One of the hottest so next time — the GLONASS system. Still, this is the second and, therefore, the other positional system. This affects the perspective of the whole system including the military.
The idea of creation of their positional system for the Russian army appeared in the 60s, and the first of its satellite flew in 1982. In the 95th in their own orbits was already 24 satellites and the system was put into operation. But the 90-ies of the last century were not the best time for science in general and the defense part. First, the new century work of only 6 satellites — a quarter of the required amount. Well, these devices were already outdated model of "Glonass" development NGOs Applied Mechanics (now JSC "Information Satellite Systems" to them. Reshetnev).
All of the nineties there were disputes: do we need a site navigation system? There were reasons for and against, but in the end, in practice, predominated view contra: funding for a number of circumstances was more than modest means, and GLONASS developed very slowly and only on the ground. The work on the development of new satellites, etc. go but to start up and operation of new devices gallakticheskih it never came.
The country remain without risking their positional system that, given the number of events of the early 2000s could be fraught, both in Afghanistan and in Iraq, the enemies of the NATO troops in a moment the problem began with the definition of their own origin. While the Americans and their allies had no such problems.
And in 2001 it was announced the state program there, "Global Positioning System". The government clearly and correctly stated: the system to be and to be money to create it. In addition, GLONASS ceased to be a purely military system, and has been discussed and its civilian implementation. Initially planned for programmke to 2008 "cover" the whole area of the country companions, and in 2010 to launch GLONASS across planet. Use in the planned new satellites "Glonass-M" job creation is received by NPO PM.
In practice, scheduled a couple of times adjusted for respectful reasons (some of old times satellites during the creation of the constellation were taken out of service "age"), but now GLONASS absolutely ready to start to use.
October 3 from Plesetsk soared rocket "Proton-M" with the latter now a satellite system. So Makar, just above the Earth at this time is flying 28 «Glonass-M", of which 23 are already fully exploited, 2 further prepare for the beginning of use, and the remaining 3 are temporarily down for maintenance. Those two satellites that are still ready to go, "Getting it" in the next month and a half. Three more units will be sent into space in November and will serve until the reserve system.
This year was sent into orbit first satellite "Glonass-K". He goes so far only tests, but it claimed and proved superior properties of a series of satellites, the "M". The main parameter for the user — the accuracy of the location — for "Glonass-K" is about 1-2 meters, which makes the system GLONASS direct and strong contender now only available positional system — NAVSTAR GPS. For comparison, the satellites "Glonass-M" gives an accuracy of approximately 5-6 meters. Also, "Glonass-K" can carry the equipment to work with the rescue of the Cospas-Sarsat has a resource of 10 years and is collected only from the Russian devices. "Glonass-M", in turn, is only 7 years and has its composition aggregates French origin.
Announcements, of course, is great, but there is a fair question: how much it all costs and will pay it? According to various sources, in the last 10 years developing GLONASS spent about 2 billion dollars. Until 2020, will contribute a further 8.10 billion. With all this, there are three variants of the system. This is a "cheap" option (200-250 billion rubles), in which case there can be difficulties with the promotion system, the "average" (300-350 billion rubles.) And expensive (more than 400 billion rubles.) which involves the complete design of suitable systems. A more appropriate consider the second option — it will allow and support the constellation, and implement custom hardware with state support.
The experience of the American GPS indicates that investment in navigation systems cost of equity. The head of the Federal Space Agency Vladimir Popovkin says on the volume of services on satellite navigation in 250-260 billion dollars. Russian technologies still make up only 3% of those funds. About a radical increase of Russian bit of market does not have to read so far. While the market is not very many user devices that support GLONASS — they are very few. In addition, almost all of them are designed for the implementation of the two navigation systems: GPS and GLONASS.
We should not forget the faster skepticism about the possible users of the system to the Russian. In this context, we recall a few months back for blogs and Web sites scattered devastating article in which flawed GLONASS was proved with the help of satellites, the navigator of its creator beheld up to 11 GPS satellites, and only one "Glonass-M". In turn, the analysis of this material, in what was said is true, that the model browser can immediately work with only 12 satellites and the GPS takes a priority system, has not received so widespread.
Meanwhile, despite the cries of the blogs, GLONASS is not only built, and is exported. Last week in Moscow, Russian Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov and India, and AK Anthony agreed on military-technical cooperation. Indian side was invited to participate in the GLONASS system and use it in full military version. Divide hardly will turn away from the proposal — the U.S. is not "friends" with India, so pass it so tough and principled technology.