In the summer of 1991, the taxpayer is the first time I saw the experimental prototype aircraft Il-102 ("ECO"). Stormtrooper very much like IL-40, launched in the middle of a batch creation of the 1950s, but did not enter into a great life. Flight tests of IL-40 were successfully completed in January 1955, and began its implementation in a series on the Rostov Aviation Plant. But in 1956, all work was stopped because of the decision to abolish the attack aircraft. Almost 5 Tuning-Test series aircraft in autumn 1956 were scrapped.
In the late 1960s in aviation publications flashed again seemed forgotten word attack. Experience in the operation and implementation of combat fighter-bomber showed that they are not able to change over the battlefield armored flying tanks. Apparently, the first in the Soviet Union began to develop jet attack plane in the Sukhoi Design Bureau. Right behind him in an unspoken competition to build the plane of the battlefield kerf staff Ilyushin Design Bureau.
The idea of armored attack in the Ilyushin Design Bureau headed back to the late 1960's, when in accordance with the requirements of the Air Force, based on the experience of Vietnam and the Middle East conflicts, re interested assault aircraft, was a project of the IL-42, which is a deep modernization of the Il-40. Attack aircraft be equipped with 2 THD AM-5F (2h3250 kgs). His usual take-off weight is 16,480 kg, maximum takeoff weight — 17470 kg, empty weight 12,190 kg of fuel — 4170 kg, armor — 700 kg, maximum bomb load — 1400 kg. According to the calculations attack was due to a speed 997 km / h, to have a service ceiling of 11,600 meters and a practical range of 1,115 km.
The competition projects stormtroopers held in June 1969, attended, as well OKB AS Yakovlev Yak-submit the draft 25LSH, AI Mikoyan (MiG-21LSH) and PO Dry (T8). As a result, the competition "were" T8 and MiG-21LSH, and work on the Yak-25LSH and IL-42, it was decided to finish.
But the development of a "ilyushinskogo" double attack aircraft was still continued under the GV Novozhilova in an active manner. Compared with IL-42 new aircraft, designated IL-102, had a modified form of the forward fuselage with an improved overview of forward and down, new, more massive engines, significantly more powerful weapons.
The most basic difference between the IL-102 from the Su-25 was the second cabin for the shooter. Apparently, this is not a good event played a role in the very fate of the machine. Assembling the Il-102 was not different from IL-40, but it was absolutely brand new car, so to speak, in "retro" style. In the 30 years that lie between them, it is almost everything has changed in the aircraft industry. There are more economical turbo-jet, new construction materials and processes. And read about the equipment and do not have to. It turned out not only the reduction of its weight, and the expansion of tasks. Refresh the rescue of the crew. Universal ejection seats to a pilot-36L-36L and K-102 in air gunner now firmly come to the rescue in the whole range of speeds and altitudes, and during parking.
A cursory examination of the IL-102 can be found that the design has changed the main landing gear, retractable in fairings under the wings, turning against the flow. Order to make room for additional external hardpoints guns. Brand new aerodynamic wing assembly is allowed to turn away from the ridges on its surface. Without going into the details of the technical description, we note that only the introduction of turbojet engine RD-33I with the increased thrust by 60% led to an increase in the take-off weight of up to 22,000 kg and a payload up to 7,200 kg.
Increased size and mass of the aircraft required a departure from the classical "ilyushinskoy" scheme reservations: designers abandoned single hulls, which includes the main important principle of the aircraft (as it was produced by IL-2, IL-10 and IL-40). Armor, it was decided to protect the cabin crew, also, in part, engines and fuel supply system. Fuel tanks deprived reservations, concentrating them in the central part of the fuselage. Before and behind them screened cockpit and defensive rifle, with side — the engines, and bottom — a gun. Combat aircraft survivability has been improved through the introduction of sponge filling tanks. Sludge-102, as former Russian "traditional" storm troopers got defensive cannon fodder plant. It was assumed that the use of IR-traps and active interference, coupled with high maneuverability attack aircraft, and a pair of eyes gunner, intently watching the rear hemisphere, and alerts the pilot in time of danger, will allow to reduce the effectiveness of enemy missiles. As a result, the enemy fighter will be required to use the cannon armament and he falls under the rapid-fire GS-23L.
