On the verge of a breakthrough hypersonic

On the verge of a breakthrough hypersonic
To create a unique aircraft Our homeland connects voedinyzhdy modern technology groundwork Russian defense industry
Oleg Falichev
In May last year, the newspaper «VBC» published the article «Think of the hypersonic» shovel «, in which described the decision to resume at JSC» GosMKB «Rainbow» name AY Bereznyak «work to create hypersonic cruise missiles. It is the leading enterprise JSC «Corporation» Tactical Missiles «(JSC» Tactical Missiles Corporation «), but whether this integrated force structure is so large-scale project? On this and other aspects of research in this area CEO Boris Obnosov mentioned summing up of the International Aviation and Space Salon.

Decision prepyadstviya hypersonic CEO of «Tactical Missiles Corporation» Boris Obnosov compared with the implementation of large projects such as the launch of the first satellite and the first flight of an astronaut. In this scientific and technical side task may be even more difficult.

» JSC «Tactical Missiles Corporation» are fundamentally important to the implementation of state programs from — creating the world’s first hypersonic cruise missiles «
Until the early 90-ies of the last century, our research and development in this area in what is not inferior to all the best that happened in this area abroad, first in the United States. Then there was some decline. Some work lasted, but «shovel» were absolutely stopped. Only a few years managed to reverse once again draw attention to the subject control of the country.

«Do not try to get ahead — says Boris Obnosov — but we viewed all of our development and concluded that there needs to consolidate all efforts. And not only because it is one of the priorities for Russia. Speaking of hypersonic, it must be understood first long flight in the atmosphere at speeds exceeding 5.4 M. We have products that are now flying with much greater speed, but it or ballistic descent, or its variants. A question about the controlled flight in the atmosphere at speeds of 6-7 M, in the long term — 10-12 M «.

Consolidation of efforts

From the standpoint of Boris Obnosov, it is more than fundamental project, which would connect the entire country. Will need the hard work of many companies — not just those that are included in the Corporation «Tactical Missiles». And despite the fact that the main developers are just in it — NGO «Engineering», GosMKB «Rainbow» and others. Aimed at solving puzzles and the main platform of. Effort even such harsh players may be insufficient. For a genuine breakthrough in this direction need long phased municipal program that ended when every step would not report cardboard and mock certain products in the metal.

To create a Russian times winged hypersonic missile with a conditional title «Spade» took a unique technology, comparable with real scientific discoveries: hypersonic experimental aircraft (Gael) reached the rate of about 5 M (1 M = 1230 km / h). By some reason, the work was stopped by the decision on. Tough enough to put this assessment Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, Russian Federation, during a visit to JSC «State Engineering Design Bureau» Raduga «name AY Bereznyak» in May 2012.

«The decision to end the country’s political governance 80s artificially suspend more advanced developments in hypersonic — Rogozin said — on the other as a betrayal of the public interest to call I can not.»

Americans were more perceptive and continued research. And now an unusual danger on the basis of beliefs ensure the defense of our country is the work going on in the United States under the X-51, Falcon, HIFire, Boeung HyFly, several others. They open the Yankees prospect transition from prototypes to create a demo in 2015-2018 years of combat functional hypersonic long-range missiles. According to the views of a number of professionals in the coming five — seven years hypersonic missiles will gain the ability to apply instant clear strikes on Fri control of the armed forces bases nuclear submarines and mine intercontinental ballistic missiles, bombers distant places dislocation on the ground the enemy, who, even owning SNF just do not have time to answer. With such hypersonic cruise missiles U.S. Marshall latest strategy impact on world politics.

JSC «Tactical Missiles Corporation» have something to counter it. Missile systems of the same «Rainbow» a new generation of high-precision long-range guns. This complex «Gadfly-ME» with the Kh-59M2E, Kh-59MK overpriced-range «air-surface» of missile Kh-59MK2, anti-radiation missile X-58USHKE complex rocket guns «Mosquito-MBE» with anti-ship missile 3M-80MVE. Analogues of these weapons in the world there.

Kh-59ME is equipped with a navigation system and automatic control. Television-command guidance system ensures its accuracy rate up to 2-3 meters at a range of up to 115 km. KR can fly with terrain following at a height of 7 meters (above sea level). There are some over-range missiles — to 285 km.

