So words of the song, which knows practically every Russian medical student. It deals with, you guessed it, on the urine, or urine (urina— Lat.). Since the inception of Medicine is a natural secretion of the body used for the formulation and refinement of the disease. Person produces in a day to a few liters of urine, and almost all of it goes down the drain. Part of it, unfortunately, is deposited on the walls of the elevator car, walls and alleys just on earth, but we are not talking about it.
Thus, the human body is constantly producing urine in non-small enough quantities. The more absurd at first glance, it seems that one of the American firms established production … synthetic urine. After the girl in the front row will stop giggling, try to continue the lecture and find out why it took not accustomed to throwing money to Americans to synthesize and sell human waste.
Second glance. Medico-Historical.
So historically that urine interested assorted healers, shamans and medicine men since the dawn of medicine. In color, transparency, smell and taste of urine prehistoric healers could set or confirm the presumptive diagnosis. What? Yes, the girl in the front row, they tried urine and taste. They had no modern equipment, rapid test strips for glucose, so diabetes had to recognize such a primitive, but quite informative method.
Visually in the urine can see blood — then it becomes the color of meat slops can recognize a lot of protein — then it becomes cloudy, you can see pus, mucus and other foreign inclusions. The smell can also be said about many things, such as acetone, urine starts to smell in severe forms of diabetes may develop when coma.
Over the years, the "information value" of each drop of urine only grew. The invention of the microscope allowed the Antoni van Leeuwenhoek in detail the urine sediment, and thus see the individual red blood cells, white blood cells, skin cells, crystals of different salts. Fault become more accurate and more early.
The development of chemistry and biochemistry allowed to produce various qualitative and quantitative responses, to determine in the urine, various organic and inorganic compounds, in concentrations which could be judged on those or other disease processes in the body. Wake up girl from the first series, we move on to the next part of the lecture.
Third view. Modern-lab.
The era of industrialization in the laboratory diagnosis occurred not long ago. Doctors and technicians had to dig into the urine right up to the end of the last, XX century, when powerful computer lab machines — biochemical analyzers closed. No, the girl in the front row, it does not mean that they are closed on the lock, they have this name because the person does not intervene in the process at run-time analysis.
Technician, the operator simply charge the analyzer samples of urine or blood, and then just print out the data. All the other machines will make itself under computer control.
The main problem — the accuracy of the research. In other words, the sample must find what is really there. And, it is advisable not to find something that he has never been there. We solve this problem fine tuning of equipment, the creation of the so-called "control" and calibrators — reference samples for which accuracy is determined and research.
Until recently, manufacturers of laboratory equipment and reagents acted simply, undertook the most common human urine and was used to verify the accuracy and sensitivity of the analyzer reagents. No, the girl in the front row, they do not have their employees urine was collected, but the way you think I like it. Needed for research liquid straw-yellow in color, they have purchased. Yes, you heard right, it purchased, and, mind you, for the money and in huge quantities.
Sight fourth. US-practical.
A urine always had problems. Specifically, without incontinence. In recent years, the lab suffered from an acute shortage of urine, as paradoxical as it may sound. Even with the hard-won liters precious liquid is very difficult to maintain. It must be stored under refrigeration, and for long distance transport urine to freeze.
In addition, donors urine … the girl in the front row, nothing funny I said, it's the same donors as those who donate blood, sperm or egg. So, by the donor urine imposed very strict requirements: they should not have any chronic illness, they should not use drugs and they had to live a healthy life for quite a long time before you take the piss ..
Another bummer: urine, being a biological fluid, has a very specific smell. For long term storage decaying organic matter, which are always in urine does not deodorize it.
And finally, the two absolutely identical samples of urine can not exist in nature, as there is absolutely identical people — even twins can distinguish between them. Even in one and the same person harketeristiki urine change throughout the day.
We can not say that the idea of a synthetic analogue of urine is revolutionary attempt to create a substitute for urine made more than once. Only they all boiled down to fluids based on all the same human urine with the addition of various preservatives and stabilizers.
But, according to the president of the American Research Corporation Duo Research Robert Willett (Robert Willett), these samples were not kept "field tests" and, quite logically, had no commercial success.
Meanwhile, another American, a member of the investment company Diches Kevin (Kevin Dyches), decided to buy a small firm — Dyna-Tek, which is engaged in the production and sale of diversiform glassware. Gathering dust in the archives of the company unfinished development — technology of synthetic urine, which in composition is the same as a normal human, but it is devoid of unpleasant qualities.
Already mentioned Robert Willett, as well as several other experts have advised Dichesu complete studies and run synthetic urine production, predicting her resounding commercial success. Having considered all the options and explore this segment of the market, Diches came to the conclusion that the game is worth the candle.
He was right. All research laboratory inone unanimously declared that the urine Dichesa, or rather, a product of Dyna-Tek, unpretentious called Surine (short for synthetic urine — synthetic urine) — the most that neither is a natural urine. Any producer of beer from such a conclusion would be enough to kick expert, but this conclusion Dichesa very happy.
The first customer was the state Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention — CDC). This institution has purchased on trial 33 liters of synthetic urine. The head of one of the divisions of CDC, David Ashley (David Ashley), praised the quality of Surine and expressed a desire to constantly acquire urine production Dyna-Tek, and in significant quantities.
Dichesa turnover so far is modest — about 500 thousand dollars a year, and revenue from sales Surine is only 7 per cent of this amount. However, Kevin is optimistic forecasts. "I will be disappointed if in five years if he did not reach 90 percent," — said Diches.
Sight fifth. Russian-enlistment.
Telephone main Dyna-Tek is torn off the hook. Suggestions and requests come very different and very unexpected, even from areas that are hard to imagine at first. For example, one of the companies producing disposable diapers, wants to test their products, "the strength" through Surine.
However, not everything is so clean and smooth. Already, synthetic urine interested in semi-legal organizations that offer to sell it to people for fraud and deception tests doctors. Oh, I see that the young men of military age in our audience interested squirmed. Well, we dwell on this subject in more detail.
Of course, Diches as a law-
abiding citizen, indignantly rejected this disgraceful proposal. However, the idea remained and she is very much alive. You can verify this by looking at one online store, where a similar synthetic urine is sold by small wholesale in small vials. The idea is simple: take the bottle is heated to human urine, check this special termoindikatsionnoy strip, then dissolved in heated urine tablet with the desired pattern. You can simulate anything — from diabetes before pregnancy.
Young people sit at a place where you are so rushed? The girl in the front row, this is also for you to simulate the pregnancy not a single positive urine test. However, as for all other diseases. There is no doubt that the novelty soon and gets to the vast expanses of the Russian, just yet teeming willing "hang" from the army by any means. I have to disappoint you — synthetic urine will not help them.
Military medical examination, and all of medicine in general not used to establish the diagnosis only on any single analysis. You must have the clinical picture of the disease, confirming the X-ray data, tools, and a number of other studies that have forged very problematic. The same deception with diabetes will be revealed immediately if a blood test. What say? Can you fake blood?
Theoretically, of course, you can. After all, there have been reports on the establishment of artificial blood in Japan and in the United States, and in Russia used perfluorocarbon-based blood substitutes that can carry oxygen to the tissues.
But in practice — to identify one can any forgery. So do not rely on either synthetic urine or the artificial blood, nor even to artificial brains, equipped with the same artificial intelligence. It all depends on the person, on his natural ability and natural features. That's on them and we trust. The lecture is over, all free. The girl in the front row, and what are you doing tonight? …