Armed conflicts nearest time clearly showed the potential of heavy drones. Thanks comparable high takeoff weight, this technique can not only carry intelligence equipment, and a certain range of weapons. So Makar, heavy UAV is able not only to create the detection of targets, and assault them, which reduces the cost of time to perform combat tasks, and allows you to not miss the target. But in our country the heavy sector of unmanned aerial vehicles in recent years, does not enjoy the special attention of designers. More time in Russian was created several designs with a takeoff weight of more than one tonne (Tu-141, Tu-143, Tu-243, etc.), but they were intended for intelligence and other similar tasks. Creating a UAV with shock abilities in our country started late compared solely at the end of the 90s. Because of this, until now armed with our army has no ready-made systems such class. Over the past few years it has been created, of course, exciting projects, but neither one of them has not yet reached mass production.
In 2007, at MAKS, the company «MiG» presents its new project. Fascinating feature of this project was the fact that before the presentation of it was not virtually no disk imaging, but, nevertheless, at the Salon in Zhukovsky was immediately shown full-scale mockup of the future UAV. Because of similar «surprise», the project «Scat» and immediately became interested in the subject of mass debate. In general, such a reaction was not mind-boggling, «Scat» became one of the first recognizable Russian UAV projects shock, well, comparable to a large take-off weight markedly distinguishes it from the total weight of the new Russian developments. In addition, «Scat» became the first member of its own class, which have reached the stage of assembling the layout in the true value.
The appearance of the drone «Scat» reminded eponymous fish: aircraft offered by the scheme to build a flying wing. In addition, as a design clearly show known techniques reduce radar signature. Thus, parallel to wingtip, and its front edge is also exactly performed contours of the rear unit. Over the middle part of the wing «Scat» fuselage had a corresponding shape smoothly coupled with the bearing surfaces. Vertical tail was not provided. As seen from the photographic layout «Stingray» management was carried out using four elevons located on consoles and on the center. With all of this has caused some issues immediately on maneuverability yaw: there is no rudder and a single-engine UAV scheme sought somehow solve this dilemma. A version of the single internal deviation elevons to control yaw.
Presented at the MAKS-2007 model had the following dimensions: wingspan of 11.5 meters in length and 10.25 in the parking height of 2.7 m relative to the weight «Stingray» clear just what his greatest take-off weight was due to approximately equals 10 tons. With these parameters, «Scat» had good flight data calculation. At the highest speed up to 800 km / h and it could climb to an altitude of 12 thousand feet in the air and climbing up to 4000 km. Such planned to provide flight data using turbojet engine RD-5000B with traction 5040 kgs. This TRD was created on the basis of engine RD-93, but initially equipped with a special flat nozzle that reduces the visibility of the aircraft in the infrared spectrum. Engine air intake located in the forward fuselage and is a non-intake device.
Inside the fuselage appropriate form «Scat» had two gruzootsekah size 4,4 x0, 75h0, 65 meters. With such dimensions in gruzootsekah could hang different types of guided missiles, also corrected bombs. In some sources mentioned that the avionics «Stingray» was planned to accommodate only to attack ground targets, which would reduce the likely range of guided weapons, reducing it to types of «air-surface». The total mass of the payload «Stingray» was equated approximately two tons. During a presentation at the MAKS-2007 near the «Stingray» were X-31 missiles and bombs KAB-500.
The onboard equipment, the implied project were not announced. Based on the disk imaging on other projects such class, you can draw conclusions about the presence of complex navigation and attack equipment, and some abilities of autonomous action. Yet, official data on avionics «Stingray» for 5 years and have not arrived.
After the first demonstration project «Scat» a couple of times mentioned in official sources, but then it was closed. At the current time, as mentioned in some sources, production of «MiG» project «Scat» used by «dry» in the development of promising shock drone.
The program «Breakthrough» office «Yakovlev» remains to this day one of the most mysterious in the history of modern Russian aircraft industry. All the information about it is limited in several paragraphs of text and a table with exemplary features. Not entirely clear even approximate dates of the beginning of work in this direction.
