In the famous novel by Nobel laureate Kenzaburo Oe "was late youth" we are talking about Japanese children born in the 1930s. They grew up during the war years, but when they were ready themselves to take up an instrument, the war was over. And missile tanks. They came very late to become an indispensable and almost immediately after the creation of the given way to the main battle tanks, is shown at the end of 1960 …
First is to understand the terminology. Now many of the main battle tanks have the ability to launch missiles — and the T-80 and T-90. However, this is more of a "zest" Russian and Russian military vehicles: rifled cannon British "Challenger" not allow you to organize launch missile systems, although such developments took place earlier and abroad ("Sheridan", the French AMX-13).
"Missile tanks," we will continue to call only those combat units, for which the Missiles (ATGM) was the main thing.
First in the world of anti-tank guided missiles Ruhrstahl X-7 developed in Germany at the end of the war, by 1945 they were ready for mass production and use, but Reich no longer had the strength and power: the defeat of Germany before the brooks were other tasks. Yet it had begun. A new type of weapon developed in a number of states, and in 1950 the French SS.10 found the combat use. ATGM promised to fully and completely change the strategy of a tank battle. If the gun arms usual distance — 1.5 — 2 km, then using rockets, could well storm the tank at a distance of 3 km. Naturally, there was a question about the installation of anti-tank launchers on tanks themselves …
Introduction to the Issue
Development was carried out in 2-directions. In 1-x, is the creation of effective missile tank destroyers capable of destroying the last over long distances. In-2, the introduction of launchers as additional weapons for mass-produced combat aircraft — this is the direction and led eventually to the creation of the T-64, the first batch Russian tank capable of firing both shells and guided missiles. In principle, the second direction substantially easier with the technological side: production tanks (T-54, T-55, T-62 and others) simply equipped created for combat vehicles ATGM "Baby". But as the main armament of the tank for "Baby" was not suitable because of rocket tanks for projects conducted personal development very different complexes.
Since 1957 Uralvagonzavod started the development of missile tank destroyer codenamed "Object 150". Managing the project was Leonid Kartcev, at that time the chief designer of the plant. Especially for the "150th" was prepared and missile 2K4 "Dragon". Certainly, the work on the missile tanks was carried out on a competitive basis: in addition to working hard Uralvagonzavod Kirov (rollicking rocket tank, "Object 287") and Chelyabinsk (rocket tank "Object 775") plant. Under the new tanks, respectively, developed other missiles — "Lotus" and "Typhoon". A total of 1950 — 1960-ies was created and tested eight different tank rocket launchers, but only in a few cases, these missile tanks were made "in the metal" and tested. About them and we talk.
Machine made in Leningrad Kirov Plant running Joseph Yakovlevich Kotin most experienced on the chassis of a medium tank "Object 430", at first looked like an exploded tank. In other words, she had a body, but the tower was not. More precisely, instead of the tower on the 287th established routing platform, located at a height level with the case. Located inside the crew (two people) and a launcher, which is in the firing position to extend it. The driver and commander-operator (also known as the gunner and the gunner) were isolated in a capsule that can protect against radiation and, even when the latter needed a nuclear weapon — within reasonable limits.
As a rough approximation at 287th object was two "know-how": in fact Tours (tank guided missile missile) and experienced a double booking, made on a "sandwich": 90mm booking — 130-mm layer of fiberglass — 30mm booking — anti-radiation knocked out. And to start the 140-mm Tours 9M15 "Typhoon" specially designed for the 287 th in DB-16 to have stabilized in the vertical plane so Makar, the tank could aiming to shoot at speeds up to 30 km / h Management of missiles carried by radio beam. As a subsidiary of weapons used were two 73-mm gun 2A25 "Lightning" and paired them with machine guns.
Everything looked pretty smooth. At the theoretical level, the 287th could hit a significant distance moving target, while remaining very difficult target, including through its own height (1750 mm in the area of human growth medium). But on the 1964 test tank failed — first because of the unreliability of the last rocket launcher. Of the 45 test launches were recorded 16 hits and 8 misses, while others were accompanied by launching failures! In the same year, the 287th was sent back for revision, which has not been the fate of the end, as its direct rival, the IT-1 (ex-object 150), proved to be even better.
There was another Kirov machine of the series — "Object 288". It was created in the above-mentioned "improvements." At the same chassis as that of the 287th, set instead of two gas turbine engine 5TDF unit GTD-350, and instead of the tower — a testing laboratory for the removal of data from the chassis. GTD-350 proved to be even worse than the unique engine, and missile equipment on 288th and not delivered. Total was 5 respective chassis — four for 287-bit and one for the 288-th object. Machines survived (one of each type) and are now in the tank museum in Kubinka together with an abundance of other unique items.
Along with the Leningrad over missile experts at the Chelyabinsk tank worked. Their development, "Object 775" so far is the closest attention to the guests of the museum because of Kubinka specific appearance. The project was created by Pavel Isakov, work on it started a bit later than the over 287-meters in 1962. In contrast to the opponent at the 775 th was a tower and a 125-mm gun (more precisely, launcher) D-126, is able to shoot as Tours and rockets (NURS) "Bor". In general, its features 775 minutes is not very different from the parallel developments. ATGM launcher for "Ruby" has stabilized a 2-planes and allowed to shoot on the go.