Hitherto no one surpassed antiship missile 3M-80E «Mosquito». It is designed to destroy surface ships and transports from the naval battle groups, amphibious compounds convoys single ships with speed of up to 100 knots at a distance of up to 240 km. A supersonic missile, change the line of motion of flight detect air defenses virtually impossible. Americans could not do something similar. «Mosquito» has a speed above 2.5 M and actually sews ship even without warhead.

But such a perfect weapon — is the development of the last day. What lies ahead?

First — drones

It is clear that restoring is always more difficult than building anew. Yet Boris Obnosov gave realize that work on «shovel» underway, although not deciphered what specific. Apparently, the full repetition of the layout will be gone. Because of old technology, as professionals, are gone, but all the research and production, as explained Obnosov, will be considered.

With all this the general director of «Tactical Missiles Corporation» quite skeptical about the achievements of the Yankees in this area. In his view, America is not so far gone from us in this direction and sometimes just want for the real issues. There, for example, any disk imaging what speed or highest temperature reached in the combustion chambers. And it is not in secrecy, as the entire U.S. military industrial complex works first on sale, and means for advertising.

By Obnosov views, latest test results grounds for hope. Necessary, of course, people, technology and thoughtful funding. «Anyone who thinks that came, saw and one year beat, profoundly mistaken — says Boris Viktorovich. — This work, perhaps for decades. «

Considerable difficulties in at least some rocket associated with debugging control systems. Almost all here is dependent on the sensitivity of the angular velocity sensors, and other devices of the stroke of the aircraft. The rocket, say, long-range accuracy is very critical issue. At low as requirements for other sensors. A high-speed missiles have to solve the same problem of a choice of engines — between solid fuel ramjet and working on an ordinary kerosene.

«Work is no end — emphasizes Obnosov. — All is depending on the speed that is set. If we talk about 4-5 M, the ramjet engine with a subsonic combustion (Ramget) on this day fully worked out. Among mastered it, we, together with the NGO «Engineering», Lytkarinsky now «Union» are the pioneers here. «

If go over the highest speed, it is necessary to achieve normal operation of supersonic combustion engine (Scramjet). With all this at Obnosov views, there is a serious problem: «Scramjet operates at low speeds, and Ramget, by contrast, does not work at large. Because the problem — to reduce the size of the motor. Not to mention the temperature conditions that must be provided in the combustion chamber. Everyday materials they simply do not stand up. «

The same questions appear at high speeds with the head of the rocket fairing. Even if you achieve his impeccable form, then surely the question arises as to ensure radiotransparency at high temperatures. It is practically insoluble problem. After all, with speeds of around 7-8 M rocket, a layer of plasma, which is impeding the work of the guidance system. Means you need to talk about new materials, engines, fuel types, adapted to such conditions, management systems, brand new modeling.

Who are intensive discussions and on passenger aircraft, which will be short-term exit into the stratosphere at hypersonic speeds, overcoming long distances in a short time. Flight from Moscow to the Far East or in New-york may take only a couple of hours. But, according to the views of Boris Obnosov, before creating such a manned machine, you need to work on critical technologies drones. And this is a question the coming future. «The first who obsess hypersonic technologies receive the palm in almost all areas — said Boris Viktorovich. — Multiplier effect is enormous, and it is also undervalued. «

Join forces

Not so long ago, skeptics doubted the possibility of the development of «Tactical Missiles Corporation». There is now no hesitation in severity accurate programs from certain actions of this built structure, planned for the years ahead. Presidential decree the company has expanded to such a large holding, as NGOs «Engineering», all the necessary maintenance work is carried out by the union.

This does not mean that the brand NGO «Engineering» will be consigned to oblivion, on the contrary — done everything possible to make it more popular. Several steps the company’s expansion, infusion of new structures in it only increased their power as a whole. Now of «Tactical Missiles Corporation» connects voedinyzhdy 25 companies totaling about 40 thousand. In accordance with the decision of the government within the company is the union of «MKB» Iskra «named after II Kartukova» JSC and «Horizon». «Spark» is translated from the Leningrad Prospekt Moscow in Khimki on locality «Horizon.» From this point it will be a single company that will allow to reduce the bureaucratic costs, including maintenance of the device, and the cost of production.

