The formation of the Israel Defense Forces took place not only in the fields of labor. In her original story has many fascinating facts — from clandestine workshops about guns, posting "orphan" of the English warehouses before delivery of rifles and tanks of the former Wehrmacht and stealing boats from the French port.
By the time of the proclamation Countries Israel in May 1948 adopted already collected the Haganah (the underground forces of the Jewish community (Yishuv) in Mandatory Palestine), was indescribable colorful on caliber, model, age and origin. Thus, even before the second world war, the Haganah appeared smuggling sub-machine guns, very comfortable for small street fighting Finnish "Cuomi" South American "Thompsons" and other contraband, and did not stop after the second World War: from 1946 to May 1948 Year arrived in Israel more than 1300 different SMGs. And about 870 submachine guns, the main British "Stan", produced for the years 1941-1947 "on the spot" — the purchase of Arab smugglers, stealing from the British warehouses, etc. The same method was mined magazine rifles, light mortars.
As a result, Palestine was almost bustles with weapons caches. In 1946, in Tel Aviv in only one school building Tahemoni British authorities found a more than 50 guns, 50 mortars, and several thousand rounds of ammunition and mines. And in Kibbutz Dorot from the pit removed two 10-ka machine guns and submachine guns.
Buying guns from the British explained simply: discipline in the armed forces, already preparing to leave Palestine, was a non-rigid. In 1951 in England, was judged an English officer, who sold in 1948 in Palestine party tools. Initially he planned to sell it to Arabs for 25 thousand pounds, but the Haganah outbid her for 30 thousand pounds to give up armored car, auto-type "jeep", 180 machine guns, "Browning", rifles, ammunition. Hagan bought up an instrument, the British and the Arabs in the area not only Palestine, and Syria, and Egypt.
But the greatest "dump" weapons at the end of the second world war was Europe. Soldiers of the "Jewish Brigade" of the British Army collected suitable instrument in Belgium and France brought in through Italian ports. Later, he disassembled shove on various goods — hidden, for example, in compressors, concrete mixers, rollers, on their way to Haifa in the name of personal … Arab companies.
Most deliveries as big guns, equipment and ammunition then came from Eastern Europe.
The underground arsenal discovered by the British in 1946. Inherent abundance — Italian pistols "takes", the English guns, "Veblen" and rifle SMLE, the German machine gun MG.34. Photo FOTOBANK.COM / TOP FOTO
Cannon Wehrmacht on the protection of Israel
As you know, the United States in December 1947, imposed an embargo on the supply of arms to the Middle East. It's just harder lupilo on the Jewish part of Palestine, not very disturbing to arm the Arabs, who, moreover, supported by the British. But the Russian Alliance at the very birth of Countries Israel gave him not only the political, and the active military support. Direct supply of weapons from the Soviet Union was not, although such requests and received in Moscow. Czechoslovakia was used for this, with the supplied in the main instrument of the German samples. Part — captured Nazi, which painstakingly revised and restored Russian workers artsnabzheniya, part — made in Czechoslovakia itself, which in the period of occupation produced many guns for the Third Reich. Already in January 1948 was awarded the first contract for the supply of Czechoslovakia 4500 rifles, 20 machine guns and 5,000,000 rounds of ammunition. So the Israelites got magazine rifle "Mauser" Czech model 1924 and the German "Mauser» 98k, uniform and machine guns MG.34 MG.42, heavy machine ZB-53 (MG.37t). Until the end of May, they have bought about 25 thousand rifles, over 5 thousand manual and single and 200 heavy machine guns, more than 54 million rounds of ammunition and 25 aircraft of the "Messerschmitt" — only 12 million dollars. Cannon delivered aircraft or sea through Corsica to Tel Aviv via the Yugoslav port of Split. Shipments from Czechoslovakia and have allowed Haganah through Czechoslovakia in April 1948 to move to action.
