After the elimination of Khrushchev from power, newcomer management USSR — Brezhnev, Suslov, Kosygin, Podgorny, had to deal with urgent measures to remedy the situation in the country. Reform party was canceled when the shared industrial and agricultural party organization. Turned school reform — while she tried to combine schooling with the simultaneous operation of the enterprise. Economic councils were abolished, restored normal line ministries. To avoid the shortcomings of food caused by the disorder of agriculture, continued to buy grain abroad, was bought and some industrial products. Collective farmers were again allowed to have a garden plot, written off debts of the collective farms were frozen "religious" persecution.
In the field of industry, not only returned the ministry, and at the suggestion of Kosygin started introducing "liberal" ways of working: increased autonomy companies have reduced the number of planned features that are coming down "from above", introduced a mechanism of self-financing, now part of the company to be able to direct profits to social , cultural and everyday needs of their own workers. Entering the real incentives of workers, employees. Different experiments were carried out (not global temper) to improve the organization of work — such as "team contract."
But closer to the pace of development of the Stalinist era was not possible — the interest of the people went out. It was impossible to pick up on the majestic achievements (with all this manual). Last able to inspire people with new land development, the surge was and decision motto — "catch up and overtake America" when promised, today's generation is already live under communism. But Khrushchev's excesses, which completely undermined and crossed out these impulses.
Under Brezhnev, the authorities have also tried to use the sonorous calls: proclaimed "decisive" and "determining" years, "five years of quality", etc. But the way has not acted with "cheers" such statements were only at meetings, congresses. Began to flourish, "showing off". New shock settings — KamAZ, BAM, Atommash, cyclopean construction of oil pipelines and gas pipelines already conducted in the main not the enthusiasm and faith in a brighter future. For the vast number of people, these settings have the opportunity to earn and festive events in almost all were ostentatious husks.
In the field of education and science in full force earned the system as laid Stalin. From the late 1950s until the late 1960s, spending on science increased by 12 times, and the number of researchers increased by 6 times. In Proceedings of the Fourth Russian Union of all the scientists of the planet! In higher education enrollment of 5,000,000 students, their teachers taught half a million. Were achieved outstanding success — quickly evolved gallakticheskie applets, nuclear power, military technologies, could ensure complete safety of the country making discoveries in the field of exact sciences — physics, chemistry, arithmetic, biology, etc. If unable to fully connect the progress of scientific and technological revolution with the national economy of the country, it promised a fabulous, amazing perspective. USSR could become Power of the 21st century in the 20 century, the deadly attack Western world without war, but their achievements.
Unfortunately, for various reasons it did not work. Part of the scientists turned into the bureaucracy of science, they made useless reports. Mass of advanced development was simply "buried". Well, the management company was easier to work quietly on the already tested, reliable equipment, innovations violated well-established industrial process. The industry has evolved in the main extensive way — construction of new companies, rather than increasing productivity in existing plants, the introduction of new technology out there.
Ships "Apollo" (left) and "Union" (right). Reconstruction.
To the growth of bureaucracy. Intelligentsia, which according to the census in 1979, was already 19% of the population was poor in its own weight (in real terms) provided by the group, and to the best conditions changed quite slowly, but I wanted a good life right at the moment — people beheld Italian, French films how to live in Europe because growing "kitchen opposition." A significant part of the intelligentsia was skeptical of the success of Russian system. Repeat of the Russian Empire, when most intellectuals were enemies existing system.
Agriculture and failed to fully recover from the Khrushchev tests. Lasted "depopulation" countryside, especially in the indigenous Russian regions. Young people tried after school, or the army to settle down in the town, leaving the promising construction, projects. If in 1939, farmers in the country was 47-48% of the population, whereas in 1979 — only 15%. Urbanization has caused great damage not only to agriculture, and the Russian culture. Specifically, a village in almost all retained a radical Russian culture — songs, dances and power of the melee, the ability of life in a single team, the ability to co-operation, etc.
However, we can not say that the government did not pay attention to agriculture. It invested huge amounts of money, but do not ensure high quality translations, only taught live village by subsidies, external support, for example, for every "harvest" mobilized up to 20% of all adult residents of the Union (fighter, students, workers, workers of science and education, etc.).
The destruction of the rural environment has led to yet another negative trend — fell sharply increase the Russian population. Russian village, with its tradition of large families gave the main growth of our people. Urbanization has dealt a terrible blow demographic population of the Union. First of the 20th century, we are in terms of population after China and India. If not for the catastrophe of the 20th century, the Russian people numbered several hundred million people, and our homeland as before was the third-largest population on the planet. And lasted frisky growth peoples of Central Asia and the Caucasus — their demographic niche, due to its development, has been greatly expanded, they were living in their own weight in the countrys
ide, in the houses could have a huge family.
By the same impact on the growth of the population paid a "disease of the city" — the destruction of large families (several generations), drunkenness, emancipation, careerism, the desire to live "for himself", the growth rate of abortion, divorce, etc.
