Main Battle Tanks (Part 6) — Type 99 (ZTZ-99) China

Basic Chinese Battle Tank — Type 99 (factory index ZTZ-99) was first shown to the public during a military parade in Beijing on October 1, 1999. The appearance of the tank third generation represented by China has caused a great stir. This tank was a breakthrough for the Chinese tank development. According to his fighting abilities this tank MBT approaches leading tankoproizvodyaschih States. Total for the parade was shown 18 machines. Over the following years was released some 200 tanks. With all this mass production was not deployed because of the relative Overhead tank and structural complexities.

Certainly, this tank was typical technical breakthroughs for China. China finally was able to make its own budding tank. With all this Chinese engineers went on earlier Thoren way to borrowing other people's development and improvement. The greatest impact on China so far is Russian / Russian tank design school. Specialists point out a number of similarities with the Chinese tank T-72M. His nose and running practically the same as the Soviet development. There were suspicions that and 125 mm. gun of the tank is not created without the influence of Russian 125-mm gun 2A46. In addition to everything else Chinese tank was autoloader carousel close to Russian and Russian counterparts. Application AZ reduced the crew of the tank up to 3 people.

Building and booking

The tank is made by a traditional assembly of rear-MTS — the engine compartment. In front of the tank is the separation of management — the place of the driver. The fighting compartment is in the middle of the machine. Housing tank about 1 meter lengthened in comparison with the case of the T-72. Lengthening the body back due to the release of space to accommodate a larger German diesels. Improving the housing front associated with the placement of a bulky tower with a great book. By its own design tower Type 99 tank resembles Western counterparts. It must be emphasized that the upper frontal part of the tank hull is actually similar to Russian, mounted on the T-72 tanks and inherited from her all zones of weakness.

Main Battle Tanks (Part 6) - Type 99 (ZTZ-99) China
The difference between the hull of the Type-99 from the body of the T-72

Reservations tank Type 99 resembles the structure of the book on their own Russian tanks T-80 and T-90. Armor is a layer of composite material, which acts as corundum, glass fiber or other placed between 2-layers of steel. Tower of the tank is welded and made of armor plates of different thicknesses. Body armor front projection MBT Type 99 late models was enhanced by the use of reactive armor blocks placed on top of the main tank reservation. With all of this in the tower blocks of dynamic protection available "corner" has been further strengthened by posterior recess of the tower, where the blocks of reactive armor were mounted on top of the mesh basket. At the request of the Chinese side is used armor tank multi-layered and provides protection against both armor-piercing and HEAT attack.


The main firepower of the tank is a Chinese smoothbore tank gun caliber of 125 mm. According to the Chinese professionals in this gun to their superior features not only its own analog Russian 2A46 45%, and the German guns RH-120 which runs on Leopard 2A5 tanks and M1A1 Abrams, at 30%. The main way to fight the enemy tanks are armor-piercing shells — BTS of depleted uranium. Apparently, the technology of their production, China has received from Israel, which at one time supplied in the country of such projectiles.

Main Battle Tanks (Part 6) - Type 99 (ZTZ-99) China

M711 ammunition supplied by Israel had the ratio of length to cross section is 20 to 1, and the initial velocity of the projectile — 1700 m / s. Their armor penetration reached 600 mm. At present, the Chinese engineers claim the development of a new BPS, which substantially exceeds the existing analogues. New projectile has an aspect ratio of length to cross section is 30 to 1, and the initial speed of 1780 m / s. His armor is seeking 850 mm. Such a Chinese BPS can make a significant danger to all existing tanks, including the M1A2 Abrams and T-90. According to a number of professionals in the arms of the tank can be cut and a set of guided weapons (CHC), based on the Russian 9M119 complex "Reflex".

The gun of the tank works in conjunction with an autoloader carousel on 22 shots. The implication is that AZ is designed based on the Russian model with the introduction of a number of configurations and eliminating defects. Ammunition of the total of 42 shots. It should be noted that unlike Western counterparts ammunition tank is not separated from the crew.

As a subsidiary of weapons used on the tank paired with a gun 7.62-mm machine gun, located to the right of gun (2,000 rounds) and a 12.7-mm anti-aircraft machine gun mounted on the turret hatches in front of the commander (ammunition 300 rounds). The coaxial machine gun is done with electric trigger, anti-aircraft gun turret only has manual control and can fire only in the frontal sector. Angles pointing AA gun from -4 to +75 degrees. Along the edges of the tower is mounted on a single 5 barreled smoke grenade launchers.

Main Battle Tanks (Part 6) - Type 99 (ZTZ-99) China

Exclusive feature of Chinese MBT is the presence of a laser system of active protection of the tank JD-3 *, which consists of a set of laser warning LRW (hybrid sensor mounted on the turret rear hatch commander) and combat maser — LSDW (in the box body on the tower for the hatches gunner).

When receiving a signal on irradiation with a laser beam enemy tank, this complex provides a turn tank turret toward the source of radiation, then cut one laser beam is attenuated power that defines the location of a clear enemy targets. Once the target is calculated, the beam power is increased to critical levels and disables the optical means or bodies of the enemy operator. According to the professionals, this complex is able to destroy a person's vision and optical devices at a distance of 2-3 km., When using the 7-fold increase of up to 5 km., And at a distance of 10 km. can cause short-term blinding flash. In addition to combat this complex function can do the role of laser communications between tanks.

* JD3 can be attributed to the blinding laser weapons, design, development and tests of which, exactly as the application, the UN is prohibited. The prohibition contained in the 4th Protocol to the Convention on certain types of everyday implements (13.10.1995)

Fire control system

OMS tank consists of a combination of sights commander and gunner with independent stabilization. Gunner equip a laser rangefinder and thermal channel. Image with thermal output to 2 color monitor gunner and commander (fold x5 and x11, 4). The commander may conduct fire from a gun without a role gunner. The tank commander
's panoramic sight. Tank gun is stabilized in 2 planes. The tank is equipped with a digital ballistic computer, a set of sensors (atmospheric test characteristics, barrel wear, etc.), functional color panel commander. The tank is mounted with a satellite navigation system (GPS) and inertial channels, the data from that report to the commander's screen and superimposed on a digital map of the area.

Main Battle Tanks (Part 6) - Type 99 (ZTZ-99) China

Shooting accuracy is obtained from the use of ballistic computer, laser range finder, a system of sensors, also the thermal barrel jacket of the tank. Stabilization tool in the 2-planes guarantees the highest efficiency of fire on the move. Rate instruments using AZ achieves 8 shots per minute., Without it — 2 shots per minute.

The engine and gearbox

The tank is mounted diesel engine water cooled turbo delivers power of 1500 hp This diesel engine has been developed on the basis of the German motor MB871ka501. When the mass of the tank to 54 tons this engine allows it to reach speeds of 80 km / h on the motorway and up to 60 km / h when driving on rough terrain. The specific power of the motor — 27.78 l / s per tonne. Up to 32 km / h from a place capable of accelerating tank in just 12 seconds. Tank equip mechanical planetary gearbox with 7 speeds for forward and one for reverse motion, this box is almost one hundred percent taken from the Russian tank T-72M. In the field, the criteria for replacement of the motor can be completed in 30-40 minutes.

Chassis tank consists of six road wheels and four support rollers on each side. Dual rollers are fitted with rubber tires, tank torsion bar suspension with hydraulic shock absorbers on the first 2-node and last suspension. The drive wheel is placed behind (mesh lantern). Caterpillar of the tank is equipped with a rubber hinge.

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