Aircraft type "Messerschmitt" in fact referred to as "Air» S-199. After the war in the country of Czechoslovakia was in store sets of components and assemblies for the German fighter Bf-109G «Messerschmitt." But they had to put less massive than the original engines. Israeli fighter pilots for such performance prepared in Czechoslovakia. In fact, Israelis were more willing to get English "Spitfire", but in the presence of light in Palestine only 25 unarmed aircraft virtually "Messershmity" (albeit with degraded features) were the significant strength. But a few "Spitfire" in Czechoslovakia still purchased. In England itself Israelis have bought four fighters "Bofayter" under the curious legend — on behalf of the New Zealand film company Tipo for filming a movie about the exploits of New Zealand airmen in the war in the Pacific.
The gun itself has no political or public preferences, and the agent of the Third Reich, then rapidly transmitted to many countries of the "Third World."
Was among them, and Syria. In March 1948, for example, the leaders of the Haganah learned that just sending a gun in Tel Aviv on the vessel "Nora" from the port of Fiume came vessel "Lino" with five (according to other sources — eight) tyschami rifles and eight million rounds of Same Czechoslovakia, but for Syria. To start your own people through organized the arrest of the ship at the Italian port of Bari, where it went down due to damage — the local authorities Tipo said instrument created for the Italian Communists. Later, two mosadovskih agent (referred to organize Mossad le-Aliya — The organization of illegal immigration) blew the ship arrested at the pier. But soon, the Italian authorities at the request of Syrians have raised the ship, rifles handled by an Italian vessel "Argyro", sent to Beirut. The Israelis — again the same through its own agents — is rapidly learned his route, and on 26 August, around Crete Israeli ships K-20 'Haganah' and K-24, "Wedgwood" (former Canadian corvettes) intercepted "Argyro" took all the goods, and instead of Beirut cannon arrived in Haifa. This operation is referred to under the appropriate title "Shoded" (apparently, according to the Biblical demon in charge of robbery in the world).
"Napoleonchiki" and "Davidko"
Gunners in the middle of the Palestinian Jews first of the first Arab-Israeli war (War of Independence) was slightly, although during the second world Jews were a mixed British and anti-aircraft batteries in Haifa and other places. Well, first of guns they were able to get a little. But, did it! Yehuda Arazi who were not able to purchase a gun for Israelis in the U.S., there is obtained a paper on behalf of the Government of Nicaragua. With it, he came to Europe and
bought in Switzerland, 25 anti-aircraft guns, "Hispano-Suiza" caliber 20 mm (telavivsky they arrived in port at Easter 1948), France — 50 mm 65 caliber guns, mortars and machine guns.
At the beginning of the War of Independence "heavy" Israeli artillery included except that the French 65-mm mountain guns model 1906, nicknamed "napoleonchikami." Thus, during the Syrian attack with the role of tanks and armored vehicles at Kibbutz Degania May 20 (in his defense was Moshe Dayan) here from Haifa brought two of these guns on wood wheels. A Syrian tank was hit not shot "napoleonchika", not the incendiary bottle, but in general, fire guns thwart the attack has permitted the Syrians, which is no longer renewed. Situation, the ordinary for that time: the Arabs, waiting for an easy victory, often stayed and gone, having met stubborn defense, and even with "heavy" weapons. The two "napoleonchika" assist Iraqis and thwart the attack on Kibbutz Gesher.
Veteran Haganah David Leibowitz has developed a very routine for handicrafts and mortar shells to it. Mortar, nicknamed "Dawidka", usually over-caliber shot mine. For the first time, "Dawidka" came in the case March 12, 1948 during the attack on the Haganah Arab neighborhood of Abu Kabir. After the shelling quarter Arabs left him. At night April 21 fire mortars "Dawidka" prepared attack on the Arab neighborhoods of Haifa. The roar of shots, the howling mines and breaks strong charges (up to 40 kg of explosive) had a strong psychological effect, compensating nasty marksmanship "Davidko." Not the case in Jerusalem is now even space "Davidko" where artisanal homemade products delivered monument (just as in Russia there are monuments serial ZIS-3 or "Katyusha").
Czech "reforged Messer" Avia S-199 number "Dalet-120" in the Israeli Air Force Museum at Hatzerim air base
Makeshift armored cars
Since January 1948 the Haganah was constantly allocate to protect convoys were moving between Jewish enclaves reserved makeshift trucks and buses with armed crews. It is logical that Ben Gurion in Tel Aviv to Jerusalem April 20, 1948 brought in an armored bus under guard Palmach fighters.
