Morphology: playing with the parts of speech


Today we'll talk about another section of linguistics — morphology (remember, morphology studies word form).

In math says that the permutation of places sum is not changed. In English? Very much! Remember, at the last session, we rearranged the letters in a variety of verbal chains, changed the letters one to the other, if not cleaned them out of words, and each time new results are obtained. Now, let's not play with the individual letters, and with the integral parts of speech.

These games are quite suitable for toddlers who are just beginning to read, and for those who learn in elementary school.

And, maybe, writes in a notebook suffixes …

Just as long as we do not rewrite the suffixes in a notebook. Better we play them.

Preparing for a game like this should take you just a few minutes. We will need to make a mini-book, in which part of the page turning separately. For this A4 sheet of paper is cut crosswise into three parts add up each rectangle in half, put all three into one another and are held together by the middle of the stapler to get a small notebook of six pages. At the same time we cut all six pages of the middle perpendicular to the fold. Obtain notebook consisting of two halves, each of which can be switched individually (like two separated calendars connected together). You can also use a small notebook or paper records, notched perpendicular to the line a few pages of their connection. These books we will have a lot — they help us in linguistic games, clearly demonstrating the method of "perestanovochek."

Rotate the resulting booklet folded up. Now, on the same level (approximately in the middle of each "Date Navigator") will write the word. Note first that will be used, not all pages, just a format most suitable for manufacturing. On three pages left "Date Navigator" write HOUSE KNIFE nose. First page right "Date Navigator" is left blank, and the following two write IR, ische. Thus, the two halves of the whole amount of each page word. At the same time we solve a simple puzzle on combinatorics — How many words can be formed from these halves? We check? To do this, connect the root and suffix, and we get a house-house-domische, knife-knife-beetle-crusher, nose-nose-conk. TIR is not possible to divide into two, and three parts, thus adding another "calendar". The third "calendar" will consist of nine pages, to which the child will draw a response-otgadku — at home, knives and noses of different sizes. Forming a word, you can add it to the appropriate picture.

The term "suffix" can not yet be called. Try to ask the kid, why need this part of the word. Maybe it looks like a mushroom in the famous fairy tale about Alice, who then helped the girl to grow up, then fall off again?

The functions of these suffixes and nicely demonstrates the cheerful poem O.Grigoreva "Bylina"

  • Slavochka sits on zaborike,
  • And under him on the bench Borenka.
  • Borenka took a note-book,
  • Wrote: "You little fool, Slavochka."
  • Took out Slavochka karandashische,
  • Wrote in his notebook: "You durachische."
  • Borische took tetradischu
  • But how will crack on lbischu Slavischu.
  • Slavische took skameischu
  • But how to crack Borische sheischu.
  • Crying Slavochka under zaborikom,
  • Under the stool crying Borenka.

What suffixes with your child you will find in this epic?

Of course, the suffix may have other functions. Consider, for example, a chain of words: BUILDER, a teacher, a listener, a caretaker, a reader. We write them in the same way that it was clear that the first part of a word can change the suffix for all common words. About whom they say …-TEL? Maybe the kid will try myself to answer this question?

Attach a prefix!

Now let's see what part of speech is the square root. This, of course, prefix.

Tame tigers

Preparatory work is the same. On the left side of each page write: Perret FOR YOU. And on the right side of each page write an immutable part of the word: JUMP, DIG, RUN. The problem is the same — to make a word. We can say that here the prefix has become tamer tiger, in fact it makes them jump through a hoop, then jump onto the curb, then jump out of the cells, etc.

Mansion (the game with the prefix AT)

For this game, we need not two, but three "Date Navigator". The first part of the word — the prefix AT. The second part will change: Letellier, gallop, run, walked, raced the top. In the third part we write FLY, frogs, rabbits, foxes, wolves, bears. If the child is just beginning to read, in the third part of the image can restrict residents attics. Together with your child remember the story of the settlement of attics, choose who what action suits. The game kid will come to an important conclusion that one and the same set-top box can be connected to different roots, but at the same time remember that the approach of said prefix AT and not PRL.

