For some reason, many believe that the sub-machine gun weapon relatively young and it came after the received spread automatic rifles and automatic rifles, but it is not entirely correspond to reality. In fact the first submachine gun appeared before the machine in the modern understanding of the word, because at that time, even the term itself was not, but there were machine guns. The most exciting moment is that the first concrete sub-machine guns and had to take the place of modern machines, and in some cases it was, but because of the low effective distance did not work out. Nevertheless, this tool is missing, and it took its place, becoming the perfect option for shooting in the city and inside buildings, where the introduction of distance is very rarely exceed 150 meters.
One of the little-known Russian-designed submachine guns is a PPT. This tool changed a couple of times its own appearance, changed the cartridge and it even had a chance to take part in the second World War, but in mass creation submachine gun Tokarev held off. Try to understand what it was for the weapon, as it differs from the modern samples, and why he had not managed to get widespread distribution.
Submachine gun BSA is the brainchild of Fyodor Tokarev, he worked on it together with the development of the infamous rifle SVT-40. Gunsmith named Sam standard a light carbine, because the term submachine gun at the time just was not there. Brightly that even at this point in the discussion of this standard, many insist that this model guns can not be called a submachine gun in view of the fact that it used cartridges 7.62 vtochnosti almost the same as in the Nagant revolvers. The only difference between the rounds was that the neck of the sleeve is crimped in addition, for more reliable feeding of rounds. Of course you can argue on this issue at least until blue in the face, but it's not a revolver gun call gun just because it uses no pistol cartridges. In general, the appearance of the PPT is really more like a carbine, if at gun-machine gun in the modern view, but here the reason is first gun at the age of, well, the least labor-intensive in production also plays a big role.
Quite unusual for PP appearance provided wood bed and the top plate, which was held lozhevyh ring. A fascinating feature was the fact that the gun shop was located in the overlay tree, in the which were sawn depression for more comfortable holding the gun. Fed submachine gun detachable magazine with a capacity of 21 cartridge. Sights were also not quite mundane. So to fire up to 100 meters were used with fixed front sight and rear sight, in addition to shooting at a distance of 100 m and 150 m were reclining diopter rear sight. Automatic slide stop submachine gun had not it was used instead of the manual lock bolt, which the shooter manually fixed the gate in the last posterior position as needed recharging, the following received the gun and automatic slide stop on all cartridges are fired from the store.
Another feature of the sub-machine gun PPT was quite the highest rate of fire of 1,000 rounds per minute, with all this, it should be noted that at a distance of 200 meters a bullet punched in flight pine boards 3 inches wide and set an inch apart. On this basis, we can talk about the fact that, in spite of not the highest stopping action revolver bullets, thanks to the high rate of fire machine pistol Tokarev had a thoroughly good performance, even when shooting at protected targets that, in principle at the time it was not so burning.
In 1927, during ground tests of the standard weapon was presented and rival gun machine gun. They became the German PP MR-18, under cartridge 9×19. When comparing the two models were manufactured guns for some reason completely incorrect conclusions about the effectiveness. So MR-18 has received a greater advantage for having used a more effective munition which had a tremendous stopping power. But this advantage was only when shooting single, burst shooting at this German submachine gun lost in efficiency, because the rate of fire was two times lower. Naturally, such a comparison can be quite a long time to argue, but I would like to remind you that we do not refer 7,62 x25, and about 7.62 X38, so in this case, in my view, a greater rate of fire all the same offsets the smallest stopping action .
During the test, the two sub-machine gun were very different, "bullying", including pollution devices and instruments and the introduction of defective ammunition, to verify the reliability and simplicity of PP eliminate delays. Catchy that all Russian gun-gun stand as "excellent", but, unfortunately, still had delays that were associated only with utykaniem rounds feeding, with all this ammunition was completely normal. On average, accounted for a delay at every store that was naturally unacceptable. Total produced more than 1100 shots that BSA stand without changing its own features and no signs of wear. It is fair to say that the German gun was not flawless. Though he was absent and the problem with the supply of ammo, but automation has proved quite susceptible to contamination. Yet, as noted above, reference zabugorny attracted more because the ammunition used.