"Offensive" cannons, as well as the IL-40, it was decided to perform a moving 30-mm gun could be mounted in the 2-position — horizontal for shooting forward, and at an angle to the horizontal.
Work on programmke IL-102 were quite sluggish: shortage of funds and suffered from "semi-legal" status of the aircraft. Office of the Ministry of Defence opposed ilyushinskogo stormtrooper, considering its creation more than spray forces in the presence of a much more "advanced" programs from T8 (Su-25). But by the beginning of 1982 the construction of the most experienced Il-102 still ended. January 20th Air Force Commander of the car looked PS Kutakhov, in general, supported the work on the aircraft. Favourable attitude to the IL-102 and IS Minister of Aviation Industry Power. But the position of Defense still remained negative. Moreover, the defense minister, DF Ustinov categorically forbade GV Novozhilov "engage in independent action." But the bureau still continued to work on the aircraft. For the "conspiracy" he was given nothing're not saying the title of ECO-1 (Experimental aircraft-1), and flight tests it was decided to carry out in the most "partisan" places — in Belarus. The first flight of the Il-102 was held September 25, 1982. The car was piloted by Chief Pilot bureau, honored test pilot SG Blyznyuk.
In 1984 he 1982. was performed in general difficulties 250 flights during which happened no severe damage or failure onboard systems. Demonstrated the highest attack aircraft maneuverability, small bend radius was only 400m.
In 1984, the aircraft flew over the airfield LII MAP (Zhukovsky), where he was put on the conservation of the hangar OKB. Ilyushin. By that time it was deployed full-scale establishment of Su-25, before which the IL-102 did not have much, or severe advantages besides having a very controversial tactically defensive small arms. In 1986, the program from again tried to "revive" but had already changed the political situation in the country, embarked on a reduction in funding "defense."
; In addition, it was decided fundamentally the decision to withdraw Russian troops from Afghanistan. These criteria IL-102 completely lost all sense of perspective. His "farewell bow" was the Capital Air Show 1992, where IL-102 kutsee time to become a "star", then just faded into oblivion.
IL-102 is the regular scheme with low wind-swept wing. Airframe has supreme adaptability. 80% of a single sheet formed by plating curvature vozduhopoglotiteli have a circular section.
Fuselage — semi-monocoque. At its center are the pressurized cockpit and the pilot onboard arrow, which are placed between the fuel tanks. Along the edges of the rear fuselage aerodynamic brakes are two relatively small area. Canopies and pilot needle formed by flat bulletproof. Swept two-spar wing has a relatively thick profile, which allowed him to arrange for gruzootsekah bomb armament. The wing is equipped with a flap, it takes about 2/3 scale. The upper wing surface has two sections spoilers. The cab has ejection seats K-36L, providing bailout plane at zero speed and altitude. Crew escape system is a new synchronous bailout sided act: the pilot, catapulting itself, automatically catapults and arrow that, but can not catapult the pilot. Aircraft to equip with two-wheeled tricycle landing gear main pillars, equipped with low-pressure tires, allowing you to operate from unpaved airfields attack. Nose strut taken out far ahead and removed in fuselage turn back (similar assembly provides good throughput, but occupies a volume of the forward fuselage, where the other aircraft radar is usually located either optical-electronic equipment). The main pillar removed in special wing nacelle rotation forward. In the exploded view of the IL-102 may be transported on 2-standard railway platforms or in the fuselage of the IL-76. Ace plane did not have a full set of equipment. In the upcoming supposed attack aircraft equipped with modern optoelectronic systems. In the downward bent wingtip mounted antenna for signal intelligence "Birch-L".
