies in the real criteria. The main snag lies in how specifically the human body is "working" with the genetic information. So, for example
, the immune system looks at the behavior of cells and tries to destroy those of them whose genetic information is damaged. However, when the number of bolshennom warped body cells will not be controlled by their liquidation, as is the case with cancer. Another problem of the gene gun is related to its performance. Even with the successful implementation of the human genome artificially made disk imaging, it may not have any effect on his body and "float" only in later generations. For the implementation of the military such funds are not suitable for many, but perhaps would be useful in long-term "clearing" areas. Personal case of this option gene gun can be considered a so-called ethnic gene gun. It's no secret that the representatives of different nationalities there are differences in the Crown disk imaging, and it is with a certain approach can allow pathogens to affecting only the carriers of certain parts of the genome. And this version of the gene gun is a high-speed, and in addition, because of the transfer agents being introduced disk imaging (viruses or bacteria), it can be considered a kind of bio-weapon that has long prohibited.

We often hear that the genetic modification of organisms used in the food industry, is also designed as a gene gun. But this version is simply refuted by simple knowledge of biology. For example, for human digestion has no difference what particular nucleotide sequence is hidden in the nuclei of cells eat plants. Gastric juice will break all non-hazardous substances in food (with proper food manufacturers) chemical "soup". Also, do not forget the fact that the introduction of modified DNA into the cell uses special techniques that unreal play in the criteria of the ordinary cuisine, and even more so in the stomach and intestinal tract. So Makar, the only method of use of GMOs in food that can lay claim to the proud title of guns, is to move the plant species that produce toxins unsafe for humans. Only such plants covered by the Convention on Chemical and Toxin Weapons Convention. Well, hardly any country to allow its own food market is obviously a terrible product — now with the use of GMO food is paid so much attention to what to put something dangerous will be very, very hard, if at all, can be.

Psychophysical tool

To denote this category often uses the term "psychotropic weapons," but in general, both names are correct prototype. The essence of such systems of the ordinary: some machine by a certain impact on the human brain is deliberately induced reaction. This can be a pleasure or euphoria, and may panic. In most cases, the psychophysical tool exists in komplota theories and science fiction. As for the real world, it researches in this direction are, though without much of success. Perhaps the reason for this is the need for non-contact human exposure. This version says that in the field of psychotropic substances where there are great services than in the field of devices for influencing the psyche.

Argues that psychotronic systems allow destabilize the behavior of the enemy and even control them. But the unfortunate Helmholtz resonator while still a mockery of conspiracy theorists. Need to see, at the moment all the same there are systems that can be a stretch to call the psycho-physical instrument. The fact that the installation of LRAD (Long Range Acoustic Device — a long-range acoustic device) is still more physical, if psycho-gun. The essence of his actions is a focused radiation of sound high volume. Fell under the direct impact of LRAD person begins to experience painful feelings from the volume (physical action), and outside the beam-steering required to sustain a very nasty squeak (psychological impact). Noteworthy that soon after the first reports of LRAD appeared some no countermeasures against this setup. Ordinary hearing protection significantly lower noise levels, and iron sheet of sufficient size can reflect sound waves and bring them to the plant operator.

LRAD's candidacy may be infrasonic radiators. When correctly matched the frequency of the signal, they can cause the enemy feeling pain all over the body or even panic. Similar systems have also been developed in different countries, but the practical application or even an experimental prototype device ready military mission did not understand. Maybe potential customers prefer a more ordinary psycho-physiological weapons and conventional solutions.

Other kinetic weapon

At the current time the main means of throwing ammunition designed to hit a target with the help of the self-energy are different powder. Do they have a fundamentally flaws: limited heat of combustion and the release of energy as compared to the rigor sturdy trunk that will stand the explosive release of energy powder. Difficulties with the barrel is not the first decades solved using recoilless guns, but to preserve the kinetic features of projectile weapon it asks for significant growth in the powder charge. We can only hardens the barrels of the guns and guns. As a solution prepyadstviya increasing energy propellant include the so-called pneumoelectric ammunition. They instead of gunpowder burns specially selected metal, flammable elektrozapalom. The combustion heats inert gas (also located inside pocket), and it expands and pushes the bullet or projectile. At the theoretical level, such type of ammunition can at times make the best properties of firearms. But he has such a bad practical perspectives that today pneumoelectric ammo is not even in the form of laboratory samples.