As in the 287 meters, the crew described the facility was located in an isolated and secure the capsule inside the tower. With its fascinating design applied solution: like any turnover tower, a driver "Spin" is independent of it, and its place and monitoring devices placed on a s
ingle turntable. Such a complex system, the necessity to reduce the overall height of the tank: the fact that the crew was positioned in the tower, and not in the body, significantly impacted the design of the machine.
775-D does not have adopted. Not an easy design with a "tower inside the tower" did not pay off: visibility remained vile. "Ruby" let less than the "Typhoon", but the highest reliability, and it was no different. However, a solution of 775 was in some measure a revolutionary: the first time guided missiles could be launched from a tank gun. By the way, the trunk of the D-126 was rifling to stabilize the uncontrolled "Drilling".
In the process of development and testing, and has appeared a number of modifications, namely the "Object 775T" with twin turbine engines and the "Object 780" — the first in the history of the tank capable of firing and Tours, and ordinary artillery shells from the 1st barrel.
And yet one rocket tank — the only one in the world! — Went into mass creation. Design it started before the other, in 1957, on the basis of projected parallel to the T-62 (in general, the initial design was carried out based on the T-54). The main armament used missiles 2K4 "Dragon".
Tests carried out as in the case of other rocket tanks, in 1964, showed very good results. Identified shortcomings were eliminated quite simply, the main advantage of "Object 150" (at the time of IT-1 was wearing a title) was his highest reliability relative to rivals. During the winter tests relevant incident occurred: jetstream rocket powder with snow sighting hole. This defect is removed simply by arranging the supply air curtain designed for 1.5 seconds after launch. Within half a second missile flew unmanageable, then the shooter had access to radio commands (control of a rocket, as in other systems, have been building a radio beam). To combat can operate several IT-1, guided missiles could be on different compositions of 7 frequencies and 2-radio codes.
The effectiveness of IT-1 showed a striking. On a theoretical level, one such unit could single-handedly kill the entire tank company, not having admitted to myself for no one car competitor in the distance firing range. Tests gave the designers quite phenomenal number — about 90% effective hits on stationary and moving around goals. Naturally, the mass production of IT-1 was given a green light, and in 1968 a tank destroyer entered service with the Russian army.
But it happened that once IT-1 (more precisely, a year ago) and entered into service developed in parallel main battle tank T-64. His smoothbore gun could be used as a launch pad for Tours and for all that keep fire artillery shells that brought down all the advantages of IT to nothing. However, the production version of the T-64B, the automobile PU Tours, was put into service only in 1976 — but still the development of purely "missile" tanks lost its own meaning. And in 1970, only two years later, the famous IT-1 went to bed. Work on it was not in vain: all production then needed in the design of missile-gun tanks.
Actually, the listed tanks were not the only Russian missile tanks of the time. Even in times of war majestically Russian MRLS tried to install the base T-60, there were other samples. Namely, in 1957 at the Kirov factory was built in metal ace standard "Object 282" based on the languid tank T-10. Some applied in the design of his armor solutions and then find their place in the "Object 287". Work on the 282-mu turned and because of defects is very languid chassis: Missile tank should be more "brisk". Up to now the 282nd has survived.
Also, in reality, there was (and survives today) rocket tank "Object 757", built in Chelyabinsk in the chassis IS-3M and armed mentioned "Ruby." And by then it was abandoned in favor of lighter designs. There were a lot of projects. The story about them would take too much space, and all the technical solutions used in their design, one way or another find their embodiment in the real machines.
Missile Tanks slightly late. Appear ATGM in 1930, and the tanks with Tours first, say, 1940, who knows what would have changed the course of the second world war. Specifically, it concerns the German development — taking into account the tendency of Germans to non-trivial technical solutions. For sure, fine, that history is not the subjunctive mood.
Of all the Russian rocket tanks "Object 775", made on the CTZ, the most similar to normal: it has a tower and a gun with a rifled barrel. Another thing is that the height of the 775-th — only 1750 mm, so it looks somewhat deformed.
Surprisingly, the first in the history of rocket tank RBT-5 was developed in the USSR in 1933. Installation with 2 rockets length 1805 mm was attached to the tower serial tank BT-5 without removing the main weapon (gun). However, in tests RBT-5 proved to be quite weak, and the work was stopped.
Weird appearance of "Object 287" substantiated first need to lower its height. On his swing is often located two 73-mm cannon 2A25 "Lightning". Between them is clearly visible flap, which, on the machine in a state of combat readiness was put forward launcher Tours "Typhoon". The crew was placed in a well-protected inside the capsule housing.
IT-1, also known as the "object 150"
IT-1 and remained the only "pure" tank rocket ever stood in service. In the stowed position launcher "Dragon" was hidden inside the tower, located under the armor and ammunition 15 ZM7 missiles, 12 of which were placed in the automatic installation. Recycling the battery, and start loading can be created in 25 seconds after the shot.