Presumably at the end of the 90s in the OKB. Yakovlev began to consider the possibility of creating a multi-purpose unmanned aerial vehicle to the widespread introduction of developments on the draft of the Yak-130. There is evidence of a positive opinion regarding the ability to use a significant part of bespilotnike avionics primary training aircraft. It was assumed that such an approach can facilitate the development and creation of new UAVs also provide a high degree of unification drones 1st family. The latter possibility was particularly critical, as the programm «Breakthrough» included the creation of a number of unmanned aerial vehicles for various purposes — shock, spy drones and radar detection.
Middle of the two thousandth’s there first details about the type of drones family «Breakthrough». Thus, the impact version was in some measure must walk in the «Scat» office «MiG»: flying wing with one engine and internal gruzootsekah for weapons. At the same time, on one of the existing drawings «Breakthrough-U» (specifically so designated stroke UAV) shows a delta wing, also noticeably vozduhopoglotitelya two on the upper surface of the wing. In other images «Breakthrough-U», also called Yak-133BR has hull shape and placement vozduhopoglotitelya like «Scat». At take-off weight of 10 tonnes shock option UAV «Breakthrough» had to have a current ceiling of 15-16 km, and the highest rate of 1050-1100 km / h According to various estimates, the required load such drone had be two or three tons. Of course, the range of weapons would be the same as that of «Stingray»: guided missiles and bombs to attack ground targets, suitable for mass and size characteristics.
In the image a three-dimensional model of «Breakthrough-U»-like UAV «Scat», also sealed two other aircrafts — reconnaissance «Breakthrough-R» and «Break-RLD», created for radar detection. Their gliders have little difference from each other. At the same time, the intelligence «Breakthroughs» differ significantly from the impact option. Version of «P» and «RIM» in images instead of the swept wing average elongation have low wing sweep, a huge extension and a small narrowing. So Makar, playing percussion drone in highest speed surveillance drones may have more properties of the highest take-off and landing, and a long flight to a great height. In addition to having wings «Break-R» and «Break-RLD» tailplane equipped unique designs. From the fuselage drones depart two comparable thin beams, supporting the two surfaces. Of course, featured on their rudders can be used to control the pitch and yaw. In the end, both propulsion reconnaissance UAVs applets «Breakthrough» is located in the nacelle rear fuselage. The most significant difference in appearance «Breakthrough-R» and «Breakthrough-RLD» is a large radome radar last.
According to reports, reconnaissance drones «Breakthrough» had to have a takeoff weight of about 10 tons, but «Break-R» was a little easier. Immediately this weight motivated equipment was reduced to 1000-1200 kg. Compared with the impact one swapped flying characteristics. For example, the highest rate of scouts fell to 750 km per hour. With all this «Breakthrough-R», according to estimates, could climb to an altitude of about 20 km and stay in the air more than 18-20 hours. «Breakthrough-RLD», in turn, due to the deteriorating nekordinalno aerodynamics — it worked great radar radome above the fuselage — had to have a ceiling of about 14 km and fly in for 16 hours.
Unfortunately, this completes all open information programmke «Breakthrough». For a couple of years after the publication of the first data, OKB. Yakovlev has not published new details. Maybe languid UAV project «Breakthrough» was closed because of the precedence of other unmanned programs.
Projects «Scat» and «Breakthrough» belong to the category drones takeoff weight which substantially exceeds one ton. All projects of Russian designers in this direction until the end at the design stage. With all this other project hammer drone, still come down to the stage of prototype testing, had still the lowest weight.
UAV «Watch-600» (development of constructors «Transas»), also recognized under the title «Watch-3» much easier «Stingray» or «Breakthrough.» His greatest takeoff weight does not exceed 710-720 pounds. With all this at the expense of traditional aerodynamic assembly vsepolnotsennym straight wing and fuselage it has approximately the same dimensions as that of «Stingray»: wingspan of twelve meters and a total length of seven. In the bow of the «Watch-600» foreseen place for motivated equipment, and in the middle is set stable platform for supervisory equipment. In the rear-rotor UAV is located. Its base — Rotax 914 piston engine, fitted to the same Israeli IAI Heron UAV and South American MQ-1B Predator.