But extracted and serial armored vehicles — from the same British. From time to time just drove armored vehicles. In this case, all the rules: take the car under surveillance and waited until the crew will eat or bathe.
Prior to removing the British Mandate the Haganah was able to get two of the British tank "Cromwell" (stolen from their Hussars), one armored car "Daimler", a reconnaissance vehicle GMS "Otter" and two unarmed tanks "Sherman" (which, however, have acquired). In May began forms the armored service, but on May 15, 1948 of all the tanks not so long ago proclaimed Countries Israel only one was on the go, well, the one with the faulty instrument. In June, arrived in Israel 10 light tanks hopelessly outdated "Hotchkiss" H-39, acquired in France. And in July, "Cromwells", "Hotchkiss" and "Sherman" participated in the fighting in the 82 th Tank Battalion of the IDF. Of the 30 faulty tanks "Sherman" hastily and cheaply acquired in Italy, in operation during the war were able to deliver only two. Thus were born Israeli armored forces.
South African armored gun "Marmon-Harrington» Mk IV, probably batted Israelis in the Arab Legion, in the streets of Jerusalem. July 17, 1948. Photo BETTMANN / CORBIS / RPG
Cadres are almost all
Waging war, of course, is not a technique, but the people who manage it. Some historians and journalists willing to recall that in the formation of the Israel Defense Forces, especially armored forces and artillery, the harsh role played by former Russian spices. Several hundred volunteers from the Soviet Union, the main officers demobilized from the Russian army, fought wars in the body Mahal (an abbreviation of Mitnadvey huts laarets — "foreign volunteers" in Hebrew).
After the end of the second world war took immense "exchanges" between the population of the USSR, on the one hand, and Poland, Romania and Czechoslovakia, on the other (only to Poland for 10 years had left about a half million people). For many Jews, some of whom have acquired combat experience, having WWII in the ranks of the Russian army, it was only the crotch stop — they almost immediately went to Israel. Their combat training and the ability to have rendered the country a good service. It is necessary to see that many Arab parts commanded by British officers, and in general in the army of the Arab countries and some were former officers of the German Wehrmacht.
Curiously, manager of the Salvation Army Fawzi Kaukji (past officer of the Wehrmacht, by the way), having failed to April 4, 1948 to capture the Kibbutz Mishmar Haemek, explained it in his own his report that the rescue of his patrons arrived "15 thousand fighters of the Haganah, commanded by Russian General ". Apparently, the fabulous "Soviet general" was to serve as an excuse not least, than the mystical number of fighters. On the Arab side in general from time to time launched very curious rumors village le implementation Jews mortar "Dawidka", for example, the other party has declared an "atomic bomb".
Path to own weapons manufacturing began before the second world war, when the Haganah underground stablishing creation tools and organized department of military production ("Taas"). Since 1943, he began to produce copies of the English sub-machine gun "Stan" (Get local name of "TAMAT") — not the best at the time the standard, but well adapted for mass production at low-power universal equipment. The quality of the copies is not shining, and it is logical that in 1948 — 1949, Israeli soldiers occupied the Arabs preferred German MR.40.
Studios released "Taas" and hand grenades, repeating with all this evolution of garnet beginning of the century — from the wick, with the usual grating primer (on the Polish reference value) to the garnet-type Mills with a shock remote fuse.
This beautiful warrior with a "Stan" (or its local copy) in hand grenades and Polish standard — a soldier of the Israeli army had just formed. May 18, 1948, the village at Haifa. Photo BETTMANN / CORBIS / RPG
But it was clear that the workshop is not enough. In 1945, a group of favorites of the Jewish Yishuv, led by Ben-Gurion visited the United States and started a fundraiser for service Haganah. Autumn has arrived in the United States and one of the managers "Taas" — engineer Haim Slavin (as you know, comes from the Russian Federation). Just ended the second global war, the industry began to get rid of surplus equipment, and Slavin with a group of mates acquired the equipment almost cost of scrap metal. Officially send to Palestine could be vers
atile general-purpose machines, cheaper grades of steel, etc. and arrive. A special equipment for the production of arms and ammunition were buying a fictitious company that understands the details, bring it to a directory (accumulated up to 60 thousand names) and sent out parties, not arouse suspicion. Slavin and bought some developments — for example, a machine gun, "Dror" (a modification of the Johnson M1944 machine gun).