The Bremen Town Musicians (the game with the prefix WA)

Your kid will remember a great episode of a fairy tale "The Bremen Town Musicians" when roving performers frightened to death by robbers, not shouting their voices. You now have the opportunity to show the story, so to speak, in the people, and at the same time to practice in the word.

So, the first part of the word — constant prefix FOR. The second part, as in the previous game, changing: barking, meowing, crows, ON ORAL-asinine. And on every page of the third part of the draw character, or write: DOG, CAT, rooster, a donkey.

Please let the animals speak, as expected: a dog barked, the cat mewed, the cock crowed, roared in donkey ass. And now the "messed up" page! In order for the game to be fun and emotional, and it is not forbidden by the loud pokukarekat or pomyaukat. And along the way unobtrusively observe that console FOR here shows the beginning steps: first dog was silent, and then crowed, etc.

In the language of set-top boxes

What do you think, is it possible to talk only consoles? Let's try it! Name the baby pad, and let him guess what word to her need to "pristavit." So, imagine that you are sitting in front of a TV.

  • AT! What should you do?
  • Turn on the TV.
  • Pere!
  • Switch to another program.
  • -YOU!
  • Disable.

Now, sit on chairs or on the floor just at a distance from each other. What should you do if an adult says,

  • , PLLC!
  • Push, to come.
  • Now GR-!
  • Move over, move on.

And in the end — the end

On the principle of "perestanovochek" can introduce the concept of the baby and ends.

At the first "Date Navigator" will write an immutable foundation words Veseli. The four pages of the second "Date Navigator" will write closure: SAT, AH, OE, BOILED. The third "Date Navigator" — draw, say, a boy, a girl, sunshine and a group of children. Now form the word, choosing the right answer and end-picture. Note along the way that the plural BOILED for all three branches.

When the child is older, on such a clear example it is possible to familiarize with the case endings of nouns and conjugation of verbs. On the "perestanovochkah" shows that in order to find the end, it is necessary to change the word. But there are words that can not be changed, they have no end. For example, the word changes HOUSE: HOME, HOME, HOUSE, so he has end. The words here, there, YESTERDAY, METRO, Pony, Kangaroo does not change and, therefore, do not have endings.

Find the word!

So, we have a fairly serious progress in the morphological analysis of the word, and it is time to summarize our knowledge. Prepare in advance cards on which are written t
he words are different.

For example, such. Consoles: PERE, TO, YOU, defense, ON, IN, Y, ON. Roots (to begin limited to three roots): PROCEEDINGS, WATERS nose. Suffixes K, IT (of course, strictly speaking, this formant infinitive, but there are details for the child does not matter), Nick Chick. Graduation: A, I. Different parts of words you can write in different colors or label them as they do in school (remember, the arc of the root cap to the suffix box to finish TURNED "flat" the letter D for the console).

Our aim from the available set in turn make the maximum number of words (FIND, CUT, Adaptor, WIRE, PEREVODCHK, O, etc.). By adding a new part of the word, in this game you can play forever. And, as a family. You can compare the resulting expression, which is equal parts: for example, that in common with the words GO, relocation and transfer? And the words to drive, walk, wear? Or what happens if A is replaced by the end of endings: FIND — FINDINGS?

Of course, not always the mechanistic "deputed" prefixes and suffixes to the root gives rise to new real words. But this also has its own meaning. Try to trace what the word is formed from one or the other option: for example, the word ADAPTER not formed from a non-existent word HODNIK, and from the word GO.

Of course, we do not intend to go through the entire course of Russian language in primary school, and even more so — to the school. Our job is much easier — to show the kid, "as framed by the word" teach him to see in the word parts, and when the time comes for a detailed and careful study, prefixes, suffixes will be for your child is not a set of meaningless words, as the old, good acquaintances. Take the time to play a class, because interest zaronenny now the Russian language, then pay off handsomely.

Inessa Smyk

According to the magazine "Aistenok"

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