March 1, 1954 the Americans made test H-bomb at Bikini Atoll. This test was the most massive explosion of the United States has ever produced, with an estimated capacity of 15 megatons. The strength of the explosion was equivalent to almost explode thousands of bombs dropped on the Japanese town of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Not without its victims — they have several Japanese fishermen fishing schooners. Most of these people have died from the effects of radiation disease before the age of natural death. The international community has expressed its concern about the strong shock wave and radioactive fallout.
Statement protesting the tests of thermonuclear weapons made eminent English mathematician and philosopher Bertrand Russell. He was supported by Nobel Prize winners — Albert Einstein, Frederic Joliot-Curie and other prominent researchers. It was created Pugwash movement — an international non-governmental scientific organization, which included scientists of the West and the East. The aim of the movement was the work on the reduction of the threat of armed conflict and to seek joint solutions to global problems of mankind. First meeting was accomplished 7-10 July 1957 in the Canadian town of Pugwash.
Help. Thermonuclear weapon — type of atomic weapons, the destructive power of which is based on the use of nuclear fusion energy light to heavier parts (for example, the synthesis of 1-th nucleus of a helium atom of 2-nuclei of the atoms of deuterium — heavy hydrogen). If this reaction produces an unlimited amount of energy, that's why, in recent decades, there are works on the creation of a fusion power plant project. Thermonuclear tool has the same amazing cause, and that a nuclear weapon, but has a much more powerful explosion.
Major milestones for the creation of thermonuclear weapons in the U.S.
In May 1941, the Japanese physicist Tokutaro Hagiwara of Kyoto Institute gave lectures on the idea that there is a possibility of initiating fusion reaction between hydrogen nuclei, which can be invoked using an explosive chain reaction of nuclear fission of uranium-235. Then in September 1941 with the idea of nuclear fusion bomb, triggered nuclear charge, put forward the outstanding Italian physicist Enrico Fermi, telling about her own employee South American physicist Edward Teller at the beginning of the so-called. Manhattan Project. This idea became the basis for the decade-Teller effect. Edward Teller in 1941, he worked in Chicago and Columbia University, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, was introduced to the research team to develop a nuclear bomb. He became manager of the applets to create a hydrogen bomb. It should be noted that Teller was a scientist, "warlord", speaking for ensuring the priority of the United States in nuclear weapons. Physicist opposed to interdict nuclear tests in 3 environments for the job of creating a cheap and more effective types of nuclear weapons, which will hit the target with insignificant fallout, with the deployment of weapons, including laser weapons in space.
In the summer of 1942, South American and European researchers, discussing the future of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, raised the problem of the creation of the deuterium 'Super bomb. " By the end of 1945, the concept of "classical super" has found relatively holistic nature.
First principle and the basic steps of a project officer made a synthesis Teller Polish mathematician Stanislaw Ulam. It is to initiate fusion proposed to compress fusion fuel before heating it, using the primary reasons for this cleavage reaction, and in addition, to arrange nuclear charge separately from the primary component of nuclear bombs. Offers Ulama translate assist the development of thermonuclear bombs from theory into practice. From these data, Teller suggested that X-ray radiation and a palette made primary explosive may give quite energy secondary component which is located in the primary common envelope. This will allow sufficient to perform the implosion (compression) and initiate the fusion reaction.
On Thermonuclear bomb South American management start thinking almost immediately after the creation of the atomic bomb in 1945. But officially start work on thermonuclear program there in the United States, said the 33rd U.S. President Harry Truman January 30, 1950. One of the prerequisites for the start programs from the Soviet Union has become the test of the atomic bomb in 1949, the South American administration was willing to make a massive gun. The program to build a bomb with nuclear fusion was based on the ideas was Stanislaw Ulam and Edward Teller. They calculated that the X-rays that emits starting atomic charge, reach the special radiation channel capsule of uranium (lead) with fusion. Uranus is rapidly absorbed radiation is converted into plasma, which is very very compresses the fuel (up to 1000). With all of this very principle to prevent early heating fuel, as this reduces the amount of compression. But even squeezed in 1000 and heated to millions of degrees fuel is not yet ready for the thermonuclear burning. Because of the reaction to "help" break out into the center of the room by a plutonium rod. After compression, the plutonium rod goes into the supercritical state, and as a result of the fission reaction temperature increased to a suitable height.
Cooperative report Teller and Ulam on March 9, 1951 brought the program from the United States to create a thermonuclear bomb enormous power for the final stretch. This research programm was completed November 1, 1952 explosion at Eniwetok Atoll (Marshall Islands) first thermonuclear device "Ivy Mike" (English Ivy Mike). Power bomb was 10.4 megatons. But it was not actually "bomb"Device is a cryogenic container with a watery consistency of deuterium and tritium, and ordinary atomic charge, located on top of a total weight of 62 tons. In the center of the cryogenic tank was placed plutonium midstream, who was "spark plug" for the fusion reaction. Both components of the thermonuclear device was placed in a common envelope of uranium mass of 4.5 tons. This was followed by other tests. In May 1952, began to build a plant for the production of lithium-6. He began working with mid-1953.
Explosion device "Ivy Mike".
Brought the device to combat the state in 1954, by this time, and have accumulated a sufficient amount of lithium. This year's South American armed forces were the first thermonuclear bomb — it was huge and languorous "mastodon" designed to "last resort." These were the bomb EC-16, a transportable version of the device "Ivy Mike" with a mass of 19 t, charge 8 Mt, the first thermonuclear bomb with a rigid fuel TX-14 weighing 14 tons, 7 Mt of charge, and bomb EC-17, weighing 17 tons, charge 11 Mt. All of these thermonuclear charges were made in sets of 5 pieces. In addition, there were another 10 devices EC 24. In the same year, on March 1 at the Bikini Atoll tests
have been completed, "Bravo" (it was part of a series of nuclear tests "Castle"), the device codenamed "Shrimp." Fuel in thermonuclear bomb was a mixture of 40% of lithium-6 and 60% of lithium-7. Calculations of American Scientists anticipate that lithium-7 will not participate in the reaction, but some researchers suspect that possibility, predicting increase explosive power devices up to 20%. The test was conducted in terrestrial criteria. The reality eclipsed all expectations. Power bomb has exceeded the expected approximately 2.5 times.
This and subsequent tests — so, 21 May 1956 produced the first drop the bomb from the plane showed the way for the forthcoming improvement of thermonuclear weapons — the reduction of the weight, increase the power of the charge. Went miniaturization process Teller-Ulam design, so equip the hydrogen bomb intercontinental ballistic missiles and ballistic missile submarines. Already by 1960, the Americans were able to adopt a megaton-class warheads W47, which are deployed on submarines.