In Palestine, built with such equipment "factories" hide different methods. "Factory" for production of pistol rounds, say, disguised new kibbutz. Lapses from time to time led to the arrests, but often with the British managed to agree. When in 1947, authorities uncovered a major studio in Tel Aviv, members of the Haganah, despite the exposed police posts NIGHT MODE leaked into the room and made a part of the explosive barrels and 5 with trunks to "Stan". And later bribed the police and carried the remains.
When in October 1947 in the criteria for the coming war, Ben Gurion eventually gave Slavin freedom of action, he claimed two million Palestinian pounds, promising to create 20 thousand rifles, 10 thousand machine guns, 5,000,000 rounds of ammunition and other weapons and equipment. In March 1948, at a hastily organized "factory" in Givatayim already in production 12000 "Stan", 500 machine guns, "Dror", 140,000 grenades, 120 three-inch mortars, and 5,000,000 rounds (according to W. Milstein). Among other since 1947 and started to produce copies of British antitank grenade launchers, "Piat." However, in 1948-1949, the main anti-tank weapons were Molotov consistency.
Measures for the extraction and production of tools produce results. According to the historian Yehuda Slutsky, on 29 November 1947 at the Haganah was 3662 submachine gun, pistols 3830, 10,662 rifles, 932 machine guns of various, 670 two-inch (50.8 mm) and 84 three-inch (76.2 mm) mortar. With all of this even in the Palmach, the shock troops of the Haganah, was one rifle in 3 men and one three-inch mortar on the company. And on May 15, 1948 adopted the Haganah was already 10 264 submachine gun (from their 7000 — "TAMAT"), 5607 guns, 21,859 rifles, 1,269 hand and 182 machine guns, 682 two-inch mortars and 105 three-inch, 25-caliber guns 20mm.
"For the first time the Jewish people made their weapons" — so pompously described the emergence of a sub-machine gun "Uzi" its creator Uziel Gal. The emergence of this — a moderate, it would seem, for as long — gun showed that Israel already possesses its military industry.
In 1949, after the War of Independence, in the "Taas" turned work on his sub-machine gun. It was necessary to auto-close combat weapon for all arms and services, besides the usual, reliable, affordable, which is required for the production of non-deficient materials and the main purpose machines. Experience in the production of "Stan" has had, in addition, studied Czechoslovak design Holec and brothers Koucky and English BSA. To do this, and was sent to "Taas" Army Lieutenant Uziel Gal (original name Gothard's voice, a native of Germany), passed through the school of the underground gunsmith during the period of struggle against the British.
In 1950, the start of the test samples W. Gall, and H. Kara. In 1953, the standard was adopted by Gall, initially called non-UMI («Uziel, the Government of Israel"). But he became known as "Uzi." According to the Bible the name "Uziel" belonged to one of the heavenly host of angels, and means "my strength in God", so that the title of his new gun received not the case. Israeli "Uzi" was one of the most common models of small guns second half of the XX century, and even got to the arms of German Bundeswehr.
It is worth noting that in the same 1949, when Israel unfolded work on the sub-machine gun, the Soviet Union was adopted by the other big-name reference tool — a Kalashnikov rifle. In the 1960s he was already manifest itself in the Middle East, and in the late 1960s and his system will form the basis of the Israeli assault rifle "Galil." Led the development of its Israel Galil, the original name is Blashnikov. Another "Russian trace"?
In the meantime, in the middle of the 1950s, Israel buys FAL assault rifles from the Belgian "Fabrique Nationale". However, Israeli officials believe that this rifle which is popular is not very satisfying their requirements. But the company does not need to compromise — it has such a request from Syria. All the same FAL rifles and light machine guns FALO «Fabrique Nationale" in the Israel Defense Forces will fall and will accept a role in the Sinai Campaign and the Six-Day War.
