There are many ways to diagnose allergies. The correct diagnosis can be made only after a comprehensive survey ever — after a single analysis. Comprehensive survey of allergy starts with a conversation with an allergist. The doctor asks about the complaints about the beginning of the disease, especially the development of the conditions under which an allergic reaction is expressed as, the presence of such diseases with relatives, living and working conditions, etc. Thereafter doctor assigns specific diagnostic methods.
The survey method of injection (skin prick test) or scratches (skarifikatsionnye test) Is performed in order to determine what allergens may have importance in the development of symptoms in the individual. It is absolutely painless. The difference between them is insignificant, the first method considered to be more secure.
Research, usually performed on forearm skin, which had been previously treated with an alcoholic solution. Next, the skin is applied to a clean drop of allergens. In the case of scarification tests, a drop of allergen, disposable lancet, applied small scratches. In case of skin prick tests using disposable needles, they cause lung shots (one millimeter in depth). And in fact, and in another case, the blood vessels do not offend, that is, both methods are bloodless. Do not put more than 15 samples with allergens at one time. After some time, may develop some swelling and redness of the skin, which suggests allergic to the substance.
The study of specific antibodies Ig E
Such analysis for antibodies responsible for the development of allergies, helps to establish a group of causative allergens. Method very sensitive, and the information is essentially similar to that obtained as a result of skin testing. To carry out this analysis will need to donate blood from a vein.
Skin testing and blood tests for IgE indicate those allergens that can potentially cause allergic reactions in the person. If the skin tests and blood tests, the diagnosis is unclear, the doctor may prescribe provocative tests. Such studies are conducted in allergy hospital on strict conditions. In carrying out provocative tests in the nose, under the tongue or injected directly into the bronchial small amount of the allergen, and after a reaction time is estimated. This research may cause the patient severe allergic reactions and should be carried out in the presence of a doctor who can provide immediate medical assistance.
An elimination tests
If contact with the allergen is constant, then in order to confirm that the particular allergen causes the clinical manifestations of allergy, use an elimination test. Elimination — the removal of the allergen. A typical example of an elimination test — elimination diet. It is a diagnostic technique that consists in elimination from the diet of the alleged offending food. If, after the exclusion of the product within 7 — 14 days comes a visible improvement in the disease, we can say that this product is the cause of allergies.
To diagnose and correct treatment of allergies doctor may be asked to keep a special diary in which the patient will mark the start of allergy, manifestations and the possible cause. This will allow to assign a prophylactic treatment or to avoid contact with the allergen, for example, in the case of pollen allergy and food allergy.
Laboratory methods for diagnosing allergies — it's just part of a comprehensive allergy testing. On this basis, doctor may suggest the cause of allergies. Accurate diagnosis can be made only when the totality of the data: a survey, inspection, laboratory data and response to treatment.