During this period of time on the Marshall Islands was directed several 10-s expedition of scientists and activists, members of non-governmental environmental organizations and human rights defenders. Took part in the study prepyadstviya and UN officials. Compilation of the conclusions and advice after a number of days will be presented to the Human Rights Headquarters of the United Nations in Geneva, a special rapporteur Kalin Gergesku.
As you know, the first atomic bomb Americans experienced in the atmosphere 16 July 1945 — on its location, near the city of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Then — for the inhabitants of the Land of the Rising Sun: nuclear apocalypse of Hiroshima and Nagasaki celebrated every year from August 1945. After that, the U.S. government decided to test a new weapon away from their area. The choice fell on the deserted, lost in the Pacific Marshall Islands, which immediately after the second world war were under the control of the UN, and after the bombings in 1946 on the peninsula Bikini 2-US nuclear bombs custody of them was transferred to the United States. Snow-white house took on the tough commitment: "to protect the inhabitants of the islands from the loss of their lands and resources" and "protect the health of the inhabitants of a ward area."
Exactly how to "protect" Americans under their people and their land was declassified in the course of 1994, and not long ago the official documents. It turned out that this "guardianship" draws on an international court. "Between 1946 and 1948 — told me the creator of the book" The danger of nuclear war: report atoll Rongelep "anthropologist Barbara Johnston — the United States experienced a 66 nuclear bombs on or near the atolls of Bikini and Enivitok, atomiziruya island from the inside, and as evidenced by the declassified documents , affecting the local population. "
The total explosive power of the Marshall Islands was 93 times higher than all U.S. atmospheric nuclear tests in the Nevada desert. It is equivalent to more than 7,000 bombs dropped by the U.S. on Hiroshima, Japan.
In March 1954, at Bikini was conducted secret test codenamed "Bravo" and the results stunned even the military. Peninsula was virtually destroyed by a hydrogen bomb, which is a thousand times larger than the power of the Hiroshima. "The other day of the test — says journalists environmental activists Jane Goodall and Rick Esselta, — weather conditions have deteriorated, and the day that was conducted test, the wind was blowing directly on the South American warships and a few inhabited islands, including Rongilep and Utrik. But, no matter what direction the wind is a danger to the people living on the islands, bomb was blown up. Large clouds of sand, snow-white ash settled on several atolls, amazing people, including a small number of the Yankees being there. "
In general, according to declassified materials from the United States, as a result of nuclear tests in the atmosphere over the Marshall Islands was released about 6.3 billion curies of radioactive iodine-131. This is 42 times more than the 150 million curies released as a result of tests in Nevada, and 150 times than the 40 million curies of the tragedy at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. (According to professionals, the emissions at the Japanese nuclear power plant "Fukushima" is currently range from 2.4 to 24 million curies, and all of them are still in the process.)
But, as the documents show, because of the hidden nuclear weapons tests affected not only the local population. The term "distribution" Bravo near the island in 1954, and also got a Japanese fishing boat Daigo Fukuryu Maru ("Lucky Dragon"). All 23 crew members were strong irradiation. One of them, Kuboyama Aykishi, died a few weeks later. (Amerikosy also convey to the land of the rising sun for healing damaged by exposure crew medication.) At the same time the inhabitants of the islands were not warned about the testing, they were not taken at least at this time in the non-hazardous location. They are, without knowing it, have experienced almost lethal effects of nuclear explosions on human health.
As the Barbara Johnston, unsuspecting natives irradiated with Rongelep island were moved out after the tests and have been targets for the Yankees' top-secret research on the effects of radiation on human health (the "Project 4.1"). Already been ascertained and documented effects of ionizing radiation in the human body, but no cure, these people have not got. Also not been made public at the time and the results of the movement and accumulation of radionuclides in the marine and terrestrial environments Rongelepa and other northern atolls.
In 1957, the irradiated natives are reported not long ago submitted to the U.S. public to the documentary film "Nuclear savagery. Islands Secret Project 4.1" (creator — Adam Horovitz) were returned with great fanfare at home, where they built a new home on the affected areas. It was, say the creators of the film condemning the U.S. government, planned experience. (In the USSR, something similar happened in 1986 after the Chernobyl tragedy — then, too, with the filing of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party in the affected areas have built houses for the settlers.) South American medical scientists watched the effected population of people in the wild, so to speak, criteria derived radioactivity. Dressed with all these bureaucrats from the Ministry of Defense and the U.S. Commission on Atomic Energy.