"Sherman" against the "Archer"
By the beginning of the Sinai Campaign of 1956 ("Operation Kadesh"), the IDF was still young, and as before experiencing a shortage of weapons. However, the ratio of official circles in the U.S. to Israel to prove its viability, rapidly changing, and in 1952, the United States and Israel have agreed to help and to ensure mutual security, which provided military assistance. This facilitated the acquisition of military equipment to Israel and other countries. Israelis enjoy a variety of ways of old South American tanks "Sherman" versions M4, M4A1 and M4A2 with pendant VVSS, M4A1 76 (W), partly with upgraded suspension HVSS.
These machines during the second world war and the truth revealed itself well, as well as South American self-propelled 105mm howitzer M7 "Priest" and 76.2-mm anti-tank gun M10 "Vulverayn" (purchased from England), and the British 25-pounder (87.6-mm) field guns and South American 155-mm howitzer M1. Same story with the available South American fighters in the Air Force P-51 "Mustang", the B-17 bomber and British fighter-bombers FB Mk VI «Mosquito". But by 1956 all had time to morally outdated. However, the Arabs were armed in the main an old technique (including Russian, through the same Czechoslovakia).
On the eve of the Sinai Campaign, according to the then Chief of Staff Moshe Dayan, "inventory materiel logistics more than ever to show our outrageous poverty." And at a meeting at the headquarters of the Armed Forces of France October 1, 1956 Israeli officials have requested the delivery of 100 modernized tanks "Super Sherman" (or M50 "Sherman") with the latest 75-mm French gun, 300 half-track armored vehicles, 50 armored carriers, 300 three-axle trucks, as 1,000 hand-held antitank grenade launchers. The French agreed to deliver the required reducing the number of armored vehicles and 200, and transporters to 20. In France, Israel acquired and more than the latest technology — 180 light tank AMX-13. Thus formed one of the more colorful armored systems in the world. There were difficulties with the service park and the latest technology. To set to "Sherman" new 75-mm guns had razukomplektovyvat old car. On the AMX-13 tanks had to change the filters and staffing were not suitable for the test of the desert. South American M3 half-track armored personnel carriers and M9 achieved 500 sets of spare tracks.
The question of the all-wheel drive trucks, also proved to be more important: the available trucks and jeeps were for the most part in the workshops without spare parts, and multi-valued park mobilized civilian transport ("vans from laundries and margarine factories") when driving on the roads in the desert created more problems than it solves .
Meanwhile, an ancient technique still good waged war. For example, one self-propelled anti-tank gun Egyptian "Archer" in the battle of the mind-Katef has lined Israeli tanks and armored vehicles. Egyptians in general proved to be excellent in the fighting on the fortified po
sitions, but not in a maneuvering fight. According to experts, the Israelis would not avoid the huge losses, if they had to face a Russian tank crews instead of Arabic. Indirectly it is recognized and Moshe Dayan. When at a meeting of the General Staff October 2, 1956 expressed fear, like the Arab armies did not appear "volunteers from the Eastern bloc," Dayan reassured colleagues that Russia is unlikely to appear, and "Poles and Czechs — it's only the Poles and the Czechs."
Caravels of the children of Israel
Until now, we talk about the land. But can not the government at the seaside exist without the Navy. Generate naval units of the Jews of Palestine tried back in 1930 with the active support of Benito Mussolini. The staff of trained in fascist Italy at the officers' course in Civitavecchia. Then make your own fleet Yishuv failed. But in January 1943, with the assistance of Caesarea, Mossad le-Aliya opened the first course of maritime affairs for the Palmach, the Haganah shock troops. And in April 1945 as part of the Palmach did the 10th Division (10th company of the 4th Battalion) received abbreviated title "Palyam" (from "Plugot Ha-Yam" in Hebrew — "Marine Company" or "naval squadron"). His main task was to guard arriving on ships of Jewish settlers and their delivery by boat, passing the British blockade on the coast of the Promised Land (from August 1945 to May 1948, they were led through the cordon of about 70 thousand people). It also used to minnovzryvnyh works and diversions of the sea — in October, "Palyam" joined the armed struggle against the British. By the beginning of the Revolutionary War the division has grown to 400 people and had a base in several coastal towns of Palestine.
March 17, 1948 it was decided to develop the Naval Service, which was poured and "Palyam." Its fighters, specializing in sabotage and subversion, formed the 13th flotilla, which later became a division "commandos" Israeli Navy.
