MBT Sweden — STRV-103

The main battle tank of Sweden under the symbol STRV-103, known also under the designation «S» is of particular interest because it is the first time in the history of the world tank design have been used quite notable designs, namely — installation 2-different types of engines — diesel and gas turbine, the lack of towers, motionless relative to the whole body of the tank with a cannon-fire at the target by turning the body in the horizontal and vertical planes, double booking — the basic principle for the relevant units and the crew and support for secondary devices. Swedish tank crew consisted of 3 people. Tank massively carried out from 1966 to 1971, in 1990 was withdrawn from service and replaced with a German tank "Leopard 2".

In the first post-war years in Sweden have been developing new tanks. In 1953, the UK had bought 80 tanks "Centurion" MK3 with 83.4-mm cannon, and a bit later another 270 tanks "Centurion" Mk 10 with a 105-mm cannon. But these machines are not fully satisfied the Swedish army, because since the mid 50's then started to consider the ability of designing your own tank. With all of this country's military government ruled by the subsequent military concept: tank — quite an item in the defense system of the country and at the moment, and for the foreseeable future. In particular, it is necessary to protect the southern plains of Sweden and the Baltic Sea.

Meticulous records of geographical criterion Sweden, together with the acquisition of its army, led to the conclusion that designers need to find completely novel concept of the tank that would fit perfectly in the special conditions of this Scandinavian country. According to experts, the new tank had to outshine being armed with "Centurion" and with all this to be easier on the issue of training of the crew.

MBT Sweden - STRV-103

To meet the requirements for tactical and operational mobility of the greatest weight of the tank was limited to 43 tons, according to the ability of the tank should have been provided buoyancy. These conflicting requirements are even more complicated by the fact that the tank needed a solid armor protection, which would have provided him with protection against new OB. Finding a solution that would satisfy the requirements of reducing the size of the tank and immediately eased the training of the crew, led to the abandonment of the traditional assembly with a rotating turret crew accommodation and levels (a driver in the housing, the other in the tower). This placement, especially in view of the loader, which should have been provided in practically human growth, significantly increased the height of battle machine.

Fast, and went into the concept of the new tank. Tank gun and coaxial machine gun was mounted in the housing aggressively. Pointing guns horizontally carried out using ordinary hydrostatic mechanism for turning on dry ground tank in the second, turned 90 degrees to the vertical aiming for transfer of fuel to the hydropneumatic suspension from the front road wheels to the rear and front respectively.

Through the introduction of unusual layout solutions designers were able to connect to the tank at a higher weight rather limited firepower, good security and mobility. Tank got reckless assembly diagram with the "Casemates" installation of the main weapons in the case. The gun, mounted in the front hull, had no ability to transport through the horizontal and vertical. Guidance configures the position of the machine housing a 2-planes. In front of the tank was taken power pack compartment on the separation of management, which was immediately and combative. In the crew compartment to the right of the gun was the commander of the left — a driver (he does the gunner), followed by face-to-stern wireless operator was located.

For a long time there was a question to the developers to select the power plant cooling system which would have been located in a well-protected space for the crew compartment inside the main tank's hull. Additional protection of the cooling system were enormous fuel tanks, which were installed on the outside of the main hulls and had ballistic and bulletproof armor. Place in front of the extra body armor found suitable for the installation of inlet and exhaust manifolds, air cleaners, because their damage in combat criteria did not cause the immediate release of the tank out of action. This conclusion has been proven during the test, the tank could make the combat puzzle for a few hours before it begins to require repair. The development of the power plant of the tank began in 1959, after a study of all possible options for the committee came to the unanimous beliefs about the need to use a combination of diesel power plant and gas-turbine engines.

MBT Sweden - STRV-103

As such, they are set to luring aspect of the "cost-effectiveness", which is part of the tank fit in the best way. In 1-x, such installation was, in fact, only one, which could be used in the space allocated to it. All others would claim a significant growth silhouette or weakening protection in the frontal part. In-2, installing the tank diesel and turbine engine on both sides of the gun to make it possible to readily available data service engines. Moreover, the combined power plant, any of the engines which could provide the mobility of the tank (though with some limitations), has been more reliable in the criteria for the fight.

The main armament was a 105 mm gun with a barrel length of 62 calibres, which received fairly regular automatic loading and rate of fire of 15 rounds per minute. Store loading was associated with 3 stores of ammunition, which were located at the rear of the tank for the fighting compartment. Shop number 1 had 4 vertical shaft of 5 shots across — a total of 20 rounds, shop number 2 had 5 vertical shafts and the same number of shots across — only 25 rounds. Shop at number 3 had a number 1 for 5 rounds. So Makar, tank ammunition consisted of 50 rounds. The shutter gun and recoil device located above the shops between 2-blocks of the cooling system. This approach has permitted the assembly to provide a comfortable opportunity to fill the stores of ammunition better ballistic protection, the height of the tank at all it did not exceed 1.9 m

While reloading gun cartridge cases ejected through a hatch located in the rear of the machine. Together with the location in the middle of the barrel ejector, it greatly reduced the gas content of the habitable module tank. Restart the empty loading machines performed manually through two hatches located to the rear of the hull and took 5-10 minutes. On the left side of the front plate mounted in a motionless bronekozhuhe two 7.62-mm machine gun with ammunition rounds in 2750. Pointing them as was done by turning the body, ie played the role of guns paired with a gun. The firing of guns and machine guns produced a driver and tank commander. Over the hatches on the turret of the tank commander to prioritize gun that could do the function of the zenith. This turret can be equipped with broneschitkami.

MBT Sweden - STRV-103

The driver and tank commander had in his own possession, binocular optical instruments combined with variable multiplicity of approaches. In the gunner's sight was integrated laser rangefinder. Monitoring devices commander were stabilized in the vertical plane, and the cupola in the horizontal axis. In addition periscope used interchangeable blocks, 4 blocks found in the commander's cupola, one at the driver, radio operator had 2 blocks. All optical devices were covered with armor flaps. Protection of the tank to provide not only the width of his body armor, and quite bolshennymi angles of armor plates, first, the upper front hull. Additional protection served as a small area of the frontal and side projections, as a trough-shaped bottom of the tank.

A steady increase in the effectiveness of the destruction of tanks on the battlefield, forcing Swedish engineers make upgrades tank STRV-103, which in for almost 30 years was the MBT Sweden. First, it was necessary to increase the security of the tank against HEAT ammunition. The design features the top-plate of the tank hull was not allowed to use the full dynamic grid blocks of protection, but the Swedish designers have found a very unique method out of the situation. In the front part of the body they found an array of bronestali that was capable of supporting up to 4 hits anti-tank grenades. To protect the sides of the same Swedish engineers decided to use the 18 suspended cans (for 9 pieces for each side), the decision than the tangible growth of supplies of fuel (400 liters). Would serve to the same protection from falling into the boards cumulative ammunition.

What did all the same this represented the Swedish tank, in almost all countries have decided not to this time. So, for example, England, Australia and the United States gave him the very highest grades, but as a self-propelled anti-tank. Swedes until recently was considered his creation vsepolnotsennym tank. The only thing he never denied — it is a rather unusual design.

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