On the island once a year landed a doctor to examine by means of X-rays, blood tests and other methods of the worsening health of the local population. Results painstakingly documented and stored in the annals of military and honey under the heading "Most Secret".
People on the islands and Rongilep Utrik received burns to the skin, their hair fell out. But then in the report of the U.S. Commission on Atomic Energy for printing has been said that several Yankees and marshalltsev "received a small dose of radiation. But burns were observed. Everything went fine." When closed, the same government report stated that as a result of fallout radionuclide tests in the framework of "Bravo" can be contaminated by 18 islands and atolls. After a couple of years in the U.S. Department of Energy report, it was noted that, in addition referred to 18 other islands also have been contaminated, with 5 of them are inhabited.
In 1955 (at the height of nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands) by a group of recognized nuclear physicists was established United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Was rising wave of protests in the United States. More than 2-thousand American scientists in 1957 were demanding the authorities to immediately suspend nuclear weapons tests. About
10 thousand researchers from more than 4 s 10 states sent a letter of protest to UN Secretary General.
But in response to the legitimate demand inhabitants of the Marshall Islands to end nuclear testing and destruction of islands England, France and Belgium have offered an agreed draft resolution, which cynically pointed out that the U.S. has the right to conduct nuclear tests in the ward areas "in the interests of world peace and security."
In general, nothing unusual. By that time England and France already being conducted its own nuclear tests, and a ban on such tests would put the U.S. machine and a cross on their own nuclear development. Because, despite the public outcry, the U.S. continued nuclear tests in the Pacific.
Russian Alliance, has experienced its own atomic bomb in August 1949, also participated in the campaign against nuclear testing in the Pacific. In 1956, the Soviet Union declared a moratorium on tests, assuming, of course, that even while numerically small nuclear countries to follow suit. But instead of to sit down at the negotiating table and decide on the termination of the test or at least a temporary moratorium on them, the United States and Britain had 30 new explosions, including the Marshall Islands. The last "nuclear mushroom "shut over them the sun in 1958.
First thyroid tumor appeared at Rongelepa inhabitants in 1963, 9 years after the trial of one of the most massive hydrogen bombs. Because nuclear testing about a thousand inhabitants of the Marshall Islands, according to the international-independent professionals who have died from cancer and other diseases. Only 1865 people have been officially recognized by the U.S. victims of the U.S. nuclear testing. They were compensated at a rate of more than $ 80 million. More than 5 thousand islanders have never received any compensation, as the South American government did not consider them victims of a nuclear attack or radioactive contamination. At this point, apparently, this injustice will be corrected.
But by the horrific consequences for man and the environment tests completely might not be. And in general, the entire global history might have gone differently, if the UN adopted the proposed Soviet Union in June 1946 (before the first nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands) "International Convention prohibiting the production and implementation of tools, based on the use of nuclear energy, the purpose of mass destruction. " But this document has remained the project. Neither the United States nor its allies were not prepared for a similar turn of events. They hurried to their other development — began unprecedented new arms race — nuclear. And there is some islands and their inhabitants (not Americans, to the same) for the emerging superpower of the authorities made no difference.
Only 5 years later, in July 1963, after exhausting negotiations with the Soviet Union the United States and Britain signed the unprecedented "contract of prohibiting nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere, gallakticheskom space and under water." According to Russian professionals placed in the "Bulletin of Atomic Energy", by this time on the planet has already been carried out about 520 nuclear tests in the atmosphere. United States and the Soviet Union undermined the more than 210 atomic and hydrogen bombs, England — 21, France — 50 China — 23. France continued testing in the atmosphere up to 1974, and China — to 1980.
Scheduled for September this year, a report on the results of the UN special research of all the events of American nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands, and their impact on the human population of the Pacific, also designed for the international court of public will, perhaps, one more step to declare nuclear weapons is the law (one such solution is internationalized court in The Hague already has), and mean — and his defeat.