Recently the War of Independence, the Israelis had only 5 large ships that could be considered combat: A-16, "Eilat" (the last South American icebreaker "Northland"), K-20, "Hagana" (the last Canadian corvette "Norsid"), K- 24 "Wedgwood" (the last Canadian corvette "Byuhamois"), K-24, "Maoz" (first German cruise ship "Sitra") and K-26 "Leg" (the last South American patrol ship "Yucatan"). Moreover, more than 10% of their crews were last war South American and Canadian sailors.
For service boats of the "Saar" received anti-ship missile "Gabriel." And in the course of the Arab-Israeli war of 1973, the parties released each other weave PKR — Israeli "Gabriel" and the Russian T-15.
They were ordered to go to Haifa
In Israel, one of the world's estimated potential abilities that guided missile weapon in the fight opened to the sea. By developing the first national anti-ship missile (ASM) started back in 1955, but the Navy she never made it. But in the late 1950s to the work of the RCC has joined the company IAI. In her puzzle was to create a compact missile "Gabriel» (Gabriel), created for promising missile boats.
In 1962, on the orders of Prime Minister David Ben Gurion's deputy defense minister Shimon Peres went to Germany, where he held talks with Chancellor Konrad Adenauer. The Chancellor has agreed to assist Tel Aviv in buying the latest naval technology, and in December, with the Bremen company Lurssen Werft in an agreement to develop the project of missile launches. For the base took a big torpedo boat of the "Jaguar" (Project 140, also known as Schnellboot 55). Made on the basis of its missile gunboat standard displacement of 220 tons was designated "Saar" (in Hebrew "Storm").
Do not complicate things even with the Arab world, Adenauer, agreeing to build boats on the German shipyards, ordered all the "keep this thing a secret." But after Israel were transferred to the first three "Jaguar", a high-ranking government officials to divert disk imaging in the newspaper "Newyork Times." After this, the German government has flatly refused to continue the example program, while not objecting, in general, opposed to the boats on the German project built elsewhere. That place was the French shipyard Constructions Mechaniques de Normandie in Cherbourg, which in 1965-1966 ordered 12 boats. About 2-hundred Israeli soldiers and technicians several months living in Cherbourg, and the project manager, "Cherbourg" was appointed Brigadier General Mordechai Limon. It was a serious school life, not only in Israel, and in the English Navy, took part in breaking the blockade of Palestine, organized by the British in 1950 at age 26 became the commander of Israel's navy, with 4 years later and removed the straps off to teach business Science in the Colombian Institute.
France then provide up to 3-quarters of the supplies tools Jewish state. But although Cherbourg ship builders in desperate shortage of orders, passed the first two boats to Israel in April-May, 1967, to take part in the Six-Day War they failed — the boat did not have time to arm.
June 2, 1967, in other words, three days before the start of the war, Charles de Gaulle, who wanted to keep constant the case with the Arab world, announced a shift in the supply coming to Israel "offensive weapon." On the boat it did not spread, and two "Saar" headed to Israel in the autumn of the same year. But then the situation deteriorated: December 26, 1967, Palestinian militants stormed an Israeli aircraft at the airport of Athens, in response to which day or two later, the Israeli "commandos" attacked Beirut airport and killed 13 Lebanese aircraft. After that Charles de Gaulle stated that "from now on will be a complete embargo."
January 4, 1969, a week after the announcement of a full embargo, the crews of 3 built and remained in Cherbourg boats came to their ships, raised Israeli naval flags and unimpeded out to sea. Reversing they have not come back. When the French Minister of Defense wanted to find out about the whereabouts of the boat, Mordechai Limon said that "they were ordered to follow in Haifa, because they belong to us." But local residents and experts at Cherbourg during the internal investigation conducted by one and all shrugged their shoulders in bewilderment and stated: "The embargo? What is an embargo? We have not heard anything about the embargo. "
When investigators came to the management of the shipyard, the director said that he personally vyznat on the implementation of the embargo only from January 6 received an official letter — and introduced a cover letter from the local post office.
All they could from this moment the French — so it's keep an eye on the remaining 5 missile boats, which lasted for completion at the shipyard. But the Admirals of the Promised Land were also on alert, and eventually took the ships belonging to them. However, some typical method.
