11.10.11.Odna of the hottest topics of the last time — the GLONASS system. Still, this is the second, and therefore, an alternative positioning system. And this affects the prospects of the entire system, including the military.
The idea of creating its own positioning system for the Soviet Army appeared in the 60's, and flew its first satellite in 1982. In the 95th in their orbits were already 24 satellites, and the system was put into operation. But 90 years of the last century was not the best time for science in general and the defense side. At the beginning of the century to work only 6 satellites — a quarter of the required amount. And these machines were already out of date, model "Glonass" development NPO (now JSC "Information Satellite Systems" to them. Reshetnev).
All ninetieth were disputes: do we need a proper navigation system? Arguments were for and against, but in the end, in practice, predominated view contra: for some reason the funding was more than poor, and GLONASS developed very slowly and only on the ground. Work on the subject, the development of new satellites, etc. passed, but before the launch and operation of new satellites, it never came.
Country remain without risking its own positioning system that, given the number of events of the early 2000s could be fraught, both in Afghanistan and in Iraq, opponents of NATO troops suddenly started problems with the definition of their origin. Although the Americans and their allies had no such problems.
And in 2001, it was announced on state program "Global Navigation System". State clearly and precisely stated: the system to be and be the money to create it. In addition, GLONASS has ceased to be a purely military system, and has been agreed and civil use it. Initially, the program was planned for 2008 "cover" satellites throughout the country, and in 2010 to launch GLONASS on the planet. Used in the system planned new satellites "Glonass-M", job creation is received NPO PM.
In practice scheduled several times adjusted for valid reasons (some old companions at the time the constellation were decommissioned "age"), but at this point GLONASS fully ready for the use.
October 3 from Plesetsk rocket soared "Proton-M" with the latter at the moment the satellite system. Thus, all over the Earth now flies 28 vehicles "Glonass-M", of which 23 are already in operation in full, 2 more ready for the start of use, and the remaining 3 are temporarily down for maintenance. The two satellites, which are still ready to go, "Getting it" in the next month and a half. Three more staff will be sent into space in November and will serve until the reserve system.
This year has been sent into orbit the first satellite "Glonass-K". It is only being tested, but the application and the proof outperforms a series of satellites "M". The main parameter for the user — location accuracy — for "Glonass-K" is about 1-2 meters, which makes the system GLONASS direct and strong competitor only currently existing positional system — NAVSTAR GPS. For comparison, the satellites "Glonass-M" accuracy in the order of 5-6 meters. Also "Glonass-K" can carry the equipment to work with the rescue of the Cospas-Sarsat has a resource of 10 years and going exclusively from domestic components. "Glonass-M", in turn, is only 7 years old and is composed of units of French production.
News, of course, good, but there is a fair question, how much it will pay all costs and you? According to various reports in the last ten years developing GLONASS spent about 2 billion dollars. Until 2020, will contribute a further 8.10 billion Thus, there are three variants of the system. This is a 'cheap' option (200-250 billion), in which case there can be problems with the promotion system; "medium" (300-350 billion rubles.) And expensive (more than 400 billion rubles.), Which involves the complete development of all necessary systems. Find the most suitable second option — it will allow and maintain the constellation, and implement custom hardware with state support.
Experience of the American GPS shows that investments in navigation systems are worth the money. The head of the Federal Space Agency Vladimir Popovkin said the scope of services for satellite navigation in 250-260 billion. Russian technologies still make up only 3% of the money. A radical increase in the Russian share market can not speak. While the market offers very little user devices to support GLONASS — to very few. In addition, almost all of them are suitable for use both navigation systems: GPS and GLONASS.
Do not forget about the most skeptical about the potential users to the national system. In this context, we can remember a few months ago on blogs and sites scattered devastating article in which handicap GLONASS proved by the number of satellites: Navigator of the author saw up to 11 GPS satellites, and only one "Glonass-M". In turn, the analysis of this material, which clearly stated that the model Navigator allows you to work with only 12 satellites and GPS perceives as a priority system, has not been as widespread.
Meanwhile, despite the cries of blogs, GLONASS is not only building, but also for export. Last week in Moscow, Russian Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov and India and AK Anthony agreed on military-technical cooperation. Indian side was invited to participate in the GLONASS system, and use it in full military version. Delhi is unlikely to abandon the proposal — the U.S. is not so "friendly" with India in order to pass it as a serious and important technology.
Author Vadim Sobin
Source: Military Review
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