IL-102 to equip with 2 turbofan I-88 (2h5380 kgs), made in the bureau Izotov and non besforsazhny version of the RD-33 engine.
On the ventral rocking carriage, fixed in 2-positions, set 30-mm twin-barrel cannon 9A-4071K machine gun with 500 rounds. Installation is simple, within a few minutes, can be dismantled in terminal criteria. Liberated vnutrifyuzelyazhnyh volume used for the suspension of bombing armament or install additional fuel tank. In the rear part of the fuselage is a turret with two-receiver 23-mm gun GSH-23L. Its ammunition boxes are placed in front of the tail section of the fuselage, at a distance of about 3 m from the gun. This decision resulted in a modest increment ammunition and move it closer to the center of gravity of the aircraft. Submission of shells for the gun is a means of a special mechanism elektropodtyaga tape which is applied to the moving of the gun through the through the vertical axis of the lower hinge.
Maximum weight of the bomb load of IL-102 — 7200 kg. Each wing has three gruzootsekah able to accommodate a bomb caliber up to 250 kg. The total combat load on the inner pylons (posledemontazha ventral gun) can be up to 2300 kg. There are eight sites outside of suspension (6 under the wings and two under the fuselage). All combat load rises on the board with integrated electric winches. In the downward bent wingtip mounted units release IR-traps and chaff "Auto-F". Missiles includes SD air-to-surface S-25L semi-active laser-guided missile air-to-air R-60M and R-73 rockets of various types.
Before the Su-25 has the following advantages — most 1.5 times the max weapons load some more speed, more range acts. According to maneuver the rules of the take-off mass does not yield, tons of it stronger engines, and wing loading is less.
Before the A-10 — a much greater speed, much greater thrust, with a comparable load on the wing and within the act, hence far the best field surgery and maneuverability.
In addition, at the beginning of the Su-25 and A-10 are designed as single rooms. But modern opto-electronic system requires the operator, 2 members of the crew, which the IL-102 was from the very beginning. 2 local version of the Su-25 and A-10 have natures worst TTD in comparison with the base.
The performance characteristics of aircraft:
Wingspan — 16.9 m
Overall length — 22.0 m
Overall height — 5.08 m
Wing Area — 63.5 m
— Empty — 13000
— normal take-off — 18000
— maximum takeoff weight — 22000
— internal — 4000 kg
— in PTB — 2 x 800 l
Motor Type — 2 DTRD RD-33I
Rod unforced — 2 x 5500 kg
The highest speed — 1100 km / h
Cruising speed — 950 km / h
Operational range — 3000 km
Combat radius acts — 400-500 km
Service ceiling — 9600 m
Crew — 2 people
Armament: 1 swing in the vertical plane of the twin 30-mm gun 9A-4071K (500 rounds, 1500 rounds / min), 2 x 23-mm GSH-2-23 in the mobile unit in the tail (60 shells, 2400-3200 rounds / min). The combat load — 7250 kg at 16 hardpoints (including 6 bays in the wing for bombs up to 250 kg). SD "air" R-60M, R-73, UR "air-land" X-23, X-25, X-29, X-58. HURSy of all sizes, all kinds of bombs, including correctable, up to 500 kg, gun pods (VAR-23-250, SPPU-1-23).
"Military Aviation", Media 2000
Aviation Internet encyclopedia "Corner of the Sky"
Wings of Motherland. Nikolay Yakubovich. The return of "Strongman"
Mikhail Zhukov. Illustrated catalog of the aviation world. IL-102
Wings of Motherland. Vyacheslav Kondratyev. Il-102: Who is against?
Wings of Motherland. Mike Levine. The new "humped"
Aircraft and missile technology. Il-102 and Su-25TK
Vladimir Ilyin. Attack aircraft and fighter-bombers
Roman Astakhov. Russian Power. Il-102