In November, 1969 to Felix Amiot, managing the construction of boats on the Cherbourg shipyard, came one Martin Sim. Posing as a businessman, a shipowner from Norway, he showed a lively interest in the purchase of these ships — the Tipo for his company, registered in Panama and used nefterazrabotkami shelf off the coast of Alaska.
The parties quickly found a common language and have entered into an agreement to purchase and sale, is actually
immediately approved the French government. This is understandable: who hunt to invest in the completion of the boat if it is unclear who will buy them, and buy it at all. But if the French bureaucrats have shown more zeal, it just would have learned that the Norwegian company zaregat in Panama until just a few weeks earlier, and the big Norwegian shipowner tycoon Martin Sim was an old and close friend of Israel on behalf of the ship owner is pleasant Brenner. It was he who assured Norwegians be of service to Israel. In general, the French government and the committee on arms export controls had a lot of people who openly sympathized with the Israelis.
Meanwhile in Cherbourg came about fifty young sailors who introduced the Norwegians. As one blond with blue eyes, they were still the Israeli military. In addition, in the town was still at least 70 people from the previous Israeli team of technical professionals. Last behave freely and even ordered a few places in the big restaurants on Christmas Day, apparently indicating that they were not going to leave the city recently. But specifically on Christmas Eve "Mossad" and planned an operation to hijacking boats, not without reason, relying on the good nature of the grand French. Although, as he wrote later, the creators of the book "Mossad": the hidden history ", many inhabitants of Cherbourg" were surprised to see that some men are beautiful Norwegian linguists and even talk among themselves in Hebrew. "
Specific control "escape" was Ezra Kedem — naval officer, has hijacked three missile boats in January 1969. Then he brought them up the eastern channel, which was shallow water, but very rarely was used civilians by the courts and to the same port where radar captured everything is not what Kedemu "kindly" said before the French themselves. Who decided to leave the harbor and the eastern channel.
By evening, the "day X" the weather was lousy: a strong wind, the sea was stormy. Far not the best time to exit small boats on a long voyage. But there was no choice. Because at nine o'clock on the boat engines roared, and waiters in local restaurants watched with amazement at how to reserve a table for seven 10-s people getting cold and hot basking champagne. French intelligence, noticed a few of days before some activity, preferred, as it is believed not to intervene in the case and to stay in the position of the listener.
Because in the night from 24 to 25 December 1969 the last 5 paid Tel Aviv missile boats left the harbor of Cherbourg — a waving farewell came to hold them on a long journey Mordechai Limon and Felix Amiot, who, as it turns out later, knew from the beginning of the Israeli operation but carefully concealed it. At this time, the bartender in the port tavern casually tossed his guests, pouring them a reddish wine:
— I beheld how that Norwegians left the port and headed to Alaska.
In response, there was a resounding laugh.
And for the next day in the press broke new resounding scandal. The French government was once again shocked and again instituted the investigation, which, in general, once again faced with a "sincere" surprise on the ground. Komplot silence struck literally half the town.
The Minister of Foreign Affairs of France, Maurice Schumann, who had just returned from a trip to Algeria and promised a "friendship and delivery of modern weapons in exchange for Arab oil," became enraged, called 2-Israeli diplomats and told them that in such a situation "escape boats "will be treated the Arab world as a" mockery of French sophistication "and if the boat will be in Israel, the consequences will be just unpredictable. The official Tel Aviv also admitted the theft of boats only after they have arrived safely in the country.
The results of the internal investigation were the following: Mordechai Limon, who lived in France for seven years, was asked to leave the country, two French general have lost their own posts. The charges were put forward against Felix Amiot, but the otvertelsya, saying the investigation that security — none of his business.
— Yes, I am sympathetic to the Israelis, but I know it's not a crime — said the Frenchman resourceful.
So Makar, by 1970, all 12 missile boats of the "Saar" of the first, second and third series were obtained Israelis and armed (missiles "Gabriel" cost more than the boat itself). They formed the core of the Navy and the state proved to be excellent in the Arab-Israeli war of 1973. But here comes another story — the story of a standing army with absolutely well established supply of weapons.