Significantly increased the volume of sales of «Tactical Missiles», for the year 2012 amounting to about 60 billion rubles. While last year may be considered atypical since mastered and continues to develop a number of new series of products, which have a peak production for 2014-2016 years. Then you can wait two to threefold increase in production volumes.

Company develops and, figuratively speaking, subsonic technology. MAKS-2013, for example, were presented standards of products that have been tested or state tests. They caused a lot of enthusiasm as in internal, external and customer. For example, anti-, anti-radar missiles, and missiles «air-to-air.» Presented and brand new anti-aircraft missile at index 338 — is the development of «Vympel», in collaboration with the main customer — «Almaz-Antey». Promising product that is proven during flight tests.

Demonstrated and cruise missile K-31AD (K-31PD). She had just graduated from the state tests, went into the series and will come into service, first in the Russian army. Made export version, all permits have already been prepared and conducted contract negotiations.

A number of products ready to equip the PAK FA T-50 (promising aviation complex tactical aviation) and waits for the test from the board. For example, the X-58 missile vnutrifyuzelyazhnyh placement. All have reason to believe that at the end of 2013 will be firing on the T-50.

Began work on the creation of the company and weapons systems for the PAK DA (promising aviation complex distant aircraft). This question and open a discussion with Tupolev and Ilyushin firms, which have, according to Obnosov already has some products, the respective requirements laid down, a number of other promising developments class «air-surface», «air-to-air.» «When the final requirements for PAK DA will be laid out — says Obnosov — for missiles will not be found.»

Excellent prospects concerning the potential cooperation with other states, certain enthusiasm manifested to adapt products of «Tactical Missiles Corporation» to the aircraft Rafal. This work (now Dasso) is on the initial stage.

In the direction of hypersonic are joint projects with France. Such work (on the engine) is conducted with China. A similar example program is planned with India. Boris Obnosov favor of expanding such cooperation, as alone create such expensive systems is very difficult.

It should be noted that if the first bit of the XXI century exports reached 90 percent of the company, at the moment there is the reverse trend. «After reaching the 3-year contracts and merit our peak production, this proportion will probably reverse: the lion’s share of the production will be the state defense order, — predicts Obnosov. — At the same fraction of the total revenue will not decrease and increase. «

As for engines, the company has a reliable partner in the person of JSC «Motor Sich». «We are not going to be removed from products, which are its engines — emphasizes Obnosov. — I think it is a reliable partner with high quality products. And if the issues are resolved pricing, the orders for its products last. We remain in close contact with our partners hardened, wherever they were, whether in Ukraine, Azerbaijan, or no matter what other country and renounce cooperation with them is not going to. «

Human factor

It’s no secret that the severe problem of our «defense» is still a lack of middle managers — formed as a result of the 90 years the gap between generations. Companies lack of designers, engineers, workers major specialties, whether miller operator, programmer, setter. This is a huge disadvantage. It is encouraging that the NGOs on the ground «Engineering» is a faculty that teach young cadres. Companies also have specialized departments in the MAI, Bauman, signed an agreement with other leading universities in the country.

But to address the staffing issue in need throughout the country. Need a single overarching municipal programm learning, adaptation and next fix of young cadres. By Boris Obnosov views, now the factories «defense» needed to revive a decent sense of the word nepotism.

In Russian, when a man came to the «mailbox», he had a fine prospect. He immediately provided a hostel, and after 6-8-10 years — an apartment, especially family. The company is currently addressing the housing problems — the number one value together with the creation of the latest technology.

«Today, on the site in the town head to the Queen, we have laid four 17-storey home that will allow a little lower demand for housing — says Obnosov. — Frequently discuss problematic issues with the governor of Moscow region, town mayor Queen. The same policy is conducted by NGOs Reutovo «Engineering». A few built in Taganrog targeted social houses where the cost per square meter — 28 thousand rubles. «

There are harsh on verbovaniyu production personnel and in St. Petersburg, where in one of the schools opened an office at hypersonic prepare the respective professionals.

All it says about how thoroughly the company «Tactical Missiles» refer to the implementation of important programs from state — creating the world’s first hypersonic cruise missiles, which are cumulative affects potential can become the most severe nuclear weapon after. And of, apparently, there is a good chance to be among the favorites conquest hypersonic speeds.

Oleg Falichev

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