115 horsepower motor allow drone «Watch-600» to accelerate to a speed of about 210-215 km / h, or make a long flight with a cruising speed of 120-150 km / h When using additional fuel tanks this UAV is able to stay aloft for 24 hours. So Makar, the practical range approaching the mark of 3700 km.
Based on the features of the UAV «Watch-600», we can draw conclusions about his appointment. Relatively small takeoff weight does not allow him to carry any weapons severe that restricts the range of tasks only intelligence. Yet, a number of sources mention the possibility of installation on the «Watch-600» various weapons, the total weight does not exceed 120-150 pounds. Because of this range of permissible to use weapons is limited only by certain types of guided missiles, namely anti. Noteworthy that when using anti-tank guided missiles «Watch-600» to a large extent becomes similar to the South American MQ-1B Predator, both technical features and composition of weapons.
But it is too early talk about the prospects of combat drone «Watch-600.» The fact that the recent progress of the project related to the year 2010. In July 2009, began flight tests of large-scale layout. Slightly later mock drone shown on MAKS-2009. Soon after role in the exhibition are new messages on the progress of the project «Watch-600» began to appear less often and less often. In 2010, the full-size mock drone flew. But in October of the same year, the company-developer announced the termination of the project. This decision was justified by the lack of financial support from potential customers. The company «Transas» had no ability to pay without the assistance of other fine-tuning «Watch-600» and therefore closed the project. With all this, it was argued, most of the work on the project, including the creation of avionics equipment, had already ended. Maybe in the next generation to «‘s Watch-600» will be applied to new projects.
As we see, the development of heavy drones shock destination in our country has not the best times. All projects that seemed promising, or completely closed, or their condition causes severe problems. For this reason, great expectations associated with the new project of the company «Sukhoi». In some sources claim that the design works were codenamed «Hunter». There are now strong enough disk imaging on this project. Maybe the lack of information associated with finding a project in the early stages.
History of the Project Design Bureau «Dry» began in 2009, when control of the United Aircraft Company announced plans to attract companies «MiG» and «Dry» to develop a joint project languid drone. Appropriate agreement between the aircraft building organizations were signed in 2011 and 2012. In April last year the Department of Defense has approved specifications for shock promising UAV, and in the summer there were reports about the choice of «dry» as the main contractor for the project. At the same time there was an exemplary embodiment of the information about the timing works on programmke «Hunter». It was argued that the first flight of a craft held in 2016, and it will go into service in 2020 or later.
Since the research work on «Hunter» began just a few months back, the technical details, a list of military requirements have not yet been made public. There is information about the requirement regarding the modular architecture of the UAV, which will allow it in the shortest time to change the set-board equipment, regardless of the current tasks. In addition, in some unofficial sources appear diverse, if not fantastic version. For example, there were guesses about the development of shock drone to perform tasks specific fighters, while Tipo «Hunter» will correspond to the sixth generation of this class of vehicles. For obvious reasons, it is too early talk about the veracity of these allegations, because not even formed the general aspects of the sixth-generation fighter.
Overall, languorous drums drones in our country can not be called particularly lucky class technology. The total number of similar projects slightly, and to production and adoption while neither one of them did not make it. So Makarov, though similar project which will cause excessive enthusiasm, and it is, of course, be borne enormous expectations. Zabugornye army is already quite long and successfully use UAVs capable of carrying weapons, and in our country similar techniques unavailable. As a result, at least some project of this mission can be «appointed» lifeguard unmanned Russian industry.
But the true time work are only active for one project, which will be embodied in the metal and composites in just three years, and will go into service even later. Due to the absence of other active work in this direction theme «Hunter» is the only candidate for the title of the first Russian languid percussion UAV. I wish that this project was completed successfully and in our army eventually appeared brand new technique, whose effectiveness has been confirmed zabugornom counterparts.