But some other method of starting a bullet / projectile is not only, and intense fire. Since the mid 90s in the United States are working on rail guns (also used the term "railgun"). They do not need a trunk or powder. The principle is simple acts such tools: metal iron object is placed on the two rails. Their electricity is supplied, which appeared under the influence of the Lorentz force accelerates the projectile along the rails and takes off in the direction of the target. A similar design can achieve more great flight speeds and distances than the powder. But still it is not a panacea — for rail gun requires a huge amount of electricity, which makes it not quite a good option for substitution of firearms. Yet, by the end of the decade the Pentagon plans to spend the first test firing of the railgun mounted on the ship. As they say, wait and see.

The candidacy of rail guns — Gauss cannon. It also runs on electricity and has a pretty notable characteristics. Its principle of operation is different from the railgun: accelerating the projectile occurs by successive inclusion of several solenoids located around the barrel. Under the influence of the magnetic field accelerates the projectile and flies into the goal. Gauss, too, are in some measure cute for the military, but they have a severe drawback. Who failed to make such a standard installation, the efficiency of which would exceed 8-10%. This means that less than one tenth of the energy transferred to the battery or generator shell. Name the device with such features energy efficient simply not bring.

Information tool

Perhaps the most common and effective for today "weapon of the future." Information tool can be divided into several categories, depending on the nature of its implementation. So, the computer tool, specifically a special software (software) designed to disrupt the enemy's computer systems, in modern conditions, of course, would be an effective diversion. This can be specially written viruses being introduced through the "hole" in the uses software or a so-called bookmarks. In the latter case, the malicious software is initially in a reasoned and just waiting for your own hours, when he hear the order to begin work. Of course, the introduction of malware in the system opponent is challenging, but it's worth it. For example, disabling or disruption of communications and inf
ormation processing air defense forces are able to make the country vulnerable in the truest sense of the word. Such big sabotage attack as military systems has not been, but a couple of years back the cyber attack were Iranian facilities. Then the virus Stuxnet drank a lot of blood system admins Iran. There is information that specifically "Stuxnet" has led to delays in the process of uranium enrichment.

From the concept of cyber attacks follow the requirements of the defense in the computer field. The most ordinary at first glance, anti-virus program then becomes the most realistic means of civilian defense. Needless to protect sensitive objects need to be more severe software. In addition, to reduce the likelihood of attacks requires the introduction of special assemblies operating systems. The fact that the virus is written for the introduction of a variant OSes may not work at all or not work properly in another. If extort money with a program-blockers "Internet terrorists" this is not a severe discrepancy (they called it, take the number), then clear attack specific data center needs special programs from bad.

But information tool can be used not only against enemy computers. So you can recognize an old and good propaganda. Already at this point it is clear that this is a means of suggestion right mind not a bit out of date, and even gaining more weight. It is believed that the main help the promotion has had a wide distribution network to access the Web.

Matter of choice

We do not understand what specific kinds of "alternative weapons" Russian science will develop in the future. As we see, all of the above systems and methods have both advantages and disadvantages. Some types of alternative instruments are fundamentally likely to modern standards, and some in the distant future will be a pure fiction. Despite the fact that the term "new physical principles" has long since been specific scientific jokes about really new technology should not be forgotten. But in the development of revolutionary new thinking there is one severe the problem: how to get some direction is pretty well known (for example, nanotechnology in recent years), immediately there are many suspicious characters who did that to get a star from the sky do not promise, just give them the tools . So it was before, so it is at the moment and so is likely to be in the future. Because the design and development of new technologies should be given special attention rassredotachivaniyu funds for research, so they do not fall into the hands of pseudoscientific. And do not be conducted in the sky-high promises. In this case, our grandchildren and great-grandchildren will behold it is self-contained tanks with artificial intelligence and a rail gun, a fighter in the exoskeleton and carrying automatic Gauss also invisible in all ranges of light aircraft.

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