Management of the Union, in the main nominees 1930, have gained respectable positions in the Politburo and the government has a decent age, and did not want sharp turns, meaningful reform. Under Brezhnev, the main dream fulfilled nomenclature — it was possible to live a relaxed, enjoying the achieved position, recognition and benefits. In the end, the top of the party-state apparatus turned into virtually a closed caste. Social elevators were shut evenly on the "sweet spot" tried to arrange their own relatives, kids friends, and acquaintances.
Conservatism won up, everything was predictable, measured. Naturally, the power struggle was going its own power intrigues, but it was quiet, behind the scenes, without the loud scandals. In the summer of 1977, was ousted Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet Nikolai Podgorny, and in 1980 from the obligations Politburo member and Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers Alexei Kosygin was released. According to the views of Varennikova VI, in 1979, Kosygin was the only member of the Politburo, which did not support the decision to send parts of the Russian Army in Afghanistan, and now he had a complete break with Leonid Brezhnev and his associates. People who make mistakes or lost in intrigue, no leaves at the camp, links are not subjected to condemnation, they are usually simply transferred to other positions, or exiled to retire for "health reasons", without depriving awards benefits.
Party conventions have become purely solemn, ceremonial events: here read longish summary reports, virtually no one worthy of attention, announcing the implementation of five-year plans, to follow.
Specifically, at the time the government was podsazheny on Vol. "The oil needle", "petrodollars", quite buried hopes for transformation, modernization of the economy. An urgent need for reform of the economy was lost, no reform was calmer. USSR as ever sailed on inertia.
Were in the process of becoming separatism and nationalism in the Baltic republics of the Caucasus and Central Asia. This is despite the fact that the margin had considerable support center, lasted the process of creating public intellectuals, there were created for the people "special conditions" in some kinds of cases population lived better areas of the Russian Federation and Belarus. Center does not cut short these processes, closed their eyes. For example, if the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus for the "religious" could lose their membership card, and the temples and monasteries lasted locked, the Baltic states, the Caucasus, Central Asia operated Lutheran church, houses of worship sect, mosques, Georgian and Armenian churches, visited them and local party officials. Remained on the fringes and conditions, the ability to enrich themselves — at the highest prices the government sold tangerines, grapes, fruit, wool, etc. The representatives of the southern republics were profitable trade on the Russian market, were able to generate capital which needed after 1991.
It followed that the policy of the party and the government for different regions were not similar. The peoples of the Baltic States, Central Asia, the Caucasus could be something that could not be Russian.
Degraded the Communist Party, in almost all it had to do with the fact that the standards enunciated far sprawling with real life. The number has increased dramatically, if in 1952 the party was about 7 million people, by the 1980s, the Communists had over 18 million people. Communist was devalued status — membership in the Communist Party was almost all formality, where only the obligations of a role in the permanent collections and payment of contributions. A benefit was smooth, it was easier to go up the career ladder, increased the authority of the person's status in society. In the end, the party took a lot of careerists and opportunists.
To explain to the people the failure of the project of "building communism for 20 years" (it had promised Khrushchev), invented the concept of construction in the USSR "developed socialism." "Developed socialism", allegedly, was a transitional step from socialism to communism. The people felt quite right that theory verbiage. By the same with the "developed socialism" had difficulties. Because followed by an explanation that the step of "developed socialism" will be long and "improvement of developed socialism" is "the central challenge for the foreseeable future."
It turned out that the built-built communism, but instead he built a developed socialism, which was now necessary to improve endless hours. There were scattered last illusions about the communist society, "paradise on earth", for which make great sacrifices. And there was a pretty candidacy at a constant display of cute side of capitalism. This led to apathy, indifference, spiritual emptiness.
The country has deliberately undermined the authority of the supreme power — was created ugly caricature of Brezhnev's cult of personality. So, the first person the government was just showered with merit: 7 Orders of Lenin, Hero of 5 stars Russian Union and Hero of Socialist Labor, the Gold Star of the Karl Marx (for "outstanding contribution to the development of Marxist-Leninist theory"), the highest military leadership award "Winning , "the title of Marshal of the Union of Russian, Lenin Peace Prize and the mass of the various awards from other countries. On behalf of the Brezhnev were written three books — "Small Earth", "Revival", "Virgin Lands" which were published copies of more than 15 million copies. They have to be taught, for their general secretary received the Lenin Prize in Literature. It is clear that an aging, seriously unhealthy Brezhnev heartily rejoiced awards, he was not the villain, dictator, fool on the throne like Khrushchev. I wish that the country prospered.
But the strength inherent in store under Stalin, Khrushchev went through tricks, was a never-ending, it was impossible to "rest on our laurels."
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Kara-Murza SG Russian civilization: from Victory majestically to the present day (the second book). Moscow, 2001.
Hinstein A. The parable of the lost time. Why Brezhnev could not be Putin. M., 2011.