By mid-1928 it was ordered 10 units of machine pistols Tokarev, of which only 5 were produced. The reason for stopping the production of prototypes is that the Artillery Committee, recalled the 7.63 Mauser cartridges, and under which it was proposed to adapt the instrument to unify. 5 models made submachine guns were different barrel length and design the box, for the first time in PP was implemented fold-butt, was also the option of a removable wood butt, which once served as a holster for the gun. It must also be noted that the first time been realized pistol handle in this class implements. It is also exciting moment was that in versions with removable butt, butt located inside of the spare magazine for BSA. In other
words, this sub-machine gun had a lot of fun features that strike the eye just a cursory examination of guns, but the most interesting in this model submachine gun was inside.
It's hard not to see that the machine pistol Tokarev has two trigger mounted one by one. The fact that the gun did not have the switch fire mode, this feature was implemented with 2 trigger. First trigger, located close to the shooter, was responsible for single shots, the second is controlled automatic fire. It is also a fascinating feature of this sub-machine gun had a pen gate, which was performed by a similar rifle that was somewhat embarrassing for the submachine gun. In general, the following options were and with little hands, calculated by one or two fingers. Gun barrel is fixed motionless, automation is built on the simple scheme with a free gate.
Not quite deliberate decision by the substitution of ammunition guns had both positive and negative effects. First, managed to get rid of problems with utykaniem cartridge in the breech of the weapon. But at the same time and fell fighting properties guns, making the subsequent development of a future. Specifically, this was the premise of failure in the upcoming trial and adoption of a sub-machine gun Tokarev, in addition there was a more promising model Degtyareva because the development Tokarev rapidly forgotten. Yet, the gunsmith did not give up their own sub-machine gun underdeveloped and continued his improvement. So he returned again to the "naganovskomu" patron and began working on the presentation of ammunition when shooting. Significantly improved the reliability guns, but never bringing it to perfection, Tokarev also continued to experiment and build, for example, the standards were, in any store was located not vertically, but horizontally. In general, all the samples were brought to the standard of its own sub-machine gun were not crowned with success, all were released on various data from 300 to 600 guns, most of which were seasoned standards, including those under the "Mauzerovskogo" cartridges, in other words You can almost talk about the various 2-PP, the properties of which differ radically.
But the fact that sub-machine gun Tokarev was experienced and did not go in the series, did not mean that it was not applicable to the use. Since the beginning of the second world war because of the lack of tools, even this small amount of submachine guns went into action. So the fact of the introduction of the most famous submachine guns Tokarev is its implementation on the Kalinin Front in 1942. Of course it was not a reward guns, but simply a measure of compulsory weapons at least something to shoot. In general, if you tilt the problem with utykaniem ammunition feeding, the instrument itself has proved quite accurate and efficient, but it overlaps the low reliability.
You can not say that the sub-machine gun Tokarev could be the substitution of conventional models for the cartridges of 7.62 cm, 25, both of ammunition in their own way are not applicable for use in PP, one because of the design, the other because of the extra energy that was in principle not necessary with a small spread of personal funds body armor, and small-stopping action. All the same vain in their time, attention was drawn to 9×19 ammunition, because based on them could be made more effective ammunition for pistols and submachine guns for. Yet, the state that Tokarev izderzhal time and money to develop their own sub-machine gun can not be in vain. In this sub-machine guns were sold quite a lot of fun making, albeit not as fundamental as it seems at first glance that the following have been used in other more recent models of the PP. Swing-by-side in the butt, slide catch a sub-machine guns (which in almost all modern models do not), the supply of ammunition, the holes in the store to control the number of rounds — all for the Russian guns were innovative. Of course, almost all of the above you can meet in zabugornyh of early models even more, but specifically for the Russian guns it was an innovation. There were those innovations that have proven quite useful, but did not spread. For example, iron sights submachine gun Tokarev were very comfortable to use and not once been enticed to get feedback.
Summarizing all the above, one should see that in the discussion of this sub-machine gun all the same and should make allowances for age tools and the fact that it was one of the first Russian PP, which have paid any attention to, well, 1 — first pancake as usual is not the best. In general, in my modest gaze Tokarev basic mistake was choosing the wrong ammunition, on the basis of which was created by BSA. All the same, no matter how amazing martial traits tool did not have, they can never be put above the safety and reliability tools.